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Towards the development of a comprehensive hybrid fuzzy-based occupational risk assessment model for construction workers

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... The construction industry has the occurrence of fatal and nonfatal ORs which have been frequently reported. These ORs have an impact on both the health of construction workers and the economics because of their high costs (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). For this reason, Mohandes and Zhang (2019) conduct a case study of the OR assessment framework for construction workers. ...
... Finally, the ranking order of each sub-factor is determined by using the fuzzy BWM (best-worst method) framework. According to the potential ORs selection process described in the Ref. Mohandes and Zhang (2019), eleven potential risks from three different dimensions are chosen to implement the application of the proposed OR evaluation framework. These potential ORs are listed in Table 4. ...
... According to the above discussion, we can find that the latter three methods have a certain degree of similarity with the proposed framework. For this reason, we select the following Fine-Kinney frameworks which include the conventional Fine-Kinney (Method 2-I), the fuzzy BWM (Method 2-II) (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019), the type 2 fuzzy TODIM (Method 2-III) (Tang et al., 2021), the triangular fuzzy MULTIMOORA (Method 2-IV) (Wang et al., 2018a), and the type 2 fuzzy GLDS method (Method 2-V) (Wang et al., 2022b). Utilizing the linguistic risk scoring information provided in Table 6, we conduct a comparative study of the proposed framework with the chosen MCDM approach-based Fine-Kinney frameworks. ...
Article
The extant Fine–Kinney frameworks are insufficient to tackle the risk evaluation problem with Fermatean fuzzy information, in which the prioritization degrees and psychological characteristics of decision-makers are considered. Hence, this study develops a hybrid Fine–Kinney-based occupational risk evaluation framework with an extended Fermatean fuzzy MARCOS method (measurement of alternatives and ranking to Compromise solution). Such a MARCOS method improves conventional MARCOS by integrating Fermatean fuzzy prioritized weighted average operator and prospect theory. This improved method has the capability to handle the occupational risk analysis problem with Fermatean fuzzy data in the risk ranking procedure considering the prioritization degrees and bounded rational behavior of decision-makers. In addition, the Fermatean fuzzy numbers-based risk rating scales are established to transform the linguistic risk scores from decision-makers, it allows for handling uncertain risk rating information from decision-makers more effectively. Further, the improved MARCOS method is incorporated into the occupational risk ranking procedure, as it considers the decision-maker’s prioritization relationships among decision-makers and their reference point effect in occupational risk priority calculation. After that, an occupational risk analysis case for construction operations is selected to test the applicability and validity of the proposed framework. The result indicates that the occupational risk OR6 (Back injury) is the most serious risk with the lowest utility function value (-0.324), and OR7 (Tendinitis) is the least severe risk with the highest utility function value (0.682). Finally, sensitivity exploration and comparative study are implemented to further test the advantages of the developed framework.
... Koulinas et al. (2019) exploited the fuzzy-extended AHP to develop a safety risk assessment model for computing the magnitude of risks to construction workers. Mohandes and Zhang (2019) developed a comprehensive risk assessment model based on the integration of fuzzy Delphi method, fuzzy best-worst method and the risk-decision matrix concept. To improve the safety of workers on pipeline construction and building construction projects, Mete (2019) and Khan et al. (2019), respectively, developed fuzzy-based assessment models using the common failure and effective analysis (FMEA) method. ...
... As one of the common dimensions in the traditional risk assessment methods, the severity of an accident is considered when assessing the magnitude of a particular risk (Debnath et al., 2016b;Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). The severity dimension is concerned with the impact of the relative safety risk on workers, ranging from minor injuries to fatality (Mohammadi et al., 2018). ...
... Needless to say, the selection of qualified experts is the most important part of the developed model, as it is the major source of data collection. Hence, in selecting the experts who are able to provide valuable inputs to the developed 5D-SRAM, the following minimum requirements are considered: (1) holding at least an undergraduate degree in the areas pertaining to the construction engineering and management, (2) having at least five years of relative experience (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019) and (3) completing at least two relative construction projects. ...
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Purpose – In the study, a five-dimensional-safety risk assessment model (5D-SRAM) is developed to improve the construction safety risk assessment approaches available in the literature. To that purpose, a hybrid multidimensional fuzzy-based model is proposed, which provides a comprehensive ranking system for the safety risks existing in a project by considering the contextualization of the construction-related activities resulting in an accident. Design/methodology/approach – The developed 5D-SRAM is based on an amalgamation of different fuzzy-based techniques. Through the proposed fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, the importance weights of essential risk dimensions playing role in defining the magnitude of the construction-related risks are obtained, while a precise prioritized ranking system for the identified safety risks is acquired using the proposed fuzzy technique of order preference similarity to the ideal solution (FTOPSIS). Findings – Through the application of the proposed 5D-SRAM to a real-life case study – which is the case of green building construction projects located in Hong Kong – contributions are realized as follows: (1) determination of a more complete range of risk dimensions, (2) calculation of importance weightings for each risk dimension and (3) obtainment of a precise and inclusive ranking system for safety risks. Additionally, the supremacy of the developed 5D-SRAM against the other safety assessment approaches that are commonly adopted in the construction industry is proved. Research limitations/implications – The developed 5D-SRAM provides the concerned safety decisionmakers with not only all the crucial dimensions that play roles toward the magnitude of safety risks posing threats to the workers involved in construction activities, but also they are given hindsight regarding the importance weights of these dimensions. Additionally, the concerned parties are embellished with the final ranking of safety risks in a more comprehensive way than those of existing assessment methods, leading to sagacious adoption of future prudent strategies for dealing with such risks occurring on construction sites. Originality/value – Numerous studies have documented the safety risks faced by construction workers including proposals for risk assessment models. However, the dimensions considered by such models are limited, generally constrained to risk event probability combined with risk impact severity. Overlooking other dimensions that are essential towards the calculation of safety risks’ magnitude culminates in overshadowing the further adoption of fruitful mitigative actions. To overcome this shortcoming, this study proposes a novel 5D-SRAM.
... To cope with imprecise judgments by the experts, fuzzy logic is added to the numbers used in an ANP questionnaire. Notably, the issues regarding using crisp values and other benefits of using fuzzy numbers are discussed in detail by Mohandes and Zhang (2019). Finally, FP-ANP, as a novel hybrid method, is used to develop the risk assessment model which is based on the parsimonious concept of pairwise comparison (Abastante et al., 2019) and F-ANP (Nilashi et al., 2016). ...
... Judgment sampling has been employed as a non-probability random sampling technique in every stage of risk assessment model development. In order to achieve the highest consistency, the same group of experts was used in semi-structured interviews, MC-DEMATEL, and FP-ANP, as suggested by Mohandes and Zhang (2019). The number of experts used in MCDM approaches varies according to several criteria, such as availability of the experts and specification of the project, and the quality of the experts is more important than their quantity (Mohammadi et al., 2014). ...
Article
A green roof (GR) provides numerous social, environmental, and personal benefits through its lifespan, while exploiting these benefits is associated with several uncertainties. Since these risks to GR adoption have not yet been investigated and analyzed comprehensively, this research is aimed at developing an original risk assessment model to ensure the objectives of GR adoption are fully achieved. To this end, two novel approaches were employed, namely Monte Carlo-DEMATEL and fuzzy parsimonious analytic network process to determine the inner dependencies among the risk factors and rank them based on their relationships and importance, respectively. The findings showed that “irregular maintenance” and occurrence of “fire” are the most influential threats, while “flash flood reduction” and “achieving green building certificate award” are among the most influential opportunities. Moreover, it was shown that although “tax abatement” and “monetary loss” are the most important opportunity and threat, respectively, the ranking order of risk factors varies among an intensive GR and an extensive GR. Finally, it was concluded that with such analyses, the decision-makers have clear insights on the most influential positive and negative risks for managing purposes. The novel methods used in this research can be replicated to achieve more accurate and efficient results.
... In the process of OHSRA, it is often difficult to evaluate the risk of occupational hazards using exact values due to the inherent ambiguity of human cognition [3,4]. Therefore, the intervalvalued fuzzy sets [18,19], the intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) [20], the bipolar fuzzy sets (BFSs) [2], the picture fuzzy sets [8], the interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs) [12], and the Pythagorean fuzzy sets (PFSs) [5,21,22] were applied to deal with the uncertain and vague risk evaluations of domain experts in previous studies. To handle higher levels of uncertainties, the Fermatean fuzzy sets (FFSs) were proposed by Senapati and Yager [23], where the sum of the third power of the support for and the third power of the support against is bonded by one. ...
... Step 10: By utilizing Eqs. (16)- (18), the subordinate compromise scores K ia , K ib and K ic (i = 1, 2, . . . , 10) are obtained and listed in Table 6. ...
Article
Nowadays, occupational health and safety management has gained more and more importance by organizations around the world because it positively impacts on the productivity, competitiveness and reputation. The occupational health and safety risk assessment (OHSRA) is a critical activity to identify and evaluate the most serious work-related hazards for corrective actions. In this study, a new OHSRA model using Fermatean fuzzy linguistic sets (FFLSs) and combined compromise solution (CoCoSo) approach is proposed for the risk evaluation and prioritization of occupational hazards. Specifically, the scientific contributions of this study are as follows: The FFLSs are used to cope with the complex and vague risk evaluations obtained from experts; the CoCoSo approach is utilized to determine the risk priority of the identified occupational hazards; an extended block-wise rating the attribute weighting method is introduced for specifying risk criteria weights. Finally, the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model are demonstrated by an occupational risk assessment example along with simulation experiments and a comprehensive comparative analysis. The major advantages of the proposed OHSRA model are higher flexibility in handling experts’ intricate and fuzzy assessment information and effective in providing a reliable risk ranking of occupational hazards with high discriminability.
... The rationale of the FDM adoption lies in the fact that it can properly overcome the experts' subjectivity by utilizing linguistic variables instead of raw numbers used in the traditional Delphi technique . The utilized FDM constitutes one round of questionnaire distribution to the involved experts, which expedites the data collection process, and reduces the chances of experts' reluctance to participate in the subsequent rounds used in the traditional Delphi technique (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). The FDM advantages led to its wider utilization among researchers in the area of urban planning and regeneration. ...
... Very highly important The respective barrier is of very high importance ( 9 2 , 5, 5) Table 4 Transformation rules of linguistic variables of decision-makers (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). ...
Article
Despite its environmental and financial benefits for public and private sectors, adoption of the green roof (GR) system comprises barriers that have inhibited its application in Malaysia. Studies on the barriers to GR installation have been conducted worldwide; however, they are scarce in Malaysia. Moreover, in the literature, conventional methods are used for prioritizing the barriers, while the barriers to GR adoption are not differentiated among its types. In view of this argument, this paper identifies and prioritizes the barriers to GR installation using Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Best-Worst Method (FBWM), respectively. Of 20 identified barriers, six (for intensive GR) and nine (for extensive GR) were rejected using FDM, while the selected barriers were prioritized using FBWM. The findings reveal that “high initial cost” and “lack of awareness and knowledge” barriers to IGR and EGR installation are the most significant, respectively; while “challenges of installation” and “structural damage” are the least significant for both types of GRs. A comparative analysis was conducted to show the outperformance of used methods while the validity of the results was checked through case studies. The clear message of the results addresses the amalgamation of legislative enforcements with financial incentives and emphasis on the improvement of knowledge and awareness, which will ultimately lead to effective and widespread implementation of GR systems. The study provides practical guidelines for the stakeholders at the forefront by enabling them to grapple with the most significant barriers to GR installation.
... Task assignment should be carried out by experts who are well-trained in OSH [15], in order to reduce occupational accidents [15][16][17]. To reduce accident rates, the appropriate safety barriers for each type of accident should be identified [18] and shared with the on-site safety manager. Prevention of occupational accidents for small construction enterprises relies on several factors including employers' values regarding health and safety, their management skills, and enforcement of safety laws and regulations [19]. ...
... All records on accidents are collected and evaluated in this study to overcome difficulties in understanding the current situation at the site [25]. There are some drawbacks, such as uncertainty and incompletion, to using completely historical risk assessment models; therefore, fuzzy approaches are preferred to determine the risk at the site [18]. ...
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Occupational risk assessment is important for providing employees with a safe and healthy work environment. When compared with other industries, the construction industry poses a higher risk for accidents due to the variety and complexity of skills required for different types of work in the sector. Small-sized construction sites have a higher risk of occupational injury. Countries without occupational safety and health (OSH) enforcement pose an additional risk increasing the need of an effective and easy-to-apply risk assessment approach. This research aims to develop and study an easy to apply risk assessment model for small-scale construction sites. The method includes opinions from experts on safety, checklists to estimate the possibility of occurrence of accidents, the identification of current site-specific safety levels, the severity of risk, and safety barriers. The model uses both historical data and fuzzy approaches to calculate risk level and was applied to four different construction sites in North Cyprus. Results reveal the risk level for each accident type and the aggregate safety level of the construction sites. Falling from height was identified as the most common accident type with the highest risk level. This study contributes to the development of sustainable OSH management systems for construction companies by highlighting the measures that must be taken to reduce occupational accidents.
... The safety culture is formed by the individual's or group's values, attitudes, perceptions, efforts, and behavioral patterns that determine the commitment, success, and effectiveness of the safety management system [4][5][6][7]. The safety climate refers to people's understanding of policies, guidelines, and safety procedures, as well as the values, importance, and priority of safety in an organization [8]. Therefore, the safety climate can be a benchmark for the assessment of safety programs. ...
... In addition, the safety climate assessment can be used as a guide to develop a safety policy for an organization [10]. However, after 30 years of research on the safety climate, there are still controversies about different dimensions of the relationship between safety climate and safety performance and accidents [8,9]. ...
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Background: The safety climate in an organization depends on people's understanding of the safety policies and procedures, as well as the value, importance, and priority of safety in the workplace. Objective: This study aimed to describe and predict accidents using the path analysis model (PAM) in industrial units though the analysis of the effect of safety performance and climate. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 294 workers in industrial units in Hamadan, a province in the western part of Iran. The data on safety performance and climate was collected using a questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was a short version inventory (with 25 items on safety climate) that was used to assess five variables of management commitment, supportive environment, training, personal safety prioritization, and perceived work pressure. Moreover, the safety performance was measured using 10 items on safety rules and participation. The PAM was used to describe the effects of safety climate and performance on accidents. Results: The results showed that the safety climate had the strongest negative impact on work pressure and safety compliance toward accident, followed by safety participation, and quality of training. Moreover, the negative influence of safety climate on accident was mainly mediated by two variables: work pressure and safety participation toward accident. The work pressure had the strongest indirect and total influence on accidents. However, none of the variables had a direct effect on accidents. Training was the most important direct cause of promoting personal safety priority. The safety compliance was more effective than safety participation in reducing accidents rates. Conclusions: Therefore, it seems that perceived work pressure has an indirect effect on accidents which is mediated by other variables, mainly personal safety priority and safety performance.
... Koulinas et al. (2019) exploited the fuzzy extended AHP for developing a safety risk assessment framework related to the workers working on construction sites by combining the parameters used in the common Fine Kinney and FMEA assessment methods. Mohandes and Zhang (2019) developed a comprehensive risk assessment model for CWs to overcome the identification, analysis, and evaluation shortcomings associated with the assessment of workers' safety risks. Mete et al. (2019) develops a decision support system for the workers embroiled in pipeline construction activities based on the consideration of four parameters (including severity, probability, sensitivity to non-utilization of PPE, and undetectability). ...
... The importance of the severity of risk has widely been considered by various researchers in the construction sector, in order to assess the respective risk magnitude occurred to the workers (Debnath et al., 2016;Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). As mentioned by Grassi et al. (2009), in order to consider the highest level of injury, it needs to be assumed that other parameters related to HOTE are in imperfect or poor conditions. ...
Article
The construction industry has always been infamous due to its staggering numbers of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)-related injuries, resulting from overlooking all the crucial aspects endangering the involved workers’ lives. Considering this, there has been dearth of a study including all the essential Risk Parameters (RPs) for comprehensively assessing the OHS in the construction industry. Theretofore, a Holistic Occupational Health and Safety Risk Assessment Model (HOHSRAM) is developed in the current study to assess the safety and health of the Construction Workers (CWs’). The developed model is based on the integration of logarithmic fuzzy ANP, interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy TOPSIS, and grey relational analysis. Based on the application of the developed HOHSRAM to a case of sustainable construction project, the following contributions have been noted; (1) calculating weights related to the safety decision makers having different backgrounds involved in the study using logarithmic-fuzzy-based constrained optimization algorithm, (2) involving the individual biases of the decision makers in the assessment stage, (3) determining all the essential RPs to comprehensively assess the OHS within the construction projects in a systematic way, (4) obtaining the final rankings of the identified safety risks under an interval-valued-Pythagorean fuzzy environment coupled with grey relational analysis. Additionally, it is discerned that the proposed model in this research outperforms the existing assessment methods used in the construction industry, through conducting a comprehensive comparative analysis. The developed HOHSRAM is verified to be beneficial for safety professionals by providing them with an inclusive ranking system, improving the well-being of the involved CWs.
... Moreover, the performance metrics are deliberated at network level and critical risk determining metrics at node level are measured. In addition, a hybrid fuzzy-based occupational risk assessment model was developed for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, and evaluating the risks facing the construction workers [23]. The implementation of this model caused an improvement in the safety and health of the involved workers. ...
... 22 Lack of elimination parallax before any readings are made. 23 Taking measurements at inappropriate times (just before and after noon), where the impact of refraction is greatest. 24 Turning through side shots to accomplish the work, rather than observing via control points. ...
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Land surveying projects (LSPs) suffer from the effects of many risk factors on the time and accuracy of these projects. Using field surveys, the main objective of this study was identifying the major activities and risk factors associated with LSPs’ execution, as well as assessing and analyzing the effects of the risk factors on the LSPs’ time and accuracy. Furthermore, the study aimed to classify and determine the responsibility of each risk factor and evaluate the responsibilities. Four main activities were categorized and presented, including reconnaissance works, planning works, data collection works, and data adjustment works. Moreover, forty-three risk factors that control the main activities and affect the time and accuracy of LSPs were recognized. The probabilities of occurrences for the risk factors and impacts on the time and accuracy of LSPs were determined as well as their combined effects. Key risk factors that had high threats on LSPs and affect time and accuracy were highlighted as the most critical risk factors. Many correlations were determined among risk factors affecting LSPs’ activity groups and their various effects on time and accuracy. The responsibilities of the surveying crew (chief, surveyor, assistance, office engineer) for each risk factors were correspondingly defined. The results showed that “Data collection works” is considered the riskiest activity group in LSPs and most of the key risk factors belonged to this group. Around 25% of the LSPs face time overrun and do not meet the required specifications. On the other hand, the surveyor was found to be responsible for most of the risk factors and the office engineer was signified by the lowest responsibility, while the responsibilities for most risk factors were single responsibility and few were shared by only dual responsibility.
... The combination of these two methods would help obtain accurate and reliable results. In detail, the traditional BWM suffers from the use of raw numbers and fails to determine the uncertain weights (Mohandes and Zhang 2019). However, the proposed F-BWM that based on the combination of natural language and triangular fuzzy number is benefit for expressing the judgments of respondents, reflecting the inherent vagueness of respondents' preference, retaining the evaluation information cautiously, and deriving more accurate weights with fewer comparison times (Hafezalkotob and Hafezalkotob 2017;Tian et al. 2018). ...
... shown in Table 4. Generally, when the linguistic terms and corresponding TFNs used in FBWM are consistent with Guo and Zhao (2017), the CI values can be adopted directly as Moslem et al. (2020) and Mohandes and Zhang (2019) did. Similar to AHP, this study adopts 0.1 as the acceptable threshold of CR. ...
Article
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This study aims to suggest a three-phased methodological framework based on the operational approach of quality function deployment (QFD) to improve the service quality and passenger satisfaction with China’s high-speed rail (HSR) by identifying the key passenger needs with regard the HSR seats. For the first phase, the collection of the voice of the customers/passengers (VOC), the processing of the collected VOC into need items and further into passenger needs of QFD would be explained in terms of knowledge management. For the second phase, a reference comparison-based fuzzy best–worst method is developed for determining the relative importance of passenger needs, with a particular purpose of coping with the uncertainty and ambiguity associated with qualitative assessment of respondents. For the third phase, the importance-performance analysis is performed to determine the improvement priorities for meeting passenger needs. Findings showed that Body-friendly seat structure and Reasonable layout of the seat are the two most important needs demanded by the passengers of second-class cabins, with the former being the top priority. The current study provides useful references for service operators of HSR to formulate development strategies for improving the seat comfortability, which subsequently contributes to improving HSR’s service quality and passenger satisfaction. Moreover, the proposed methodological framework for identifying the important passenger needs can be appropriately adjusted and expanded to similar transportation infrastructures and facilities.
... The responses are then analyzed using SPSS 21 to check the reliability of the results. It is suggested that if the Cronbach's coefficient alpha is higher than 0.7, the results are reliable [34]. Once the reliability of the results is confirmed, the 80/20 rule [32] is applied to refine the negligible hindrances to the adoption of GRs. ...
Article
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Green roofs (GRs) offer several environmental, social, and economic benefits while numerous barriers are limiting their adoption. This study covers two gaps in the literature: first, the lack of indicating separate hindrances to different types of GRs; second, the dearth of research related to the hindrances on GR adoption in any climate of Iran. This research aims to identify and analyze the importance of hindrances to GR adoption by considering the two major types of GRs using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP), respectively. The results indicated that eight out of twenty-five identified hindrances to GR adoption were rejected using FDM. Moreover, it was found that although financial hindrances are significant for both types of GRs, public awareness is the most important hindrance to extensive GR adoption. As the first research of its kind in a semi-arid climate of Iran, the findings of this research provide an insight for the researchers and policymakers regarding the hindrances to GR adoption for further research and action.
... Many researchers have explored the area of improving safety performance for new construction projects (Mohandes and Zhang 2019;Zhang and Mohandes 2020). For example, Mahalingam and Levitt (2007) discussed the role of education and enforcement on the improvement of safety performance in global construction projects. ...
Article
The Repair, Maintenance, Minor Alteration, and Addition (RMAA) sector accounted for 50% of all fatalities in the Hong Kong construction industry in 2016. In spite of the different policies launched in recent years, the casualty rate has held constant, raising doubts over the effectiveness of current measures for improving safety performance in RMAA works. Against this backdrop, this study is aimed at identifying and evaluating the 1) effectiveness of prevailing policies; 2) potential difficulties in improving safety performance in Hong Kong; and 3) best ways to improve the safety performance of RMAA. Following an extensive literature review, 15 existing policies and 10 common difficulties are established. Based on the solicitation of experts having rich experience in the area of RMAA, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is employed to prioritize the identified policies and Likert-scale-based survey to establish the relative importance of the identified difficulties. The ‘award of encouragement’ is found to be the most effective policy category, whereas the ‘lack of self-regulation of workers’ appeared as the most significant hurdle. In order to further validate the results obtained from the study, a number of interviews using highly experienced professionals were conducted. It is recommended that strategies such as registration of RMAA workers, intensifying monitoring and enforcement, and provision of loan services for safety can overcome the difficulties. The hindsight provided from this study can pave the way for the concerned parties towards improving the occupational safety and health (OSH) of such projects by improving the effective policies concurrently with improving the status quo of critical hampering.
... Smoothing of hazard assignment over rankings (M ik ). which can help managers take actions to handle the analyzed occupational hazards [52]. Thus, how to determine suitable evaluation strategies for risk response planning needs to be explored in future study. ...
Article
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is a systematic and interdisciplinary activity to identify, analyze and reduce the potential safety and health hazards of workers caused by the activities in workplace. When dealing with an OHS risk analysis problem, how to assess the risk of occupational hazards is a crucial step and a big challenge. In this paper, we aim to develop a new OHS risk assessment model by integrating Picture Fuzzy Sets (PFSs) and Alternative Queuing Method (AQM) to assess and rank the risk of occupational hazards for corrective actions. To this end, the PFSs are utilized to address the vague and uncertain assessment information provided by experts and an improved AQM is introduced to acquire the risk priority of the recognized occupational hazards. Furthermore, we extend the Best Worst Method (BWM) to derive the relative weights of risk criteria based on picture fuzzy information. Finally, a practical example of excavation in a construction yard is provided to illustrate the feasibility and superiority of our proposed OHS risk assessment model. The results indicate that the new risk assessment method is able to produce more reliable risk ranking results of occupational hazards, and provides a practical and effective way for risk analysis in OHS.
... This study employs IT2FBWM for calculating the weights of identified barriers, owing to its advantages in obtaining precise weights as compared to the other MCDM-based techniques, as well as its strength in capturing the maximum uncertainty associated with the experts' points of view (due to the used of interval-value fuzzy sets against the common sets, namely triangular or trapezoidal sets) Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). The followings are the steps involved in the utilization of the proposed IT2FBWM for computing the importance weights of identified barriers. ...
Article
Purpose To come up with a prudent decision on the installation of an appropriate green wall (GW) on buildings, this study presents a novel decision-making algorithm. The proposed algorithm considers the importance of barriers hampering GW adoption, as well as their relationships with regard to different types of GWs existing in a contextual setting. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodological approach is based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques by employing focus group discussion, fuzzy-based best-worst method and fuzzy TOPSIS. Findings Based on the experiences of qualified experts involved in related projects in Hong Kong, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) cost, installation and maintenance-related barriers are perceived to have the highest importance, (2) modular living wall system is the most suitable GW system for the context of Hong Kong and (3) existing barriers are found to have a pivotal role in the ranking of the most suitable GW systems. Practical implications The findings provide valuable insight not only for policymakers and stakeholders, but also for establishing a methodological approach that can assist decision-makers in identifying the most beneficial GW system rather than the most applicable one. This could have significant implications and introduce potential changes to the common way of practice within the industry and lay the foundation for wider adoption of GW. Originality/value While previous studies have investigated the sustainability-related issues of GW façade applications, the current body of knowledge is deprived of a comprehensive methodological approach for the selection of the most suitable GW systems.
... The adhesion strength was determined by the method of detachment of washers on the samples of coatings of each type. In this paper, the risk was considered as the probability of an adverse event (destruction of the paint coating) [15][16][17][18][19][20]. In addition to this, a calculation of the risk R as the expected damage Y due to destruction of the coating was performed ...
Article
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Provides information about the values of the risk of paint and coatings mismatch with the requirements of regulatory documentation. Risk considered as the probability of an adverse event. The probability of destruction of the adhesion strength of paintwork coatings of building products and structures is considered. The probability of destruction of the paintwork was calculated taking into account the Laplace function. It is established that the probability of paint coating adhesive destruction is minimal. The risk was calculated as expected damage. The values of risk as expected damage because of coating adhesive destruction are from 0.068 to 11.18 rubles per square meter depending on the coating type.
... One example is the integration of Pythagorean fuzzy analytic hierarchy process with different Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) methods. (e.g., [15,[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]). ...
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Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)-related injuries are vexing problems for construction projects in developing countries, mostly due to poor managerial-, governmental-, and technical safety-related issues. Though some studies have been conducted on OHS-associated issues in developing countries, research on this topic remains scarce. A review of the literature shows that presenting a predictive assessment framework through machine learning techniques can add much to the field. As for Malaysia, despite the ongoing growth of the construction sector, there has not been any study focused on OHS assessment of workers involved in construction activities. To fill these gaps, an Ensemble Predictive Safety Risk Assessment Model (EPSRAM) is developed in this paper as an effective tool to assess the OHS risks related to workers on construction sites. The developed EPSRAM is based on the integration of neural networks with fuzzy inference systems. To show the effectiveness of the EPSRAM developed, it is applied to several Malaysian construction case projects. This paper contributes to the field in several ways, through: (1) identifying major potential safety risks, (2) determining crucial factors that affect the safety assessment for construction workers, (3) predicting the magnitude of identified safety risks accurately, and (4) predicting the evaluation strategies applicable to the identified risks. It is demonstrated how EPSRAM can provide safety professionals and inspectors concerned with well-being of workers with valuable information, leading to improving the working environment of construction crew members.
... They not only have a negatively impact on the safety and health of involved workers, but also bring about huge economic loss due to high costs that stems from work injuries. 3 Therefore, it is imperative to identify, assess, and control high-risk occupational hazards in the workplace for improving the health and safety of workers. In OHS risk management practice, the most critical step is the risk assessment of occupational hazards, which aims to ensure the health and safety of workers and minimize the losses and damages. ...
Article
Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a multidisciplinary activity aimed at recognizing, evaluating and controlling hazards arising in or from the workplace that could impair the health and well‐being of workers. In dealing with an OHS risk analysis problem, it is a crucial step and also a big challenge to assess the risk of occupational hazards. Normally, domain experts tend to use qualitative words to express the risk of occupational hazards due to the fuzziness of human cognition, and multiple risk criteria are often involved in the OHS risk analysis. In this study, we develop a new OHS risk assessment framework by integrating the TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for interactive and multicriteria decision‐making) and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations (PROMETHEE) methods to assess and rank the risk of occupational hazards under linguistic spherical fuzzy environment. The linguistic spherical fuzzy sets are utilized to deal with the vague and uncertain risk assessments of occupational hazards provided by experts. An integrated TODIM‐PROMETHEE algorithm is introduced to determine the risk priority of the identified occupational hazards. Moreover, we extend the indifference threshold‐based attribute ratio analysis method to derive the relative weights of risk criteria based on linguistic spherical fuzzy information. Finally, the OHS risk analysis of medical staff in a hospital is presented to illustrate the effectiveness and availability of our proposed model. Results show that the TODIM‐PROMETHEE framework being developed in this study provides a useful, effective, and practical way for the risk assessment of occupational hazards in OHS.
... We therefore matched the main work tasks and their characteristics based on the similarities between decontamination and decommissioning and construction to derive the risks. This type of risk derivation and assessment system that takes into account site characteristics can be utilized as a tool for preliminary inspections of actual sites [32,33]. ...
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Few studies have assessed the safety issues involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities, especially from a structural and job perspective; in most developed countries, the focus is generally on the radiological risks. This study highlights the inadequacy of existing deterministic risk assessment methods, which cannot account for the uncertainty and complexity of hazards that workers are exposed to. We instead propose a fuzzy logic based safety assessment model that can analyze and compare alternatives utilizing a step-by-step risk quantification and multidimensional approach. This enables personnel to assess the various risks involved when decontaminating and decommissioning nuclear power plant structures that cannot be quantitatively assessed owing to a lack of data. Our proposed fuzzy based risk assessment model can also be applied to risk assessment in other engineering fields that depend on the judgment of experts supported by little or no statistical data.
... The Fuzzy Delphi Method and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory were used together to discover the factors affecting occupational accidents and their relationships (Bavafa et al., 2018). Mohandes and Zhang (2019) developed a comprehensive hybrid fuzzy-based risk assessment model to eliminate the shortcomings of existing approaches to safety management systems. Ayhan and Tokdemir (2019a) also proposed a model, which consists of ANN and Fuzzy Logic, for predicting the consequences of accidents. ...
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Identifying the correlations between the attributes of severe accidents could be vital to preventing them. If such relationships were known dynamically, it would be possible to take preventative actions against accidents. The paper aims to develop an analytical model that is adaptable for each type of data to create preventative measures that will be suitable for any computational systems. The present model collectively shows the relationships between the attributes in a coherent manner to avoid severe accidents. In this respect, Association Rule Mining (ARM) is used as the technique to identify the correlations between the attributes. The research adopts a positivist approach to adhere to the factual knowledge concerning nine different accident types through case studies and quantitative measurements in an objective nature. ARM was exemplified with nine different types of construction accidents to validate the adaptability of the proposed model. The results show that each accident type has different characteristics with varying combinations of the attribute, and analytical model accomplished to accommodate variation through the dataset. Ultimately, professionals can identify the cause-effect relationships effectively and set up preventative measures to break the link between the accident causing factors.
... In many studies, it is frequently integrated with FMEA [35][36][37][38][39][40]. In some other studies, it is integrated with MCDM such as interval triangular fuzzy Delphi method under 5 × 5 matrix [41], F-TOPSIS [42], and artificial intelligence-based methods such as Bayesian networks [43,44] and business impact analysis [45]. ...
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Driver behavior plays a major role in road safety because it is considered as a significant argument in traffic accident avoidance. Drivers mostly face various risky driving factors which lead to fatal accidents or serious injury. This study aims to evaluate and prioritize the significant driver behavior factors related to road safety. In this regard, we integrated a decision-making model of the Best-Worst Method (BWM) with the triangular fuzzy sets as a solution for optimizing our complex decision-making problem, which is associated with uncertainty and ambiguity. Driving characteristics are different in different driving situations which indicate the ambiguous and complex attitude of individuals, and decision-makers (DMs) need to improve the reliability of the decision. Since the crisp values of factors may be inadequate to model the real-world problem considering the vagueness and the ambiguity, and providing the pairwise comparisons with the requirement of less compared data, the BWM integrated with triangular fuzzy sets is used in the study to evaluate risky driver behavior factors for a designed three-level hierarchical structure. The model results provide the most significant driver behavior factors that influence road safety for each level based on evaluator responses on the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Moreover, the model generates a more consistent decision process by the new consistency ratio of F-BWM. An adaptable application process from the model is also generated for future attempts.
... Different samples due to technological variation in their manufacture are characterized by a certain dispersion field (range of values) of quality indicators [26][27][28]. The integral in the formula taken over the range of values that are common to healthy and faulty technical conditions. ...
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The method of quality control of building materials is proposed taking into account the indicator of completeness of control. The completeness of the control calculated as the percentage of checked failures. By the example of quality control of ceramic bricks of brand 100, it is shown that the completeness of control of ceramic bricks of grade 100 is from 46.7 to 48.3%. This confirms the requirements of normative document on conducting performance checks (appearance, dimensions, deviations from nominal sizes and shapes, tensile strength in compression and bending, average density) during acceptance tests. Proposed to exclude verification of the width of the brick, which will reduce the complexity of the control.
... Stefanović et al. [26] applied a different MCDM techniques for assessing occupational risks for female workers. Mohandes and Zhang [27] performed the fuzzy based risk assessment technique integrating MCDM in another study. ...
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The Ready-Made Garment (RMG) sector, the highest earning foreign currency segment, has had a great influence on GDP (gross domestic product) since 1980. With new technology adaption as well as cheap labor force, this sector has placed the second position of exporting after China. To capture the market position, the management has to give more attention on maintaining Safety, Health, and Environment (SHE) guideline properly. This paper proposes a structured framework for occupational risk assessment by means of quantitative way and also provided remedies of those risks in garments industry in the context of Bangladesh. Here, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is applied for measuring the severity of safety, healthy, and environmental risk factors and QFD to prioritize the possible solutions. Through the literature review and extracting opinions from experts, a total of four evaluation criteria and sixteen risk factors under SHE categories are recognized and examined via AHP approach to measure their importance. The results demonstrate that ‘Fire’ ‘Contagious diseases’, and ‘Noise’ take high priority in safety, health, and environment related risk factors. The findings of this paper may help the garment industry effectively through the proper identification of the most influential risk factors and generating solutions to mitigate this issue.
... At the risk 161 evaluation step, two facts must be provided for safety analysts: 1) the criticality levels of the 162 risks analyzed in the former stage, and 2) appropriate strategies to handle the risks in the 163 following step of risk management (i.e., Risk Mitigation Stage (RMS)). Accordingly, the 164 present paper makes use of the rules suggested by Mohandes and Zhang (2019) with the use of 165 J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f the linear interpolation technique so that the risks analyzed in the former step could be assessed 166 as follows: 167 ...
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Green buildings (GBs) have been adopted mainly to minimize the negative effects of the design, construction, and building operations on the environment. However, the GB-related activities have been found to be jeopardizing the occupational health and safety (OHS) of related projects, thereby debilitating the safety and health of respective crew members. Despite such vital issues, no study has been conducted yet to investigate the safety issues associated with GB construction projects in developing countries, where the inclination towards the adoption of GB is on the rise. Using this as a point of departure, the present study assesses the safety risks caused by GB projects with the use of a fuzzy-based RAM, through the lenses of the experts in Kazakhstan. The proposed RAM integrates Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Best Worst Method (FBWM). The FDM results clearly indicated that sustainable buildings continue to endanger the safety and health of respective workers, while fall from height and overexertion are found to be the leading causes of GB-associated risks using the FBWM. Despite the research limitations, this study prudently assessed the OHS-related risks to the LEED-based (the most widely used certification in the country) projects, and offered a fertile ground for future research to be conducted in developing economy settings. The findings indicated that the construction key players need to pay more attention to the riskiest GB-related hazards by investing their efforts in making the built environment truly sustainable in a not-too-distant future, which can improve the well-being of workers involved.
... Some researchers have proposed a problematic area detection mechanism. Others have used fuzzy logic to develop risk assessment tools for construction sites (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019;Koulinas et al., 2019). ...
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Lack of proper energy control on construction sites leads to numerous worker fatalities every year. Energy control refers to the concept of lockout and other methods used in particular in North America. The aim of this exploratory research project was to achieve a better understanding of energy control practices in the Quebec construction industry for four trades: electricians, pipefitters, refrigeration mechanics and construction millwrights. For each trade, 10 or so semistructured interviews were conducted by means of an open-ended questionnaire, developed with reference to the current provincial regulatory requirements. The 95 experiences described by the 38 participants were compiled by trade and type of construction sites (i.e., residential, commercial/institutional, industrial). This qualitative analysis revealed that energy control compliance with regulatory requirements in force varies mainly with the type of construction site. The responsibilities of principal contractors, who have a legal obligation to supervise energy control on construction sites, are generally well defined contractually before work begins on industrial sites and some major commercial/institutional sites. On other types of construction sites, energy control is a more complex issue, as the client does not always have the required technical expertise. In this case, the worker must choose whatever work method seems appropriate. In most cases, this method is not lockout as defined in the regulation. Based on the findings, possible ways to promote individual control over energy sources involving planning, equipment design and simplified procedures are presented.
... In the third step, a conventional fuzzy AHP process is conducted to obtain the weights of reference evaluation deterrents. As shown in Table 4, TNFs are used to fuzzify the AHP linguistic scales to improve the accuracy of results (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019). Following the studies conducted by Mahdiyar et al. (2019), once the pairwise matrix is generated using AHP scale, the consistency of responses must be checked before proceeding to fuzzify the scales. ...
Article
Purpose Green walls (GWs), comprising living walls and green facades, have been touted as environmentally friendly products in architectural design. GWs can be viable in every aspect of sustainability; they provide residents of buildings with a wide range of economic, social and environmental benefits. Despite this, the adoption rate of GW is still in its infancy stage, and the existing literature concerning the hindrances inhibiting GW adoption is very limited. To address these gaps, the aim of this paper is to identify and prioritize the hindrances to GW adoption in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach After identifying 17 hindrances through an in-depth review of literature, the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is employed to refine the hindrances based on the local context with the help of 21 qualified experts in the field. Subsequently, Fuzzy Parsimonious Analytic Hierarchy Process (FPAHP) is exploited as a recently developed technique to prioritize the identified hindrances. Findings Results reveal that the most significant hindrances to the adoption of GW are maintenance cost, high installation cost, difficulties in maintenance, sophisticated implementation and inducement to fire. Findings call for scholars to address ways to improve GW installation practices and methods in order to eradicate the hindrances and provide lessons for policymakers, assisting them in facilitating the larger-scale adoption of GW. Originality/value Considering the dearth of studies on hindrances to the adoption of GWs, this paper provides a comprehensive outlook of the issue, providing knowledge that can be used as a building block for future scholars within the field. It also provides valuable insights for stakeholders within the construction industry about the hindrances to the adoption of GWs which could direct their efforts toward better implementation of it.
... To pave the readers' understanding of the methods used in this study, the preliminaries together with requisite concepts are elaborated in Appendix S1 (Ighravwe and Oke, 2019;Sadi-Nezhad and Damghani, 2010). The developed ERAFF is based on the integration of the Fuzzy Best Worst Method (FBWM) (Mohandes and Zhang, 2019), Interval Value Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (IVFDEMATEL) (Abdullah and Zulkifli, 2015), Fuzzy Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) (Zhang and Su, 2019), and the common Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs) . The FBWM is used due to its ability to precisely compute the weights of Safety Factors (SFs) and Safety Sub-factors (SSFs), since very few comparisons are required. ...
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Even though some studies have focused on the contributing factors leading to the accidents stemming from tower crane operations, there has been a dearth of an inclusive risk analysis-based framework providing the safety decision-makers with a full picture of critical causal factors, critical risks, and the control measures to be implemented in one holistic frame. In view of these shortcomings, an Ensemble Risk Analysis Fuzzy-based Framework (ERAFF) to improve the safety of tower crane operations is developed in this study. The novel contributions of the developed ERAFF based on its step-by-step application to several construction sites are observed to be threefold as follows: (1) determination of critical causal factors through considering their significance concurrently with their influence levels, (2) identification and prioritization of risks threatening the lives of relative workers by considering the association of causal factors and the identified risks, and (3) provision and prioritization of beneficial control measures. The results obtained from the proposed ERAFF are further validated using the focus-group-discussion approach. Through the application of the proposed framework to the selected projects, it is observed that ERAFF assists the concerned safety personnel in making the final prudent decisions, helping them successfully maintain the safety performance of a project.
... The training of the employee in the safe conduct of work is the most important task of researchers in the field of construction safety [18,19] The purpose of the study was to form the basic principles of building a training program for virtual reality devices to ensure the safety of work on a construction site using the example of a slinger. ...
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This paper presents a methodology for the formation of a VR training program for the safe conduct of work on a construction site. The based approach allowed us to identify the key elements of the work and create a mathematical model of a person’s decision. The result of this work is the developed methodology for the use of virtual reality devices for teaching safe construction work based on solving the inverse problem.
... FST was able to quantify the linguistic facets of the available data and the preferences for group or individual decision-making sessions [28]. FST is, in fact, a developed version of the traditional set theory, where the elements of a set possess the membership grades ranging between 0 (non-membership) to 1 (full membership) [29]. With this in mind, the following steps were involved in the execution of the FDM for ranking the identified barriers and determining those considered most critical. ...
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The utilization of Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based technologies in the construction industry has recently grabbed the attention of numerous researchers and practitioners. Despite the improvements made to automate this industry using IoT-based technologies, there are several barriers to the further utilization of these leading-edge technologies. A review of the literature revealed that it lacks research focusing on the obstacles to the application of these technologies in Construction Site Safety Management (CSSM). Accordingly, the aim of this research was to identify and analyze the barriers impeding the use of such technologies in the CSSM context. To this end, initially, the extant literature was reviewed extensively and nine experts were interviewed, which led to the identification of 18 barriers. Then, the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) was used to calculate the importance weights of the identified barriers and prioritize them through the lenses of competent experts in Hong Kong. Following this, the findings were validated using semi-structured interviews. The findings showed that the barriers related to “productivity reduction due to wearable sensors”, “the need for technical training”, and “the need for continuous monitoring” were the most significant, while “limitations on hardware and software and lack of standardization in efforts,” “the need for proper light for smooth functionality”, and “safety hazards” were the least important barriers. The obtained findings not only give new insight to academics, but also provide practical guidelines for the stakeholders at the forefront by enabling them to focus on the key barriers to the implementation of IoT-based technologies in CSSM.
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Background: Occupational safety risk management is a systemic process capable of promoting technical engineering solutions, considering a wide range of predictable, unexpected and subjective factors related to accident occurrences. In Brazil, the behavior of managers in relation to risk management tends to be reactive, and facilitates access to information for crucial practical and academic purposes when it comes to changing the attitude of managers, so that their actions become increasingly more proactive. Objective: To identify, classify, analyze, and discuss the existing literature related to the topic, produced from 2008 to 2020, besides contributing to a broader understanding of risk management in occupational safety. Methods: We did a systematic literature mapping. The research process was documented starting by the planning stage. Afterwards, the focus was on research conduction and information synthesis. Results: Knowledge systematization and stratification about OHS risk management through various perspectives to identify, analyze and manage risks in the workplace. Were identified 37 tools for identifying and analyzing risks, management-related practices and future research trends. Conclusions: The set of tools and management practices identified can be used as a support for decision making in the selection process of tools and practices to reduce risks and improve occupational safety. Also, the results can help target future research.
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Introduction. In connection with the increase in the proportion of paint compositions in the decoration of buildings and the actualization of the building structure finishing quality issues, it is necessary to determine the degree of damnification risk if the quality of paints and coatings does not conform to requirements. Materials and methods. In order to assess the risk in the work, the study used polyvinyl acetate cement (PVAC) paint, MA-15 oil paint, PF-115 alkyd paint, AK-111 water-dispersion acrylic paint, KO-168 organic-silicone paint, and PI polymer lime paint as paint compositions. The risk was considered as the probability of an event that harms the paint coating. In addition to this, a calculation of the risk R as the expected damage Y due to destruction of the coating was performed. Results. The research has established that some coatings are characterized by lower uniformity of adhesion strength values than it is required on the grounds of the relation between the actual and normative coefficients of variation. The values of risk r indicate that the probability of adhesive destruction is minimal. The calculation of the risk R as the expected damage Y because of the coating destruction due to the violation of adhesion showed that the maximum risk R values are from 0.068 to 11.18 rubles per square meter. Conclusions. It is established that the probability of paint coating adhesive destruction is minimal. The values of risk as expected damage because of coating adhesive destruction are from 0.068 to 11.18 rubles per square meterб depending on the coating type. When making a managerial decision on a paint production, a risk of economic damage should be estimated.
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The development of technology leads to the increasing complexity and hugely loss of industrial system, so, it's necessary to assess the risk. This study established a framework for dynamic risk assessment (DRA) of industrial systems based on accidents chain theory, and quantitatively assess risk. In this framework, the theory of accidents chain was proposed, including the structural equation and basic relationships of accidents chain. The risk analysis model, including the risk of initial event, the node risk and the risk of the four interaction relations, was established. The concept and the model of dynamic risk change rate were put forward. In addition, a risk grade classification method was built for dynamic risk evaluation. The DRA framework can be used to construct the risk correlation between the subsystems of the industrial system, and classify the accidents risk involved in the accidents chain. This study took the fire and explosion risk of UHV converter transformer as an example to conduct case analysis. The results showed that the DRA framework proposed in this paper is effective and feasible, which provides basis for risk prevention and control and improves the safety protection level of UHV converter transformer.
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While the notion of sustainability has long been a major concern in the built environment, the practice of sustainable interior architecture and design still falls short. This study aimed to identify and analyse barriers to the practice of sustainable interior architecture and design. To this end, after identifying 30 potential obstacles through a review of literature, a two-round Enhanced Fuzzy Delphi Method involving 13 qualified experts was employed resulting in the exclusion of 10, and the addition of one new barrier. To prioritise the remaining, a novel Parsimonious Cybernetic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was introduced, significantly reducing the number of pairwise comparisons and eliminating the need for a complicated AHP questionnaire. Results showed the highest prioritised barriers are: (1) lack of sufficient sustainability modules in the education of interior architects/designers, (2) designers' lack of experience and technical understanding, (3) lack of codes, regulations and specific legal frameworks designed for different types of projects, (4) lack of interest from the client, and (5) designers’ lack of training. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for professional interior architects/designers, educators, statutory authorities, governments, and policymakers. Considering the dearth of existing literature on this topic, the present study fills this gap by providing a comprehensive list of barriers to sustainable interior architecture and design, establishes the groundwork for future research to build upon, and introduces a novel P-CFAHP that has not been employed before.
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Occupational safety issues encountered in the worksite environment are the issues that companies should consider in improving their operations with a view to human health and environmental awareness. Many methods with different rationales have been existed in the literature to prioritize hazards according to their risk levels and to mitigate their consequences. In this study, a new model is developed for occupational risk assessment by merging two well-known multi-criteria decision-making methods named best and worst method (BWM) and multi attribute ideal real comparative analysis (MAIRCA) under fuzzy environment. The proposed model differentiates from other similar models by three aspects. First, it considers severity of a hazard and its associated risk from the human and environmental riskiness perspectives. Secondly, it applies fuzzy BWM (F-BWM) to calculate the relative importance of three risk factors named as ''probability, frequency and severity'' of traditional Fine-Kinney method. Thirdly, it applies fuzzy MAIRCA (F-MAIRCA) to rank hazards according to their risk level using importance values obtained by F-BWM. To show applicability of the approach, a case study of risk assessment in a marble factory is fulfilled. Additionally, a number of validation studies including bench-marking analysis with fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS methods; a sensitivity analysis by varying importance weights of risk factors are carried out to highlight the solidity of the proposed approach.
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The designs presented in crowdsourcing platforms for supporting, facilitating, and regulating solvers’ behaviors have significantly effect on solvers’ decision to participate. To estimate those important designs, referred to as participation-oriented designs in this study, a decision support model is developed based on quality function deployment (QFD). This model connects participation-oriented designs to solvers’ motives through the matched incentives, ensuring the estimated designs could activate solvers’ motives most. Specifically, the relations among these three aspects are represented by two house of quality (HoQ) models in which one links solver motives and incentives and the other connects the incentives and participation-oriented designs. Moreover, a combination of the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM), fuzzy Best-Worst method (BWM), and fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Model (DEMATEL) is developed to handle information in these two HoQ models. Therein, the FDM is employed to screen and map solver motives, incentives, and participation-oriented designs. The fuzzy BWM is used to determine the relationship weights between solver motives and incentives and incentives and participation-oriented designs respectively. The fuzzy DEMATEL is employed to describe and calculate the inner dependencies of incentives and participation-oriented designs respectively. A case of the crowdsourcing platforms for graphic design contests is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed model.
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Though some studies have explored the causes of accidents on construction sites, the interdependency among the underlying causes remains elusive. This undermines the efficacy of any decision made by safety experts in reducing accidents' impact. To fill this gap, a hybrid fuzzy-based framework is developed in this study to comprehensively identify and prioritize critical causes, as well as map interrelationships among these causes. The proposed framework is based on the infusion of the Pentagonal Fuzzy Delphi Method (PFDM) and Fuzzy DEMATEL techniques. Findings show that six main causes and twenty-three corresponding sub-causes (out of forty-seven identified ones) are the major culprits for the occurrence of related accidents. Furthermore, it was revealed that "organizational" and "workplace and environmental" causes turn out to be the most influential causes, while inappropriate safety guidelines and policies, poor safety management system, poor safety culture, poor safety knowledge of management team, the financial instability of firms, and corruption were the predominant sub-causes affecting the related accidents' impact. To validate findings, several interviews with senior experts are undertaken. The outcomes of this study are vital for the concerned safety decision-makers by highlighting the influential causes debilitating the safety and health of involved workers.
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Although quite a few studies have focused on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)-related issues within the context of sustainable building construction projects, there has been dearth of a study developing a management framework to comprehensively identify, analyze, evaluate, and control the safety risks threatening the involved Green Building Construction Workers (GBCWs). The lack of such consideration leads not only to incurring additional costs for the stakeholders, but also overshadowing the impetus towards the adoption of sustainable developments within the construction industry. As such, using Hong Kong as a case study, a Holistic Z-numbers-based Risk Management Framework (HZRMF) is developed in the current study. The main contributions of the current research to the area of OHS linked to green building construction projects are as follows: (1) identifying all the critical safety risks associated with the relative green-oriented requirements through the proposed integration of Z-numbers with the Delphi technique, (2) calculating the final magnitudes of green-associated safety risks through a novel hybrid Z-numbers-based algorithm by considering the importance weights of risk parameters, (3) evaluating the analyzed safety risks using the proposed five-level strategy, (4) pinpointing the green-oriented requirements that are of high-criticality, and (5) providing a comprehensive list of treatment measures to control the evaluated green-associated safety risks. Ultimately, it was observed that the three most critical safety risks were associated with fall hazards. It is proven that the results and analyses produced in the study using the developed HZRMS could make massive inroads into improving the OHS of the involved GBCWs.
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Modular Integrated Construction (MiC) has recently grabbed the attention of numerous researchers and practitioners across the globe, even though their adoption on construction sites has led to some critical safety hazards that differ from those of common construction projects. In this regard, cranes are the most widely utilized equipment used in MiC projects; however, there have not been any studies carried out on the safety issues of cranes in such projects. Lack of such consideration not only leads to overshadowing the greater adoption of MiC-based technologies, but also worsens the safety and health of related workers. Considering this, a Crane Safety Index (CSI) is developed in this study to improve the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) of such projects, which is based on experts’ interviews together with the exploitation of the analytical hierarchy process. To validate the efficacy of the proposed CSI, its application to the case of three MiC-constructed projects was considered. Applying the CSI developed to the selected projects, the following contributions are noted: (1) identification of safety factors playing role in the safety of crane operations that are peculiar to the MiC projects, (2) obtaining a specific safety score for crane operations in MiC projects, and (3) determination of fruitful technologies improving the OHS of related operations. The outcomes of this study provide the related safety decision-makers with an inclusive plan for promoting the embracement of sustainability at a greater pace by improving the well-being of workers.
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Mine closure is associated with many negative impacts on society and the environment. If these effects are not rationally addressed, they would pose risks of mine closure. Thus, a risk management method is needed to mitigate these adverse impacts and address mine-closure issues. An integral framework for mine-closure risk management that includes risk assessment and risk treatment was proposed. Given the fuzziness and randomness of the transformation between qualitative and quantitative knowledge in the risk assessment process, a novel risk assessment method based on the cloud model was presented, which fully considers the uncertainty in risks themselves and in the reasoning process. Closed mine reutilization is an effective risk treatment option in response to the identified high risks, but it requires selecting optimal reutilization strategies for the successful implementation of the reuse plan. To this end, a hybrid semi-quantitative decision method is proposed to optimize decision-making. The results of a case study showed that this risk management methodology can help budget planning for risk treatment and provide an instructional framework to effectively reduce the negative effects of closed mines.
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Occupational health and safety (OHS) risk assessment studies have gained importance recently as a result of increasing occupational accidents and occupational diseases. The health sector has a greater risk than many sectors for occupational accidents and occupational diseases. Although the health sector is one of the priority sectors in Turkey, OHS practices have not been fully implemented in this field. For this reason, this study adopts a two-stage approach to assess the OHS risks in the health sector by combining the Fine-Kinney and multi-criteria hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set (HFLTS) methods. The proposed method was applied to the OHS risks in the operating room of a public hospital in Turkey. As a solution to the problem, first, the potential hazards and related risks in the operating room were determined by the experts. In this first stage, 44 hazards were determined from the opinions of experts and records of past incidents. Parameter weights were then determined using the multi-criteria HFLTS method. The multi-criteria HFLTS method was used to evaluate seven hazards to be categorized as substantial-risk or higher according to the Fine-Kinney method, taking into account parameter weights. Sensitivity analysis was then carried out. Finally, actions were taken to mitigate the risks.
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The main purpose to analysis the occupational-disease-inductive index in coal mine is to protect the life and health of the workers and reduce the losses caused by it. According to the occupational-disease-inductive factors "produce source-cause factors-function object" to analyze the whole process of occupational disease hazard control in coal mine, determined the occupational-disease-inductive factors cause of coal mine. Then, the occupational disease hazard of coal mine based on the energy release cause model was established, built the evaluation index system of coal mine occupational disease hazard. The AHP-DEMATEL evaluation model was used to analyze the indicators. Combined with the application of case study, the evaluation results were in good agreement with the actual situation of occupational hazard management in coal mines. It indicated that the indicator system has a strong generalization and adaptability.
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Purpose: Homebuyers’ motivation to purchase the green building (GB) is vital for widespread adoption of greener practices and for tackling the adverse impact of the built environment. In this regard, through the lenses of qualified and competent GB developers and real estate agents (REAs) using judgment sampling technique, this study evaluates the factors stimulating the purchase intention of Malaysian homebuyers. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study uses the interval-valued fuzzy Delphi method to identify influential factors, while the cybernetic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for prioritizing the identified factors according to their significance in nation-wide promotion of GBs is utilized. Findings: The findings, which are consistent with those reported in the literature and validated by the focus group, uncover the most prominent factors that drive the purchase intention of GB homebuyers. The results indicate that the homebuyers are familiar with the benefits of GB; however, the benefits are not sufficient to overcome the perceived “high cost” of green practices. Hence, they still seek financial incentives, which is a clear indication that financial issues are the most motivating factor. Implications: Increase in informative promotion of GB is necessary, particularly among prospective homebuyers in developing countries where GB adoption is in its infancy. Frontline players (those who are responsible for wider promotion) can utilize the factors that this study found to be important to identify appropriate steps to increase prospective homebuyers’ motivation for purchasing greener dwellings. Originality: The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, review and identification of the most cited determinants that have been reported in the context of the subject. Second, presenting the most significant determinants in a developing country setting through the lenses of Malaysian experts in the area. Third, improvement measures that could be implemented in Malaysia and other developing countries to promote the GB paradigm with an aim to make the building environment more sustainable.
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In emergency system design, evacuating people from dangerous buildings has always been a significant yet challenging undertaking. This paper combines evacuation demand analysis with a toxic gas dispersion process to create an underground space risk assessment model for toxic gas leaks. The emergency evacuation capacity of a subway transfer station in Guangzhou has been evaluated and optimized based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and agent-based simulation. A strategy is proposed in which the subway ventilation system in the underground space is utilized to mitigate evacuation risks during gas leaks. The influence of the ventilation system on the gas diffusion process under different working conditions during simulations of toxic gas diffusion is also analyzed. A comparative analysis is conducted to discuss whether to adopt the ventilation system. Then, the effectiveness of the risk methods when the ventilation system is utilized in different working conditions is also verified. An empirical model of the impacts of the number of evacuees and individual risk perception levels on the evacuation risk has been obtained. Results indicate that the new risk assessment and risk mitigation methods are effective and can help guide the emergency evacuation and ventilation system design for underground buildings.
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Construction engineering and management (CEM) becomes more complex with increasing project size and complexity. Various fuzzy hybrid techniques have been implemented to handle subjective uncertainty and vagueness in CEM problems. The objective of this paper is to investigate applications of fuzzy hybrid techniques across different CEM applications (e.g., prediction, decision making, optimization) through a systematic review of 255 journal articles published from 2004 to 2021. A checklist of selection criteria for choosing an appropriate fuzzy hybrid technique to solve a specific CEM problem was also established. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a state-of-the-art review of existing fuzzy hybrid techniques utilized in CEM to (1) demonstrate their capabilities to overcome limitations of some standard techniques in solving complex construction problems, (2) determine selection criteria for their applications, and (3) examine the applicability of each fuzzy hybrid technique’s category to given practical construction problems.
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Technical abstract: Background: OHS is an important issue, since it has great impact on the cost, productivity, and social reputation of a company. Occupational hazards have attracted considerable attention from both researchers and practitioners, because they can cause financial and personal loss as well as intangible damage within organizations and enterprises worldwide. Purpose: Our aim was to develop a new model to assess and rank the risk of occupational hazards and identify high-risk hazards for the promotion of occupational health. Methods: The q-rung orthopair uncertain linguistic sets (q-ROULSs) are utilized to deal with uncertain risk assessment information provided by experts. An extended evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS) method is introduced to determine the risk priorities of occupational hazards. Moreover, a combination weighting method is adopted to derive the relative weights of risk criteria. A case study, involving a shopping mall construction project, was used to illustrate the applicability and validity of the proposed model. Results: Ten occupational hazards were identified and, according to the proposed model, their risk priority scores were determined. From these scores, three hazards were determined as the most serious (i.e., collision with immobile objects or being struck by moving objects; fall of a person from height; and trapping, being crushed-inside or between objects). Conclusions: The proposed model was found to be a reliable and practical tool for the risk assessment of occupational hazards in OHS. It can depict the uncertain risk assessments of experts in a more prominent manner, and produce a reliable risk ranking of occupational hazards for corrective actions.
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Risk assessment is one of the most effective actions in the safety management of demolition projects. This paper provides a framework to determine building demolition safety index (BDSI), which shows the safety level of a building being demolished. Two phases are involved in this study. In the first phase, 11 potential risks in building demolition and their influencing factors were identified, evaluated, and classified using a hybrid approach consisting of the Delphi method, Fine-Kinney method, fuzzy fault tree analysis (FTA), fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), and fuzzy inference system (FIS). In the second phase, a checklist of the most important safety factors and sub-factors in the demolition operation was provided, and the equations needed to calculate BDSI were presented. The first phase of the study was validated by comparing the study’s results with available demographic data from Tehran Construction Engineering Organization, Iran. The second phase was validated by calculating the BDSI for two buildings and evaluating the relationship between BDSI and safety level. BDSI is useful for building demolition projects because it allows project managers to have a more realistic view of the risk level of the project and accordingly take the necessary measures to prevent accidents.
Article
Purpose Demolition is a high-risk operation in construction projects that may lead to serious accidents. Risk assessment is a fundamental step in managing demolition risk and preventing casualties and financial losses. The present study aims to provide a framework to identify, analyse and evaluate the risks in building demolition operations. Design/methodology/approach According to previous studies and the use of expert knowledge, 10 possible risks of the building demolition operation were identified. Subsequently, these risks were assessed using a combination of fuzzy logic with fault tree analysis (FTA), criteria importance through inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Then, the risks were classified with the help of a risk decision matrix (RDM), and appropriate treatment strategies were presented according to the level of importance of each risk. Findings Considering the obtained magnitude for each risk and its rating, building collapse and noise pollution were identified as the most and least significant risks, respectively. The results of this study were in good agreement with the data provided by the Iranian Ministry of Cooperatives, Labour and Social Welfare, as well as obtained results of the previous studies on demolition. Originality/value This paper provides a novel framework for assessing the risks in building demolition operations. The findings of this study help demolition project managers to manage the risks in their projects properly.
Article
Sewer networks play a pivotal role in our everyday lives by transporting the stormwater and urban sewage away from the urban areas. In this regard, Sewer Overflow (SO) has been considered as a detrimental threat to our environment and health, which results from the wastewater discharge into the environment. In order to grapple with such deleterious phenomenon, numerous studies have been conducted; however, there has not been any review paper that provides the researchers undertaking research in this area with the following inclusive picture: (1) detailed-scientometric analysis of the research undertaken hitherto, (2) the types of methodologies used in the previous studies, (3) the aspects of environment impacted by the SO occurrence, and (4) the gaps existing in the relative literature together with the potential future works to be undertaken. Based on the comprehensive review undertaken, it is observed that simulation and artificial intelligence-based methods have been the most popular approaches. In addition, it has come to the attention that the detrimental impacts associated with the SO are fourfold as follows: air, quality of water, soil, and business and structure. Among these, the majority of the studies' focus have been tilted towards the impact of SO on the quality of ground water. The outcomes of this state-of-the-art review provides the researchers and environmental engineers with inclusive hindsight in dealing with such serious issue, which in turn, this culminates in a significant improvement in our environment as well as humans’ well-beings.
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Occupational safety and health (OSH) management has expanded inside companies, and research is now indicating that it yields benefits for both workers’ safety and health and for business performance. However, in daily operations, OSH management tends to end up in a ‘sidecar’ to operations management (OM). We argue that the division between the two fields can be explained by conflicts between the dominant logics of risk for OSH management and efficiency for OM. These conflicts are translated into differences in goals, rationales behind practices, and the organisation of the OSH and operations tasks, respectively. We argue that the future of safety science requires research in the relations between the two fields to increase the impact of the OSH field. By investigating competitive and cooperative constellations of the two logics, we identified potentials for additive constellations amplifying both productive and safety capabilities in companies, and potentials for facilitative cooperation where a new overarching institutional logic of responsible and sustainable business can create a need for synergy between the two logics. Furthermore, a broader understanding of the need for worker well-being and commitment for both OSH and OM opens the possibility for a closer integration of the two fields.
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One of the most important outputs of Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study is a list of recommendations (safety measures) for improving the safety of the system under study. Although, it is generally assumed that all the recommendations should be implemented, due to the limited resources (budget, time, etc.) simultaneous implementation of all the recommendations is not feasible in reality. The large number of recommendations, a wide range of factors which should be evaluated by experts, and the uncertainty in the expert opinions make the conventional methods ineffective. Despite the widespread use of HAZOP, the decision as to which recommendations to implement is still a challenge for process safety managers. The present study aims to develop (i) a comprehensive hierarchy of factors for the evaluation of the recommendations, (ii) a novel methodology by integrating the Best Worst Method (BWM) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) for ranking the recommendations and (iii) fuzzy logic and group decision-making are used to consider the imprecision of expert opinions so as to improve the accuracy of the results. The proposed model is capable of considering most factors of recommendations for any number of HAZOP recommendations. The methodology can be applied to a broad range of hazardous facilities and industries. In the present study, however, its application has been demonstrated for a sulfuric acid storage system.
Chapter
Diagnosis of sports injuries is a very critical process and its performance depends on the recognition of the relevant symptoms. In this paper, a Multi-Agent-based knee injury detection and diagnosis scheme (MFZS) is introduced that applies fuzzy rules over input symptoms and recommends the relevant treatments. Its performance is compared with traditional fuzzy system (TDFZS) under the constraints of detection accuracy and sensitivity etc. Chi-square and Fisher Exact test is also performed to verify the significance of the outcomes of both schemes.
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The negative impacts of the oil and gas (O&G) industry on the environment and society wellbeing necessitate research on the integration of sustainability in its supply chain management practices. However, the research on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in the O&G industry context are still lacking in terms of understanding the factors that facilitates or hinders its implementation. Therefore, this paper aims at addressing the gap by assessing the importance of the external forces within the O&G operating environment that could affect its SSCM strategy. A literature review was conducted where we identified six external forces namely economic stability, political stability, stakeholder pressure, competition, energy transition and regulations. A multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) method called Best Worst Method (BWM) was used to assess the importance of the forces based on data collected using a questionnaire sent to academic experts in the fields of SSCM and O&G. It is found that economic stability followed by competition and political stability are the most important external forces and regulations and energy transition are the least important forces influencing the SSCM of the O&G companies. The outcome of this study could help O&G companies to identify external forces that can drive (hinder) their SSCM implementation. Consequently, it enable them to develop a strategy that take into account their resources and capabilities to address the external forces as they strive to make their supply chains more sustainable.
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One of the early activities in any post-disaster management plan is to remove debris, clean the area, and reconstruct the damaged properties. However, a major focus of workers involved in cleaning operations after a disaster are concerned about construction safety because there are several unknown hazards that differ from hazards in a typical construction project. The risk can be compounded by the fact that construction activities after a disaster are usually conducted by small companies or even property owners with limited knowledge of safety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a safety-risk management plan for recovery after disasters. The objective was achieved in two distinct phases. The first phase of the study focused on risk identification. An extensive literature review was conducted to identify hazards in post-disasters operations. The primary list of hazards was identified and classified into seven major groups: (1) physical; (2) chemical; (3) biological; (4) weather and temperature; (5) ergonomic (6) psychological; and (7) other (e.g., natural hazards and noise). During the second phase of the study, risk assessment was conducted to quantify the safety risk of the hazards identified in the previous phase. Fourteen safety professionals with an average 18 years of experience participated in the risk assessment. It was found that being caught-in/between a trench, getting electrocuted while using cranes or boomed vehicles near energized power lines, and getting electrocuted while using conductive tools, ladders, or scaffolds near energized power line are the hazards that cause the most severe injuries. Concurrently, working in cold or windy weather is the most frequent and risky hazard in post-disaster recovery operations. A risk matrix was developed for post-disaster operations by determining the likelihood and consequence of potential accidents using a 5-point Likert scale. It is expected that the results of this study will transform the current safety practices in post disaster recovery operations by providing an easy-to-use safety-risk management tool.
Book
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Engineering Risk Management Introduction Engineering Risk Management Objectives Overview of Process and Practice New Perspectives on Engineering Systems Elements of Probability Theory Introduction Interpretations and Axioms Conditional Probability and Bayes' Rule Applications to Engineering Risk Management Elements of Decision Analysis Introduction The Value Function Risk and Utility Functions Applications to Engineering Risk Management Analytical Topics in Engineering Risk Management Introduction Risk Identification and Approaches Risk Analysis and Risk Prioritization Risk Management and Progress Monitoring Measuring Technical Performance Risk Risk Management for Engineering Enterprise Systems Appendix A: A Geometric Approach for Ranking Risks Appendix B: Success Factors in Engineering Risk Management Index References appear at the end of each chapter.
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The number of people affected by natural hazards is growing, as many regions of the world become subject to multiple hazards. Although volume of geophysical, sociological and economic knowledge is increasing, so are the losses from natural catastrophes. The slow transfer from theory to practice might lay in the difficulties of the communication process from science to policy-making, including perceptions by stakeholders from disaster mitigation practice regarding the usability of developed tools. As scientific evidence shows, decision-makers are faced with the challenge of not only mitigating against single hazards and risks, but also multiple risks, which must include the consideration of their interrelations. As the multi-hazard and risk concept is a relatively young area of natural risk governance, there are only a few multi-risk models and the experience of practitioners as to how to use these models is limited. To our knowledge, scientific literature on stakeholders’ perceptions of multirisk models is lacking. In this article we identify perceptions of two decision-making tools, which involve multi-hazard and multi-risk. The first one is a generic, multi-risk framework based on the sequential Monte Carlo method to allow for a straightforward and flexible implementation of hazard interactions, which may occur in a complex system. The second is a decision-making tool that integrates directly input from stakeholders by attributing weights to different components and constructing risks ratings. Based on the feedback from stakeholders, we found that interest in multi-risk assessment is high but that its application remains hampered by the complexity of processes involved.
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The paper presents risk assessment of construction objects for the project of commercial center construction. The risk assessment is based on the multi-criteria decision making methods with fuzzy information. The risk evaluation criteria are selected taking into consideration the macro, mezzo and micro levels of a construction project. Ranking of objects and determination of their optimality are determined by applying TOPSIS-F method with criteria values with fuzzy information. The background and presented criteria of construction project risk assessment of the proposed model are provided and key findings from the analysis are presented.
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The unbalanced allocation of risks among the contracting parties is an important decision leading to increase of the total cost of a specific project and affects the overall relationship between the contracting parties. Due to common risk allocation decision-making process is based on experiential knowledge, is subjective and implicit. This paper presents a fuzzy adaptive decision making model for selection of balanced risk allocation which transforms the linguistic principles and experiential expert knowledge into a more usable and systematic quantitative-based analysis by using the fuzzy logic. The objectives of balanced risk allocation are developed based on the concept of Competence-Tendency trade-off. The proposed model integrates fuzzy logic qualitative approach and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) adaptive capabilities to evaluate allocation of project risks and determine best party to bear each one. Results from this model show its high capability in addressing most proper risk allocation with least contingency applied to the owner.
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The high-risk exposure associated with highway construction projects needs special attention from contractors to analyze and manage their risks. They cannot be eliminated but can be minimized or transferred from one project stakeholder to another. Highway projects carry out higher risk than traditional because they entail high capital outlays and intricate site conditions. Therefore, current research aims at identifying two main risk areas that affect highway projects: company (macro) and project (micro) levels; assessing their effect on risk; and introducing a risk model (R) that facilitate this assessment procedure and prioritize these projects. Four Chinese case studies (projects A, B, C, and D) were selected to implement the designed model (R) and test its results. The R index model is developed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show that political risk has the highest average weight of 0.5196; however, financial risk has the second highest average weight of 0.2336 in the macro level (company) areas. On the other hand, in the micro level (project), emerging technology and resource risks have the highest average weight of 0.2492 and 0.2098, respectively. The developed R model is tested, which prove its robustness in risk assessment (93%). It can also be used to sort highway construction projects based upon risk. It is an essential tool to assess the level of risk associated with the highway project under study in the bidding phase in order to take preventive actions.
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Construction project in metropolis is more dynamic and risky. A comprehensive risk analysis will give project contractor a more rational basis on which to make decision. This study applies the ANP to deal with the degree of risk for the main activities of an urban bridge project.
Book
Decision makers are often faced with several conflicting alternatives. How do they evaluate trade-offs when there are more than three criteria? To help people make optimal decisions, scholars in the discipline of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) continue to develop new methods for structuring preferences and determining the correct relative weights for criteria. A compilation of modern decision-making techniques, Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications focuses on the fuzzy set approach to multiple attribute decision making (MADM). Drawing on their experience, the authors bring together current methods and real-life applications of MADM techniques for decision analysis. They also propose a novel hybrid MADM model that combines DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP) with VIKOR procedures. The first part of the book focuses on the theory of each method and includes examples that can be calculated without a computer, providing a complete understanding of the procedures. Methods include the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), ANP, simple additive weighting method, ELECTRE, PROMETHEE, the gray relational model, fuzzy integral technique, rough sets, and the structural model. Integrating theory and practice, the second part of the book illustrates how methods can be used to solve real-world MADM problems. Applications covered in the book include: • AHP to select planning and design services for a construction project • TOPSIS and VIKOR to evaluate the best alternative-fuel vehicles for urban areas • ELECTRE to solve network design problems in urban transportation planning • PROMETEE to set priorities for the development of new energy systems, from solar thermal to hydrogen energy • Fuzzy integrals to evaluate enterprise intranet web sites • Rough sets to make decisions in insurance marketing Helping readers understand how to apply MADM techniques to their decision making, this book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students as well as practitioners.
Book
This book presents several original theories for risk, including Theory of Risk Monitoring, and Theory of Risk Acceptance, in addition to several analytical models for computing relative and absolute risk. The book discusses risk limit, states of risk, and the emerging concept of risk monitoring. The interrelationships between risk and resilience are also highlighted in an objective manner. The book includes several practical case studies showing how risk management and its components can be used to enhance performance of infrastructures at reasonable costs.
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This paper studies the technology battle for biomass conversion in the Netherlands. Three types of technologies are currently fighting the battle for standard dominance: combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Twelve relevant factors for standard dominance were found: ‘financial strength’, ‘operational supremacy’, ‘learning orientation’, ‘technological superiority’, ‘compatibility’, ‘flexibility’, ‘pricing strategy’, ‘distribution strategy’, ‘previous installed base’, ‘regulator’, ‘effectiveness of the format development process’, and ‘network of stakeholders’. Applying expert opinions and the Best-Worst Method (BWM), the relative importance (weights) of these factors were calculated. The weights were then used to evaluate and rank the technologies. The results show that biomass gasification has the highest chance of achieving standard dominance and that technological superiority is the most important factor affecting standard success. The weights per factor were explained and theoretical contributions and areas for future research were discussed.
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Fierce competition and shrinking profits have impelled the airlines to stress upon improving the quality of the services being provided to the customers. Customers have become very specific about their service needs and often tend to shift to others that provide better services. Indian aviation industry is growing exponentially with customer base growing to 223.6 million in 2016 from 73.4 million in 2006. Service quality is an important research topic but the studies conducted so far have used basic SERVQUAL model and also there is limited studies in Indian airline context. So there is need to identify and then prioritize the service quality attributes for airline industry. Best worst method is used to rank and prioritize attributes of service quality that were identified through extensive literature review and VIKOR (VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje) methodology is used to rank the best airline with respect to these attributes. Tangibility, Reliability, security and safety and Ticket pricing are found to be most important attributes of service quality and further analysis using VIKOR methodology suggests that airline 2 is performing well on these attributes among the five airlines taken for study. The service quality attributes identified through extensive literature review and results obtained through MCDM analysis are fruitful for airline managers to address service quality issues. Further, scope of future research work and implications for airline industry managers have been discussed at the end to conclude the paper.
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Within the past decades both the number and quality of the airports in the world has been growing significantly. Despite this fact, research areas such as, performance evaluation and ranking of these airports based on different sets of criteria and techniques, are conspicuously untapped. This study aims to contribute to this area by proposing an evaluation and ranking model using an integration of Taguchi Loss Function, best-worst method (BWM) and VIKOR technique. The proposed model allows decision makers to set different target values and consumer's tolerance thresholds for each criterion based on which country's airports are being ranked and also reduce the amount of pairwise comparisons by using BWM. Also a real world case study is presented.
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The rise in consumption of Energy has led to the increased demand for energy. The contributing factors for energy consumption are industrialization and development. Both are important for the human sustenance over long term. The alternate sources of energy particularly renewable sources are being developed and boosted to support the existing production of energy for use. However, the 100% reliability or switching to a total renewable resource may some time required to be supported by strong measures. Looking into the present context the importance of efficient utilization of energy is seen as a strong and possible fit is managing the problem of increase of energy consumption. The challenges arising in the path of energy conservation or energy efficiency are many. A lot of research work is carried on the different individual factors which are hindering the progress of energy efficiency measures. Also a lot of measures have been suggested by different researchers from time to time. All these barriers and measures are either not organized in proper manner or are highly localized. A very meager attempt is made to study these barriers in a holistic manner. Some researchers have highlighted the role of sustainability in the development of energy. The relationship between the increase in demand of energy and economic development of a country is beyond challenge. For a developing country like India, where there is a big mismatch between energy supply and energy demand, and further challenge to keep this gap low due to rapid development, industrialization and urbanization. Energy Efficiency then becomes a very useful tool to overcome the challenges in supplying energy to all. Energy demand can be only be reduced and cannot be eliminated completely. The optimum level to which the energy consumption can be reduced is the indicator of energy efficiency. This term Energy Efficiency is affected in practice by lot of challenges which are making highly dynamic in nature. Therefore, it calls for a detailed and comprehensive approach in identification and listing of different factors governing energy efficiency in buildings in Indian context. Again only identification of barriers is not sufficient. A system needs to be adopted how these challenges or barriers can be addressed, for that some latest tools for ranking of these identified barriers needs to be adopted. Best-Worst multi-criteria decision making is used to rank the barriers. Results show economic, governmental and technological barriers as most prominent barriers among all. The results shall be of great help in decision making for effecting the improvement and development of energy efficiency measures in buildings. With the help of decision makers a roadmap is developed to help overcome these barriers over long, medium and short term respectively.
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The existing literatures are lacking on the cost and benefit concerns, screening the measures and convergence of interval-valued triangular fuzzy numbers-grey relation analysis (IVTFN-GRA) weight together. Nonetheless, Green supply chain management is always suffering the linguistic preferences and system incomplete information in evaluation process to enhance the performance. Yet, those previous studies are merely based on un-converged weight results. Hence, this study proposed a hybrid method to dealing with this multi-criteria evaluation problem. Fuzzy Delphi method proposes to screen the evaluation criteria and converged IVTFN-GRA weight method handles the vagueness system uncertainty and incomplete information with interdependence relations. Hence, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the green supply chain management and compared multi-methods to enhance their performance in Taiwanese electronic focal firm. The result showed that the converged weight is consistent with the real practices, despite the differences with the current average weighting method. The finding in the long-term perspective: resilience and operational improvement are the top weighted aspects.
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A model for the quantification of occupational risk of a worker exposed to a single hazard is presented. The model connects the working conditions and worker behaviour to the probability of an accident resulting into one of three types of consequence: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. Working conditions and safety barriers in place to reduce the likelihood of an accident are included. Logical connections are modelled through an influence diagram. Quantification of the model is based on two sources of information: a) number of accidents observed over a period of time and b) assessment of exposure data of activities and working conditions over the same period of time and the same working population. Effectiveness of risk reducing measures affecting the working conditions, worker behaviour and/or safety barriers can be quantified through the effect of these measures on occupational risk.
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Considering the vagueness frequently representing in decision data due to the lack of complete information and the ambiguity arising from the qualitative judgment of decision-makers, the crisp values of criteria may be inadequate to model the real-life multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) issues. In this paper, the latest MCDM method, namely best-worst method (BWM) was extended to the fuzzy environment. The reference comparisons for the best criterion and for the worst criterion were described by linguistic terms of decision-makers, which can be expressed in triangular fuzzy numbers. Then, the graded mean integration representation (GMIR) method was employed to calculate the weights of criteria and alternatives with respect to different criteria under fuzzy environment. According to the concept of BWM, the nonlinearly constrained optimization problem was built for determining the fuzzy weights of criteria and alternatives with respect to different criteria. The fuzzy ranking scores of alternatives can be derived from the fuzzy weights of alternatives with respect to different criteria multiplied by fuzzy weights of the corresponding criteria, and then the crisp ranking score of alternatives can be calculated by employing GMIR method for optimal alternative selection. Meanwhile, the consistency ratio was proposed for fuzzy BWM to check the reliability of fuzzy preference comparisons. Three case studies were performed to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed fuzzy BWM. The results indicate the proposed fuzzy BWM can not only obtain reasonable preference ranking for alternatives but also has higher comparison consistency than the BWM.
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The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology among multiple alternatives. This study aims at developing a generic multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainability assessment of the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. A generic criteria system including both hard and soft criteria in economic, environmental, social and technological aspects was developed for sustainability assessment. The improved analytic hierarchy process method, namely Best-Worst method, was employed to determine the weights of the criteria and the relative priorities of the technologies with respect to the soft criteria. Three MCDM methods including the sum weighted method, digraph model, and TOPSIS were used to determine sustainability sequence of the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. Three technologies including landfilling, composting, and drying incineration have been studied using the proposed framework. The sustainability sequence of these three technologies determined by these three methods was obtained, and finally the priority sequence was determined as landing filling, drying incineration and composting in the descending order.
Article
Project: The weights of the inputs and outputs can be identified using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Data on inputs and outputs are collected from 51 Ph.D. candidates who graduated from Eindhoven University of Technology. The weights are identified using a new MCDM method called Best Worst Method (BWM). Because there may be differences in the opinion of Ph.D. candidates and supervisors on weighing the inputs and outputs, data for BWM are collected from both groups. It is interesting to see that there are differences in the level of efficiency from the two perspectives, because of the weight differences. Moreover, a comparison between the efficiency scores of these projects and their success scores reveals differences that may have significant implications. A sensitivity analysis divulges the most contributing inputs and outputs.
Article
Occupational risk assessment is a key measure to reach safety in construction industries. The assessment process is involved with many parameters which are difficult to assess, due to inadequate data or imprecise information. So, traditional quantitative approaches fail, frequently, to assess risk levels and to identify adequate preventive measures. A Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy inference system is developed in this article to overcome these lacunas. In the model formulation process, the risk factors and controlling factors for accidental injuries are considered as input parameters. Safety levels of each type of injury prone body parts are evaluated by using analytical hierarchy process. Subtractive clustering technique is used to reduce the number of rules and thereby an initial fuzzy inference system is generated. Finally, the initial model is updated by tuning all the parameters corresponding to the input variables using a hybrid learning process. The developed methodology has been applied to few selected construction sites in India. The derived results validate the applicability of the developed model for assessing risks in construction sites and also identifies the pertinent progress of existing safety strategies.
Article
The paper presents an adaptation of solution of first order differential equation with initial value as interval valued triangular fuzzy number. The arithmetic operation of interval-valued triangular fuzzy number is re-established and studied with the help of fuzzy extension principle method. Demonstration of fuzzy solutions of the governing differential equation is carried out using the approaches namely, generalized Hukuhara derivative. Additionally, different illustratively examples and applications are also undertaken with the useful table and graph for usefulness for attained to the proposed approaches.
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We analyze potential risks of machine roomless lift at system design level by evaluating risk rate (R) which is a combination of occurrence (O) and severity of specific risk (S). Risks during installation, testing and commissioning of lift, maintenance and rescue operation which might endanger life of person are considered. Our study includes identify risk, determine risk rate and formulate control measure to reduce risk rate to acceptable value by applying extensive field experience and sound engineering know how in lift system. From risk analysis outcome, we are motivated to develop comprehensive rescue operation flow which would be useful guide for generic MRL system design as there are no much literatures in this topic.
Article
This paper presents a predictive tool that uses safety factors to estimate accident risk for processes commonly employed on construction sites. The tool is demonstrated in the context of the utility-trenching process. Based on expert surveys, preplanning, supervision, and training are identified as critical safety factors needed to predict accident risk when evaluating safety performance related to trenching operations. Preplanning has a greater impact on excavation tasks than supervision and training, while conversely, supervision and training are more important during the pipe installation phase of trenching operations.
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Considering fuzziness of the fuzzy subset boundary value for interval-valued variables are introduced into fuzzy Bayesian networks. A reliability analysis method based on an interval-valued triangular fuzzy Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. It expanded the application from a two-state system to a multi-state system, and assessed the reliability evaluation of the multi-state system. First, the interval-valued variables were introduced into a triangular fuzzy subset, and an interval-valued triangular fuzzy subset was built. Second, the algorithm of the defuzzified leaf node failure probability, interval-valued fuzzy posterior probability and interval-valued fuzzy importance were given based on the interval-valued triangular fuzzy subset and features of a Bayesian network. It was proved that the proposed method was feasible by comparing with T-S fuzzy importance analysis methods and fuzzy Bayesian network analysis methods. Finally, a fuzzy reliability assessment of a digital protection system based on an IEC61850 standard seamless real-time communication system was conducted by the proposed method.
Article
This paper gives an account of an experiment in the use of the so-called DELPHI method, which was devised in order to obtain the most reliable opinion consensus of a group of experts by subjecting them to a series of questionnaires in depth interspersed with controlled opinion feedback.
Article
The main purpose of this study is to compare the many different rock properties in the rock sawability. The comparison was realized with the combination of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Fuzzy Delphi method and also TOPSIS method. The analysis is one of the multi-criteria techniques providing useful support in selecting among several alternatives with different objectives and criteria. FDAHP method was used in determining the weights of the criteria by decision makers and then ranking the sawability of the rocks was determined by TOPSIS method. The study was supported by the results obtained from a questionnaire carried out to know the opinions of the experts in this subject. During the research process, the rock sawability was evaluated in terms of production rate of sawn rock. Prediction of production rate is important in the cost estimation and the planning of the stone plants. The new developed ranking method may be used for evaluating production rate of ornamental stone at any stone factory with different stone. Some factors such as uniaxial compressive strength, Schmiazek F-abrasivity, mohs hardness and Young’s modulus must be obtained for the best production rate ranking.
Article
In this paper, a new method, called Best-Worst Method (BWM) is proposed to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. In an MCDM problem, a number of alternatives are evaluated with respect to a number of criteria in order to select the best alternative(s). According to BWM, the best (e.g. most desirable, most important) and the worst (e.g. least desirable, least important) criteria are identified first by the decision-maker. Pairwise comparisons are then conducted between each of these two criteria (best and worst) and the other criteria. A minimax problem is then formulated and solved to determine the weights of different criteria. The weights of the alternatives with respect to different criteria are obtained using the same process. The final scores of the alternatives are derived by aggregating the weights from different sets of criteria and alternatives, based on which the best alternative is selected. A consistency ratio is proposed for the BWM to check the reliability of the comparisons. To illustrate the proposed method and evaluate its performance, we used some numerical examples and a real-word decision-making problem (mobile phone selection). For the purpose of comparison, we chose AHP (analytic hierarchy process), which is also a pairwise comparison-based method. Statistical results show that BWM performs significantly better than AHP with respect to the consistency ratio, and the other evaluation criteria: minimum violation, total deviation, and conformity. The salient features of the proposed method, compared to the existing MCDM methods, are: (1) it requires less comparison data; (2) it leads to more consistent comparisons, which means that it produces more reliable results.
Article
Decision makers are often faced with several conflicting alternatives [1]. How do they evaluate trade-offs when there are more than three criteria? To help people make optimal decisions, scholars in the discipline of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) continue to develop new methods for structuring preferences and determining the correct relative weights for criteria. A compilation of modern decision-making techniques, Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications focuses on the fuzzy set approach to multiple attribute decision making (MADM). Drawing on their experience, the authors bring together current methods and real-life applications of MADM techniques for decision analysis. They also propose a novel hybrid MADM model that combines DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP) with VIKOR procedures.