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Annual Report on Excavations at the Wallace Great House (5MT6970) 2018

Annual Report on Excavations at the
Wallace Great House (5MT6970) 2018
Bruce A Bradley and Cynthia S Bradley
January 2019
In fulfilment of the requirements of State Permit #74016
After several years interruption, excavations and research commenced at the
Wallace Great House (5MT6970), Montezuma County, Colorado. This work was
conducted under the authority of the Colorado Historical, Prehistorical and
Archaeological Resources Act CRS 1973 24-80-401 et seq., and under the procedures
of the State Administrative Procedures Act,CRS 1973 24-4-101 et seq., Permit # 74016.
The county sheriff’s and corner’s offices were informed as per regulations (see
Appendix 1). Also, consultation was done with the State Archaeologist’s Office and
through it the Colorado Indian Commission.
Wallace Ruin Site Description
Wallace Ruin (5MT6970) consists of a small unit pueblo (Greenstone), a Chaco
Great House outlier,
during the 11th and
12th centuries, and a
possible reservoir
(Figure 1). This was
part of a larger
community including
three other Great
Houses (Haney
Ruin East, Haney
Ruin West and Ida
Jean Ruin)
collectively known
as the Lakeview
Group. Wallace Ruin was listed on the Colorado State Register of Historic Properties on
March 12, 2002 and in the National Register of Historic Places on 24 March 2005.
Figure 1. Wallace Ruin plan.
History of Research
Research excavations and publications of results have been carried out
intermittently between 1969 and 2015 (Bradley 2015). Excavations before 1998
(Colorado State Permit #98-57) completed a double row of 12th Century two-story
rooms in the west wing (Rooms 5,6, 7, 8, 9, 17,18, 19, 26 and 27). Also excavated
were an intrusive 13th century kiva (Kiva 1), five multi-story 11th century rooms (Rooms
2, 14,15,24 and 25) and two added 13th century intramural kivas (Kivas 3and 4) on the
north side of an unexcavated elevated kiva (Kiva 32). Additional excavations were
conducted between 2008 and 2010 in a
southern projection of the west arm
(Annex- Rooms 28, 29 and 30) of the
building (Bradley 2010). Excavations in
2015 were done in 13th century Room 33
(Figure 2) (Bradley 2015). In 2018
excavations were conducted in Rooms 33,
55 and 65b, Kiva 56, Rooms 59 and 62,
and Non-structure 77, Segment 1 (Figure
Throughout the research two
major and two minor construction
phases have been identified; Phase 1
circa A.D. 1040, Phase 2 circa A.D.
1090, Phase 3a circa A. D. 1120 and
Phase 3b circa A.D.1130. There seems
to have been an abandonment of the structure in the mid-1100s and then a reuse of the
building in the late 12th and 13th centuries (Phase 4) primarily reusing existing structures.
Research 2018
Site mapping
The Great House map that has been used up until this year was constructed through
time by adding structures as they were excavated. It became clear that there were
Figure 2. Wallace Great House plan.
discrepancies that couldn’t be resolved without starting over. So, the first task was to make an
accurate map based on observed walls. To do this, our first effort was tracing the wall tops of
the excavated (mostly backfilled) structures and exposing the wall tops and corners of the
unexcavated structures. This was accomplished, and a map drafted based on total station
measurements done by Grant Coffey of the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. Once this
was finished, the unexcavated structures were numbered (see Figure 2).
We continue to use the convention of numbering multi-story rooms as #a for the ground
story, #b for the second story and #c for the third story. Structures built into and/or on top of
earlier structures are numbered separately. For example, Room 4 was originally 3 stories high,
so it has 4a, 4b and 4c designations. The second, and possibly third stories of Room 4 were
later converted into an intramural kiva designated Kiva 25, whose ventilator shaft cut into the
upper lining wall of Kiva 32 (unexcavated). Room 4a was filled with sediments so it contained a
stratigraphic sequence, including a floor. Room 4b was represented only by its west, north and
east walls; the south wall was removed when the room was remodeled into Kiva 25. Room 4c
was represented only by its collapsed east wall located in the fill of Kiva 25. Kiva 25 had a floor,
floor features, an added south wall, masonry-filled northwest and northeast corners, a collapsed
roof and a stratigraphic sequence including the 4c fallen wall (Figures 3 and 4).
Figure 3. Plan of Room 4/Kiva 25. Figure 4. Section of Room 4/Kiva 25.
All structures are initially designated as structures until there is evidence of their use
and/or function. Structure designations are then changed to room or kiva once their use or
function has been interpreted.
The Great House building is oriented west of south. North arrows in photos and on maps
are oriented to magnetic north unless otherwise indicated. This is so that everybody can align it
in the same direction with a compass rather than trying to figure out the declination for true
north. Over the 49 years of our research the declination has moved by 2o. Also, in descriptions
we use cardinal directions to describe wall locations. For example, a room wall may be on the
southwest, but we refer to it as the south wall, the northwest wall is the west wall and so on.
Research Design
Prior to site mapping the plan was to finish Room 33 and any underlying cultural
deposits, then begin work in Kiva 31. The rationale for this was that Kiva 31 probably was built
along with the west wing (Rooms 28-30) and excavation of Kiva 31 would assist in
understanding this late Pueblo II addition to the Great House. However, new priorities were
Figure3. Figure 3 Old Wallace Great House.
identified, specifically related to Cindy Bradley’s research into house societies and Crow
Canyon’s interests in a possible pre-Chacoan community in the Lakeview Group. We also
wanted to better understand the Pueblo III intrusion into Room 17. Previous excavations in
Rooms 24, 25, 14 and 15 identified a multi-story structure of Type I masonry dating in the early
to mid-11th century (Figure 3), referred to as ‘Old Wallace’. Wall exposure and mapping of the
site revealed the probable existence of an eastern section of this structure. This extension
consists of several multi-story structures, two clearly identifiable; 55 and 56/65, and another six
projected; 59-60 and 61-64. Two of these structures, 63 and 64 are obscured by a Phase 3
enclosed, elevated kiva (STR 32), while others (Structures 59-62) are projected based on wall
tops and expectations of symmetry. All 4 previously excavated Old Wallace rooms (24,25, 14
and 15) either had an intruded kiva on top (Kiva 1 above Rooms
14 and 15) or were modified into intramural kivas (Kiva 24 into
Room 3 and Kiva 25 into Room 4) during the Pueblo III reuse of
the Great House. It is the Pueblo III reuse that is the basis upon
which discussions of house societies at Wallace are based
(Bradley 2017). It was decided to investigate the east section of
Old Wallace to obtain more evidence of this early structure, to
assist with interests in the early Lakeview Community and to
investigate the possible reuse of Old Wallace during Pueblo III
times, to further test the House Society Hypothesis (Figure 4).
In addition, an arbitrary unit (Nonstructure 77, Segment
1) was excavated outside of the intrusion through the west wall of
Room 17 to verify the process of intrusion, its likely date and
whether materials from inside Room 17 were deposited outside the intrusion.
Great House Wall Clearing and Test Trench
Wall tops were exposed around the site by removing greasewood shrubs and troweling.
Some tumbled building stones also had to be moved, but these were kept to a minimum. The
basic method was to identify a wall top edge and then follow it as far as possible. We were able
to follow the entire outside west, north (Figure 5) and east sides except for in a couple of small
areas, where it was evident where the wall would be. We were able to delineate the exterior of
the east wing, while the west wing (Rooms 28, 29 and 30) had been exposed during
Figure 4. Structures selected for
excavation in Old Wallace.
excavations in 2010-2015. The only area where our
strategy didn’t work was along the center portion of the
south wall (north side of enclosed plaza). To find the
south walls we dug a narrow (approx. 50 cm wide)
trench starting at the low end of the mound slope,
perpendicular to the expected alignment
of the south walls (Figure 6).
The entire length of the trench
contained fallen wall stones some of
which were whole sections of walls.
Two cross-walls were encountered. The
first and most downhill is Phase 3
masonry and is likely the final south wall
(Figure 7). Upslope from this wall is an
outward leaning Phase 1 masonry wall
(Figure 8) which is the south wall of Room
55. The section of the trench below the
Phase 3 wall has been backfilled.
Figure 7. Phase 3 south Great House wall.
Figure 6. South side test trench looking north
Figure 5. Exposed edge of
north wall looking west.
Old Wallace East Wing
Mapping of the surface of the area between the two enclosed, elevated
Phase 3 kivas (32 and 50) identified several structures and varying masonry styles.
The central area was a slight depression with the top of a single-width, spalled slab
Phase 1 wall on the east and the top of a thick compound wall on the west (see Figure
4). The north and south sides exhibited building stones but no clear wall tops before
excavations. There were elevated areas of jumbled wall stones on what appeared to be
the structure corners (Figure 9). These stones consisted of all the different stone types
used in Wallace constructions well as a range of shapes including some very large
blocks and some spalled slabs. My initial impression was that these piles represented
fallen room corners from walls of Type 4 masonry (Phase 4 construction). Curiously,
the northwest corner exhibited the same pile of stones, but the underlying walls were
both Phase 1 spalled slab, not at all the same as the pile on the corner. The center of
the depression was generally clear of stones. These attributes were used to define the
boundaries of a structure designated Structure 56.
Kiva 56 and Room 65b
Excavations commenced across the whole of Structure 56 with the recording and
removal of the loose surface stones (Figures 9 and 10). Investigation of the inferred corners
revealed actual wall tops and corners in all but the northeast. Once the wall tops were defined,
the fill within the structure was removed with
trowel and natural layers defined and
assigned provenience designations. As fill
was removed, fallen wall stones and semi-
intact sections of fallen walls were
encountered. To understand their origins
these stones were revealed in-place and
photographed (Figures 11-12). What
became clear is that most of the stones had
fallen into the structure from all directions
except from the east. Again, the stones
Figure 9. Cleared surface of Kiva 56 looking southeast.
represented all varieties seen from all phases of construction, and some were very large. While
some areas within the wall-fall units were heavy concentrations of stones there were pockets
and lenses of laminated sediments that had clearly washed into the depression as it was filling.
One of these, in the center of the depression was so clear that I used it to define a new stratum
(Stratum 2). At the contact, in the center there was a small cluster of building stones that looked
to have been placed together rather than randomly fallen (Figure 13). Around this small pile
was a scatter of small flakes (Figure 14). These seemed to have been the result of some
activity on the top of Stratum 2 and may have been associated with the pile of stones. There
was nothing diagnostic at this contact, so it is unclear when this activity may have taken place.
The structure was mostly filled at the time, so it certainly wasn’t early in the history of the site.
Figure 3 Stratum 1 wall fall looking east (note sediment in center)
Figure10. Kiva 56 surface clearing looking south.
Figure 11. Fallen wall in west half of Kiva 56.
Figure12. Lowest wall fall in south 1/2 of Kiva 56.
Figure13. Pile of stone denoting activity area.
Figure14. flakes found around stone pile.
Below this lens, the fallen wall stones in Stratum 3 again became dense, eventually
ending in a fairly intact fallen wall. At this point in the excavation it became clear that further
removal of fill would potentially become dangerous as the tops of both east and west walls were
leaning into the structure. While it may have been possible to shore up the walls as excavations
progressed, this option would present some major logistical issues. Instead, I decided to use
fallen wall stones to build a temporary east-west cross-wall to stabilize the situation and make it
safe to continue excavating ½ of the structure. I chose to excavate the south ½ as it had the
potential of allowing a functional interpretation, as discussed below.
The upper 3 strata were formed by natural intermittent structure collapse. Stratum 1
derived stones from all but the east wall, while Strata 2 and 3 primarily came from the west,
Phase 4, wall. Surprisingly, there were very few stones that seemed to have originated from the
east, singled-width, spalled slab Phase 1 wall, even though it is leaning well into the structure at
the top.
Below the three units of wall fall was a layer
of sediment (Stratum 4) comprised of silty-loam
containing lumps of ‘daub’, small charred sandstone
slabs and rotted beams. (Figure 15). Also, below
this layer was a laminated sediment unit that was
thickest in the southwest corner and tapered down
as it expanded east and north. Since the origin of
this sediment was probably the same as the silty-
loam and beams, they were combined into one
stratum. Together, Stratum 4 represented the
decomposition and collapse of a roof unit. It started
with a hole opening in the southwest corner into
which a significant portion of the roof sediment
washed, forming the laminated unit. Through time,
sections of the roof collapsed into the structure along
with wall blocks, and a significant portion of the west
wall as a unit. All of this conforms to what would be expected of an abandoned masonry
structure with a flat earth and beam roof.
Figure15. Stratum 4 roof fall with rotted beams.
Structure 56 has been designated as Kiva 56 because of associated features;
specifically, a ventilator tunnel, deflector and large stone-lined hearth (Figure 16). I suspected
this would be the case because initial work in Structure 62 (adjacent to the south) revealed the
top of a masonry-lined shaft, located outside the center of the south wall of Kiva 56. This
expectation was also based on the presence of two intramural kivas (24 and 25) built into Phase
1 rooms (3 and 4) to the west, which had similar features. The main difference is that the long
axis of Kiva 56 runs north-south while those in Kivas 24 and 25 run east-west.
The south wall and south halves of the east and west walls of Kiva 56 have been
exposed down to the structure floor. The north wall has only been exposed down to the top of
Stratum 2. The west wall exhibits robust Style 4 compound masonry with a mix of all types of
building stones including some spalled slabs (Figure 17) as well as several metate fragments,
Figure16. Kiva 56 south 1/2 plan and cross-section.
including both trough and
slab metates. It is about
55 cm thick. There is a
possible pass-through
under a stack of masonry.
This section of wall looks
like it might have been
remodeled. The masonry
type is not what was
expected because this wall
is located where there
should be a Phase 3 wall, forming the east enclosing wall of elevated Kiva 32. It is abutted by
the south wall of Kiva 56. Based on the large volume of stones recovered that look to have
come from the west wall, it must originally have been at least another 3 or more meters high.
Enough stones were removed from Strata 1 and 2 across the room and Strata 1, 2 and 3 in the
south half to build the back-fill retaining walls on the south side of Kiva 50 and the stabilizing
wall in Kiva 56. There are a lot of stones left in the north half.
The south wall also exhibits Type 4 masonry (Figure 18) but is double stone and only
about 35 cm wide (Figure 19). Its original height is difficult to estimate as some of the collapse
probably fell to the south where we haven’t excavated yet. However, it probably extended at
least a meter higher than it is today. The south wall abuts the east and west walls.
The east wall is a combination of two types. The north portion is Type 1, single-width,
spalled-slab (Figure 20). Only a small portion of this wall was exposed this year as it is mainly
in the north ½, which hasn’t been excavated below Stratum 1. The lower portion of the wall in
the south ½ is plastered and abutted by a Type 4 wall section (Figure 21). This southern portion
was clearly a later addition (Figure 22). It extends south to form the west wall of Room 55 and
the east wall of Structure 59. In Structure 59 the wall is ‘faced’, that is the stones form an even
Figure 17. Kiva 56 west wall south half.
face (for images see the discussions
of each of these rooms). However, on
the Room 55 side the wall isn’t faced,
but instead has an irregular surface.
It is abutted by the south wall of Kiva
56 (see Figure 18). The wall has
slumped inward. For safety reasons I
built a support column. The north end
of this wall abuts the south end of the
Type 1 wall. I think that this north
portion had already begun to lean
inward, and the south portion was
built to support it. The lack of any appreciable number of
spalled-slabs in Strata 1-3 that look to have come from
this wall, either indicates that the wall wasn’t much higher
or that stones may have been robbed. The former
interpretation seems unlikely based on the estimates of
the heights of the south and west walls.
The north wall is also Type 1, single width,
spalled-slab (Figure 22). Only the upper portion has been
exposed. It includes the bottom portion of a doorway,
plugged with Type 4 blocks (Figure 23). Based on
elevations compared to Rooms 3 and 4, this would have
been a raised-sill second story doorway but was probably
plugged when the room was modified was into a kiva.
Figure 20. Top of east wall Kiva 56 and Room 65b, Phase 1 spalled slab masonry.
Figure 18. Kiva 56 south wall.
Figure 19. Top of south wall.
Figure 21. Plastered lower portion of east wall.
Figure 21.Type 4 masonry in east wall.
Figure 22. Upper portion of north wall of Room 65band Kiva 56).
Figure 24. Kiva 56 deflector.
Figure 23. Kiva 56 north wall, plugged doorway.
Wall and floor features typical of kivas were encountered. There is a ventilator system, a
deflector (Figure 24) and a central hearth. There also may be a niche or vent hole in the south
wall and a pass-through in the west wall. Only the deflector has been completely revealed. All
features will be investigated and documented when the rest of the structure is excavated.
Artifacts and Dating
Three methods of inferring a date, architectural superposition, masonry style and pottery
association, indicate that Kiva 56 was built into and on top of pre-existing Phase 1 rooms similar
to Kivas 3 and 4. In each case, rather than simply modifying the existing space. The south walls
of the rooms were removed at the second story floor level and new south walls were added with
ventilator systems. The Phase 1 rooms date to the mid-11th century and their modification into
intramural kivas happened in the late 12th or 13th centuries. This is supported by the masonry
styles, superposition and pottery associated with the structures. Rooms 24 and 25 below Kivas
3 and 4 contained fill but no Mesa Verde B/w pottery. Kivas 3, 4 and now 56 had Mesa Verde
B/w in floor association (Figures 25 and 26).
Kiva 56 was clearly constructed in the Pueblo III period. If the underlying and
surrounding structures were intact at the time, a significant effort went into the construction of
this kiva. The greatest effort seems to have been the replacing of a Phase 3 kiva-enclosing wall
by a massive Phase 4 wall, which formed the west wall of Kiva 56. The quantity of stone, of all
types, that makes up this wall is substantial. Many of the stones are very large, including some
from the lower part of Stratum 3, which would have come from the top of the west wall. It is not
yet clear what the foundations are of the west, south and southern half of the east walls. The
west wall could be on top of a Phase 3 wall, but the south wall does not align with the south wall
of the underling unexcavated Room 65.
Figure 25. Kiva 56 Mesa Verde B/w bowl sherd.
Figure 26. mesa Verde B/w jar sherd.
A scatter of artifacts was recovered from the floor of Kiva 56 (Figure 27) but no specific
activities or work areas are evident.
The location of Kiva 56 in relation to Kivas 1, 3 and 4 (Figure 28) may be an indication of
a 13th century re-association with enclosed, elevated Phase 3 Kiva 32. Together they encircle
the west, north and east sides of this earlier Chaco Great House kiva. This may be seen as a
means of ‘reclaiming’ the essence of not only the earlier structure but of its cultural/spiritual
significance by a later group; perhaps a House Society.
Figure 27. Kiva 56 floor artifacts.
Figure 28. Pueblo III kivas 1, 3, 4 and 56 surrounding the north half of Phase 3 Kiva 32.
Room 55
Room 55 is a Phase 1 multistory room overlapping with and southeast of Kiva 56
(Figure 29). Excavation was initiated with the removal of Stratum 1 (Figure 30). This
was a unit of silty loam containing only a few small stones, some flecks of charcoal and
an occasional artifact and animal bone. Wall
stones were basically surficial. Stratum 2 is
basically the same and the boundary was
arbitrary. This was done to reduce the
chances of having Pueblo III materials from
the surface mixed in with underlying
deposits, in case they were from earlier
times. Stratum 2 does not include wall
The north wall exhibits typical single width, spalled-slab Type 1 masonry (Figure
31) with fine facial finishing.
The west wall is a
southern extension of the
east wall of Kiva 56. It looks
like a Type 4 wall; however, it
isn’t faced on the Room 55
side. It looks like it was built
from the other side with the
back (east face) built up
against a fill unit (Figure 32).
This indicates that room 55
Figure 29. Location of Room 55.
Figure 30. Room 55 Stratum 1 looking NE.
Figure31. Type 1 spalled slab north wall of Room 55
had been filled and then cut into from the west to construct the wall.
The east wall has Type 1, single width,
spalled slab masonry (Figure 33) that isn’t as
well faced as the north wall. The north wall
abutted the east wall of Room 65. The
northeast corner is not well enough defined
yet to determine abutment. The south wall is,
to date, only exposed on the outside (south
face) in the test trench (Figure 34). It looks to
be Type 1, single width, spalled-slab
Artifacts and Dating
Masonry in the west, north and east
walls indicates the room was built with the
rest of Old Wallace. Pottery in Strata 1 and
2 is dominated by Mancos B/w and Mancos
Corrugated with no Mesa Verde B/w or
corrugated, which means the room was built,
used and filled during Pueblo II times.
At present, it looks like Room 55 was
intentionally filled and then the west wall
added from the west side as part of the
construction of Kiva 56. I assume that the original west wall was Type 1 masonry and
may still be in the ground story.
Structure 59
This enclosed space is
located north of Room55 and
east of Kiva 56/Room 65 (see
Figure 29). Only the south half
of the room has been
excavated and only down to
Stratum 2 (Figure 34).
Figure 32. Type 4 west wall of Room 55.
Figure 33. Top of Phase 1 east wall of Room 55.
Figure 34. Room 59 excavation 2018 looking west.
Stratum 1 was a silty-loam with a few wall stones, flecks of charcoal and a few artifacts.
It was basically the same as Stratum1 in Room 55.
The south wall is Type 1, single width, spalled-slab masonry (Figure 35). The
west end would have abutted the exterior of the east wall of Room 65 before it leaned to
the west. There is no indication of a north wall on the surface. The east side of the space is
bounded by the west side of Phase 3 Kiva 50, but it is unclear how the structures interface.
Artifacts and dating
The small inventory of
pottery sherds from Stratum 1 is
virtually the same as in Room 52,
as is the sediment. It seems that
the space was intentionally filled,
probably at the same time as
Room 55. In this instance I
suggest that this was done during
the construction of Kiva 50 in the AD 1120s.
Structure 62
This structure is the space to the south of Kiva 56 and west of Room 55 (see Figure 29).
It is enclosed on three sides with walls that are parts of other structures. Fill has only been
removed in approximately the north half of the
space and only about down 20-40 cm (Figure
36). It is still in Stratum 1 which comprised a
silty-loam some building stones, charcoal
flecks and pottery. There are more artifacts
than in Rooms 55 and 59, including more
animal bones. While not secondary refuse,
this unit has more cultural fill than in Rooms
55 and 59. In the north central area is the top
of a rock-lined shaft; the ventilator shaft for
Figure 35. Structure 59 south wall.
Figure36. Room 62 looking north showing top of
vent shaft for Kiva 56.
Kiva 56 (Figure 37). The ventilator shaft is
stone-lined, but not such that it could have
stood alone without being supported by fill. So
far there is no indication how the shaft was
constructed. It could have been either built with
filling around it as it went up, or it could have
been the lining of a shaft dug down through an
already filled space. This may be determined
as we continue excavation.
The west wall is Style 4 compound
masonry, a continuation south of the west wall
of Kiva 56 (Figure 38). The north wall is the
exterior of the south wall of Kiva 56. The east
wall is Style 4 and faced (Figure 39) as opposed
to the other side in Room 55, which is irregular.
Artifacts and Dating
Pottery recovered from Stratum1
includes some Mc Elmo B/w as well as
Mancos B/w, which may indicate that it is later
than the fills in Rooms 55 and 59. The vent
shaft was built as part of the construction of
Kiva 56, which was in the late 12th or 13th centuries.
Annex Addition
Room 33
The west wall of the room is mostly missing. The north wall is the exterior face of the
south wall of Kiva 31, including a masonry ventilator shaft (Figure 40). The wall is compound
masonry with massive square stones on the exterior face. The exterior of the ventilator shaft is
Figure 37. Close up view of top of vent shaft.
Figure 38. West wall of Structure 62.
Figure 39. East wall of Structure 62.
well-laid masonry but is not evenly coursed like the Phase 3 masonry at Wallace Ruin. The east
and south walls are double width but of a more variable quality and include some scabbled
stones. It looks like the stones were mostly reused from earlier construction.
Excavations were done by stratigraphic layers rather than by levels or arbitrary divisions.
(Bradley 2015). Terri and Tom Hoff continued excavations in 2018. The stratigraphy below
Stratum 4 was very complex and variable across the room. Eight additional strata and 5 more
surfaces were identified, however, these didn’t all extend across the entire room and some of
these may be combined upon further reflection. Between 35 and 40 additional centimeters of fill
was removed. Within this were various clusters of artifacts and what seemed like use surfaces.
Excavations ended at a surface that is fairly level and continuous in the western half and along
the north wall of the room. There is a possible floor feature in the eastern portion that has yet to
be explored.
Mesa Verde B/w pottery was still being encountered to the bottom of current excavations
supporting the interpretation of the room originating in Phase 4 (Mesa Verde Phase). Detailed
analyses and interpretations will be done after excavations in the room are completed.
Exterior Investigation
Nonstructure 77, Segment 1
Excavation strategy and methods
Figure 40. Room 33 north and east walls at the top of Stratum 4 (PD474) where excavations commenced in 2018.
Nonstructure 77, Segment 1 is an arbitrary 2 x 2 m excavation unit positioned
within the rubble mound located on the exterior, western side of the construction Phase
3 Great House wall, or Wallace Ruin (see Figure 2). The unit’s northern boundary is
located near the junction between Room 17a and Room 7a, the chamber adjacent to
the north. Its eastern boundary is formed by the actual and projected inner wall of Room
17a. This location was deliberately chosen to bracket the outer fabric of the compound
wall that forms the northwest corner of Room 17a. Evidence of an intrusion (i.e., Other
Wall Opening [OWO]) into Room 17a through this, presumed, exterior Great House wall
was observed during research excavation in 1977. A detailed description and the
rationales for an interpretation of an intentional Ancestral Pueblo intrusion into Room
17a are available in C. Bradley (2016). Sterile ground was not reached by the end of the
2018 field season; the upper contact of Stratum 8 is approximately 2.5 meters below the
topmost stone of the in situ Room 17a wall that is adjacent to the SE corner of
Nonstructure 77, Segment 1.
This effort involves the first research conducted in the space immediately
adjacent to the west wall of Wallace Ruin. Excavation of this unit thus entails multiple
descriptive and interpretive objectives. Basic descriptive needs comprise: 1) to
document the architecture and stratigraphic sequence involving wall construction,
natural building collapse and the deliberate cultural intrusion; 2) to document the
condition of the exterior compound wall and the attributes of any Other Wall Opening
observed; 3) to determine if the area within Segment 1 constitutes an extramural space
or, instead, obscured architecture; 4) to collect diagnostic artifacts needed to evaluate
the chronological sequence of building construction, collapse and human intrusion.
Interpretive concerns consist of 5) the need to confirm that the outer wall was
intentionally breached and that it is associated with the large OWO observed within
Room 17a; 6) if materials cross-matched between Segment 1 and Room 17a can
provide additional insights into human actions or motivations related to the intrusion; 7)
whether stratigraphic and material evidence supports or rejects the conclusion that this
OWO dates to prehistoric rather than historic times; and 8) if and how this space was
utilized during any Ancestral Pueblo use of Wallace Ruin.
To achieve these eight goals, excavation techniques entailed the careful removal
of sediments above and amidst fallen walls stones by trowel to identify the occurrence
of fallen, coursed masonry and to differentiate between building collapse materials
versus eolian accumulations, and to identify obscured cultural surfaces or architectural
features, etc. Generally, artifact collection for most strata involved the use of ¼”
screens. A grab technique was used for concentrations of fallen masonry having scant
associated sediments.
Nonstructure 77, Segment 1 is comprised of eight strata and one surface. All but
Stratum 2 and Surface 1 extend across the excavation unit.
Stratum 1 PD 476
Work commenced with the removal of backdirt and tossed wall stones from
Kiva 1 research excavation that form the apex of the rubble mound that is adjacent to
the great house west wall (Figure 41). The removal of these historical deposits
revealed the pre-excavation component of Stratum 1 (Figure 42), which is comprised
of individual, irregularly oriented Construction Phase 3 masonry wall stones mixed
with sandy/clay sediments containing charcoal flecks, intensively burned adobe
chunks, and occasional eolian deposits (Figure 43). Many stones have the reddish
Figure 41: Nonstructure 77, Segment 1 prior to
research excavation; looking east.
Figure 42. NST 77, Seg 1: Stratum 1,
2018 south profile: undisturbed wall fall.
coloration consistent with exposure to intense heat. Several concentrations of
generally coursed, fallen wall segments of at least 5 stones each are interspersed
among these random stones (Figure 44). These groupings extend, with gaps, from
about 20 cm below the height of the STR 17 standing wall (SE corner of the unit) to a
point roughly 1.3 meters below (real elevation ~1896.40, NW quadrant). These
coursed, undisturbed concentrations occur on both the north and south halves of the
study unit. The real elevation at the Stratum 1-Stratum 3 contact in the NE corner of
Seg 1 is 1896.54, which is six cm above the elevation of the top block designated as
the superior margin of the OWO. Rodent burrows permeate this deposit, side to
side/top to bottom. Artifacts are sparse; sherds include MV B/w and corrugated
sherds. A key point is that there is no stratigraphic evidence of a deliberate human
intrusion through this deposit towards the west wall of the great house.
Stratum 2 PD 484
Stratum 2 comprised a small
concentration of thin, degraded chinking stones and several small Pueblo III pot sherds
that rested upon a level that slopes upwards towards the NW corner at an elevation
about 30 cm below the current ground surface. The area immediately to the east
consists of backdirt and tossed rocks. Rather than in situ evidence of an intentional
human activity, since this area is permeated with animal burrows, it is more probable
that this grouping is either the product of animal activity, or alternatively, a deposit
related to structure collapse.
Figure 43: Stratum 1, east profile:
undisturbed wall fall that extends across the
area overlying the Other Wall Opening.
Undisturbed mortar is still present within
several of these stones, which are also
overlain by in situ Structure 17 burned floor
materials, which are also overlain by in-situ
Room 17 burned floor materials (Stratum 5
and Surface 1 of Room 17)
Stratum 3 PD 499
This homogenous, approximately 20 cm thick sedimentary deposit underlay
Stratum 1 wall fall accumulations. It began about 1.5 m (1896.54 real elev.) below the
uppermost in situ masonry stone in the west wall of Room 17, adjacent to the SE corner
of Segment 1. It consisted of sandy/clay fill that contained moderate amounts of flecks
and thumb sized fragments of charcoal and burned adobe. The greatest concentrations
of these burned inclusions were in the north half of the study unit, due west of the area
of wall subsidence. Wall stones were rare. Rodent burrowing was extensive. The
bottom of this unit contained evidence of root matting used for nesting. Most of the
artifacts were from the clearly discernible rodent burrow that ran along the exterior face
of the west great house wall. This stratum probably included roof/flooring materials from
Room 17, mixed with eolian sedimentary deposits. Stratum 3 developed through natural
depositional processes related to Room 17b burning and structure collapse over time,
compounded by animal burrowing. A moderate number of sherds and flakes included
Mesa Verde B/w. This stratum started above the upper margin of the OWO created in
the west wall of Room 17a. Even so, there is no stratigraphic evidence of a human
intrusion through it towards the great house.
Stratum 4 PD 500
Stratum 4 was another sedimentary stratum; the upper contact real elevation was
Figure 44. Overhead view of Stratum 1,
documenting the area of wall subsidence superior
to the Other Wall Opening (above, left), the
standing wall (above, right) and two concentrations
of coursed, fallen wall stones near the bottom of
Stratum 1.
1896.33. This 30-40 cm thick unit directly underlay Stratum 3 and extended across the
entire study unit. It is like Stratum 3 in terms of its sandy/clay fill texture, dearth of wall
stones, extensive root growth, and evidence of animal burrowing. However, charcoal
inclusions are very rare.
This stratum developed through natural depositional processes probably
associated with structure collapse and accumulations of eolian deposits, with materials
intermixed over time by extensive animal burrowing. Pueblo III artifact distributions and
types were consistent with Stratums 1 and 3. There was no stratigraphic evidence of a
deliberate human intrusion through this stratum towards the west wall of the great
Surface 1 PD 502
Surface 1 underlies a section of Stratum 4 (Figure 45). The upper margin of this
thin (<2 cm), level, horizontal surface was at a
real elevation of 1896.01, measured at the
exterior boundary of the great house west wall.
The north-south dimension of Surface 1 extends
across the excavation unit; its east-west
dimension extends westerly from the outer face
of the great house west wall some 50-60 cm.
Surface 1 was in very good condition,
comprising a matrix that included small,
yellowish-white fragmentary sandstone
inclusions. It was situated 2-3 cm below the probable bottom margin of the intrusive
hole (OWO) in the west wall. There were no associated artifacts.
The boundary of Surface 1 falls within an arms-length of the wall. Rather than a
prepared floor, it may instead have been a defacto surface associated with wall
construction. That is, this thin horizontal deposit may have been created unintentionally.
As Pueblo II builders crammed chinking stones and mortar into the outer surface of the
west wall, the resulting flaked-off sandstone fragments fell onto the adjacent ground
Figure 45: NST 77, Segment 1. Overhead view of
Surface 1, adjacent to the great house west wall.
surface; then, these byproducts became pressed into the ground as workers stood and
walked upon it. This type of deposit has been observed by Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center archaeologists outside of the north wall of Goodman Point Pueblo, though not in
the nearby small sites (Grant Coffey 2018, pers. comm.). Thus, it may be that the
CCAC interpretation of a construction zone applies here.
Stratum 5 PD 505
Stratum 5 extends across the north-south dimension of Segment 1, though it
extends westerly only just beyond the east half of the 2x 2 m study unit. The real
elevation of the upper contact, measured adjacent to the west wall of the great house, is
approximately 1896.00 m; the upper margin
of this unit slants slightly downward to the
west to an elevation of about 1895.95 m, at a
point about one meter west of the great
house wall. This unit consists of sediments
that overlay an informal deposit of sandstone
chunks and the occasional masonry slab
documented in Figure 46. The sedimentary
aspect of Stratum 5 is comprised of 5-8 cm
of an essentially sterile sandy/clay deposit
that contains no charcoal flecks and the very rare sherd. This deposit’s texture grades
into a mortar-adobe consistency as real elevation decreases. These sediments rested
upon and within unburned sandstone building materials, most of which were irregularly
shaped. A concentration of chinking stones (circled in Figure 46) was piled near the
great house wall.
This stratum is interpreted as a construction zone cultural deposit associated with
the erection of the west wall of the great house. The sandstone materials include
chinking stones and unshaped small to large wall stones consistent with Phase 3
masonry. The mortar/adobe characteristics of the overlying sediments are suggestive of
gradual accumulations created during wall-building.
Figure 46. Raw masonry materials that constituted the
base of Stratum 6; piled chinking stones in the SE
corner of NST 77 near the great house wall are circled.
Stratum 6 PD 507
Stratum 6 was an ashy/burned deposit that underlay Stratum 5 and extended
across the study unit. Its upper contact elevation was below that of the Phase 3
masonry that comprised the exterior face of the west compound wall of Room 17a. The
eastern boundary of Stratum 6 is highly disturbed by an animal burrow. However, it is
still possible to detect undisturbed, compacted Stratum 6 sediments adjacent to and
between west wall footer stones. The upper contact surface angles downwards to the
west. The greatest concentration of Stratum 6 artifacts was within an ashy/burned
matrix in the central-south region of Segment 1. This small ashy, quasi-midden dump
extended mainly westerly across the unit. Evidence for an in- situ burning event
adjacent to the west profile of Segment 1 included several loci of orange, oxidized soil
that bordered the outline of a charred beam end (Figure 47). The few associated
diagnostic wares are PII sherds (Figure 48).
Stratum 6 represents cultural depositional processes probably associated with
the construction of the great house west wall during Phase 3 construction. The absence
of any artifacts or ashy fill within the undisturbed footer stones suggests that this cultural
deposit post-dates the laying of these architectural stones. Possibly, the in-situ burning
of the beam by the west profile is related to the intentional charring of beam ends for
Figure 47: Stratum 6 evidence of an in situ burned beam.
Figure 48. Stratum 6: Pueblo II corrugated sherds and
ashy matrix immediately below Stratum 5 wall
construction materials.
modification for use as floor/ceiling beams. Of note, this stratum and the underlying
strata are several cm below the base of the Other Wall Opening.
Stratum 7 PD 510
Stratum 7 was a thin, sterile eolian deposit occurring in the west half of
Nonstructure 77 Seg 1. This brownish-yellow, fine sand had similar characteristics to a
thin strip of compacted sterile sediments adjacent to the west wall of the great house.
Unfortunately, the deposit along the wall was heavily disturbed by burrowing animals.
This was a natural, wind-blown deposit. Whether the east and west
accumulations are related to the same event/process is unknown, owing to natural and
cultural disturbances of the sediments in between. It is yet to be determined if the
eastern eolian accumulation constituted the sterile Pueblo II ground surface, cut into for
insertion of Phase 3 west wall footer stones.
Stratum 8 PD 511
Stratum 8 underlay Strata 6 and Stratum 7. It extended across the study unit. Its
upper contact along its east margin was near the base of the west wall footer stones,
and thus below the OWO. The upper contact of Stratum 8 near the west half of the
segment was below the lower elevation of the exposed footer stones. Whether the
upper contact zone was cut into or underlay the west wall footers has is to be
determined. The real elevations will be documented in 2019 upon completion of
research excavation in this study unit. The upper contact surface angled downward to
the west. A 50 x 50 x 30 cm excavation window in the NW corner revealed that charcoal
and burned adobe-laden lenses within the western zone of Stratum 8 are intermixed
with essentially sterile lenses of probably eolian deposits. The charcoal lenses
contained thumb-size and larger chunks of charcoal and globs of orange, heavily
oxidized burned adobe. The evidence of burning in the west half of Stratum 8 was
much more intense than was the case for the upper contact zone of the east half of
Segment 1. In the eastern half, the upper contact of Stratum 8 graded into a level that
contained small inclusions of sandstone, small charcoal flecks, and a scatter of burned
adobe stains. This section of the deposit had the texture of a prepared floor, though this
also will be assessed in the 2019 field season. As elevation in the test pit decreased,
the presence of more compacted sediments suggested that this test pit was nearing
sterile, or at least prehistoric ground surface. The few associated sherds are Pueblo II in
Since the Room 17a footers
cut into/rest upon this stratum
(Figure 49), it means that Stratum 8
predates the Phase 3 construction
of the great house west wall.
Therefore, the burned materials in
Stratum 8 do not not represent
building collapse associated with
the inferno in Room 17b. Further
work is needed to ascertain if
Stratum 8 represents a cultural
deposit of discarded burned building materials, perhaps from Old Wallace, or a burned
subsurface structure.
The great house west wall forms the east boundary of Nonstructure 77, Segment
1 and, conversely, the west wall of Room 17. This roughly 2.5 m section of standing
Figure 49: Right, upper contact of Stratum 8, adjacent to in situ
west wall footer.
Figure 50. Great
house west wall, from
above, looking south.
Wall subsidence,
Figure 51. Side view of
the great house west
wall, showing Phase 3
masonry, footers,
informal Other Wall
Opening, and wall
subsidence. Looking
sandstone masonry comprises the only in-situ architecture associated with the study
unit (Figures 50 and 51). The characteristic attributes of Construction Phase 3 wall are
described in Bradley (1988); however, rather than a compound wall, Bradley now
considers the coursing in this section as more accurately described as double bonded.
Feature 1 Other Wall Opening (OWO) PD 512
Feature 1 is a large, irregular hole located at the base of the masonry of the
Phase 3 great house west wall, near the junction of the cross-wall between Rooms 17a
and 7a (see Figure 51). This approximate 1 m (h) x ½ m (w) opening fully transects this
double bonded wall. The resulting improvised tunnel extends from the exterior face of
the wall, into the interior of Room 17a. Previous research
documents that this intrusion impacted Surfaces 2-5,
Strata 5-10 and primary burial deposit HR 4 (Figure 52).
Comparison of the horizontal distances from Room 17a’s
south beam socket shows that this southern boundary
within Room 17a is ~30 cm farther south than the
southern border exposed in Segment 1. The exact
northern margin of this opening within the Segment 1
side of the great house west wall will be ascertained
during the 2019 field season. Several piled wall stones
are present just inside and at the base of the OWO,
whereas the footer stones just beneath the opening are
more or less in place (see Figure 51). The appearance
of the piled stones within Feature 1 is consistent with the shape, size and coloration of
the in-situ wall stones in the undisturbed wall immediately south of this OWO. In
addition, multiple loose stones and chunks of adobe mortar located within the hole are
intensively burned and oxidized, as are several pottery fragments. Diagnostic artifacts
within Feature 1 fill are Pueblo III in age. No in-situ or displaced wall stones show
evidence of damage The real elevation at the base of the SW corner of the south
primary beam socket in the west wall of Room 17a is 1897.64.
Figure 42. Evidence of intrusion in
Room 17a.
Segment 1 evidence does not suggest that this OWO was a planned, formal
passageway associated with the construction or use of the great house during its
Pueblo II occupation or the eventual Pueblo III use of Room 17a and the West Arm as a
mortuary locus. Rather, its informal appearance supports the interpretation, based on
stratigraphic and skeletal analyses performed for Room 17, that it is the ad hoc product
of a deliberate Ancestral Pueblo intrusion (C. Bradley, 2016). There is a good chance
that the N-S difference in the southern intrusion margins of the OWO boundaries
observed in Room 17a and Segment 1 owes to the intruders first encountering this
cross-wall before angling to the south so as to enter Room 17a. This might also account
for the destabilization of the west end of the cross-wall, which was in too poor condition
to be excavated in either rooms 7a or 17a. The wall fabric of both the exterior and
interior lining walls directly above this hole is highly disturbed. However, this represents
natural subsidence owing to destabilization following the complete removal of a large
section of underlying masonry rather than a deliberate cultural process.
Stratigraphic and skeletal analyses performed for Room 17 evidence indicate
that this Other Wall Opening was the informal product of a deliberate Ancestral Pueblo
intrusion after Room 17b had collapsed (C. Bradley, 2016).
Dr. Cynthia S. Bradley
Although the intentional discovery of human remains is not a Wallace Ruin
Project research goal, a total of 37 isolated skeletal elements (ISE) were located during
2018 field work at Wallace Ruin. All ISE are from Nonstructure 77, Segment
1. All bones were widely dispersed; in other words, no human bone clusters or primary
burial deposits were located. Most of these bones are clearly from animal burrows that
wind through Stratum 1 wall fall.
All protocols detailed in CRS 24-80-1303 regarding the discovery of human
remains during archaeological research excavation (Permit #74016) were followed. This
included timely e-mail notifications to the Office of the State Archaeologist, Ute
Mountain Ute Tribal Consultant Terry Knight, Southern Ute Tribal Consultant
Cassandra Attencio, and the Montezuma County Sheriff’s Department. Dr. Cynthia
Bradley made requests for consultation regarding excavation and reburial processes to
Mr. Knight and Ms. Atencio. Mr Knight and Cynthia Bradley performed an on-site
consultation at Wallace Ruin in May 2018. Ms. Atencio’s on-site consultation is pending.
The case was made that work in this specific Nonstructure 77 study unit was crucial to
meet the research goals related to the Other Wall Opening (Feature 1) in the west wall
of the great house. Accordingly, upon agreement with these tribal consultants, ISE were
removed when located so that excavation could continue in this essential study unit. All
ISE are temporarily curated in the manner agreed. In accordance with State protocols
and the needs of Wallace Ruin research, all fundamental skeletal analyses and
documentation were done. All ISE will be reburied in 2019 in a location agreed by the
requisite parties.
The skeletal inventory provided in Table 1 includes basic information for each
ISE: provenience, element, side, condition, age group, cultural affiliation, date located,
and comments. Minimum number appraisal by element type yields an estimate of two
individuals, whereas estimate based on age group categories indicates that at least
three individuals are represented: Infant, Child, and Adolescent/Adult. No
determinations of sex are possible. For the most part, these bones are in very good
condition, lacking other than slight evidence of damage by structure collapse, animals,
or significant exposure to the elements.
In the absence of material or contextual evidence otherwise, it is assumed
that these ISE are from Ancestral Pueblo primary burials. The original deposition
location of these bones is unknown. Only one bone (cuboid 31978) is a good candidate
for a cross-match to Room 17a skeletal remains. Possibly, other bones may have
originated in Room 17a, but the skeletal elements (i.e., ribs) are not suitable for such
analyses. Based on previous analyses of Wallace Ruin human remains (C. Bradley,
2017), the good condition of the Nonstructure 77 bones suggest that they are
from primary burials that were deposited within the great house at proveniences at floor-
level or above rather than in subfloor pits or an extramural location (i.e., midden). No
attempt will be made to locate the original burial locations of ISE from Nonstructure 77.
CRS 24- 80-1303
476 1 6 1946 radius L 100%
C U Y 5.16.18
1 of 7 dispersed bones in a large rodent burrow
within Strat 1 wall fall; multiple individuals
476 1 7 1947 fibula U >90%
I U Y 5.16.18 ditto
476 142 1948 tibia R 100%
C U Y 5.22.18 ditto
476 143 1949 rib U <25%
AD/AO U Y 5.22.18 ditto
476 144 1950 carpal U >75%
U U Y 5.22.18 ditto
476 145 1951 rib U <25%
I U Y 5.22.18 ditto
476 146 1952 ulna L 100%
C U Y 5.22.18 ditto
476 147 1953 pars basilaris 100%
C U Y 10.14.18
1 of 11 dispersed bones in rodent burrows within
Strat 1 wall fall; multiple individuals
476 148 1954 rib R 75%
C U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 149 1955 clavicle R 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 150 1956 innominate R 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 151 1957 fibula U 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 152 1958 rib L 75%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 153 1959 centrum 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 154 1960 neural arch R 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 155 1961 neural arch R 100%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 156 1962 epiphysis U 50%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
476 157 1963 unknown U <10%
I U Y 10.14.18 ditto
499 358 1964 tibia R ~50%
I U Y 10.22.18
1 of 7 dispersed bones in rodent burrows that
extend throughout structure collapse fill Stratum 3
499 359 1965 metacarpal, 1st U 100%
I/C U Y 10.22.18 ditto
499 360 1966 rib, 2nd R 100%
C/AO U Y 10.22.18 ditto
499 361 1967 rib, 1st R 100%
I U Y 10.22.18 ditto
499 362 1968 phalanx, hand U 100%
I/C U Y 10.22.18 ditto
499 363 1969 temporal U <25%
I U Y 10.22.18 ditto
499 364 1970
tooth, deciduous
L <75%
I/C U Y 10.22.18 ditto
500 465 1971 neural arch L 100%
I U Y 10.22.18
1 of 3 dispersed bones in rodent burrows that
extend throughout structure collapse fill Stratum 4
500 466 1972 rib R <50%
C/AO U Y 10.22.18 ditto
500 467 1973 rib L >75%
I U Y 10.22.18 ditto
512 171 1974 metatarsal U 100%
C, y U Y 11.29.18
1 of 9 dispersed bones in wall fall and rodent
burrows within the Feature 1 intrusion zone
(through the base of the west wall of Room 17a)
512 1
72 1975 cranial U <25% I U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
73 1976 ilium U <25% I U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
74 1977 femur R >95% C, y U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
75 1978 cuboid L 100% AO/AD U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
76 1979 scapula R >75% C U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
77 1980 Rib, 2nd R >95% C U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
78 1982 Rib, 3-10 L <50% C/AO U Y 11.29.18 ditto
512 1
79 1983 vertebra, TH, arch B 100% C U Y 11.29.18 ditto
I Infant; C Child; AO Adolescent; AD Adult; U unknown; y young; L left; R right; Y yes
Entity: Primitive Tech Enterprises, Inc. Date: 2018 Field Season Analyst: Dr. Cynthia Bradley
Table 1: Inventory of Isolated Skeletal Elements discovered during 2018 research excavations at
Wallace Ruin, 5MT6970. All are from Nonstructure 77, Segment 1.
Appendix 1 Permit and letters
Letter to Coroner
Prof. Bruce Bradley
23213 Road D
Cortez, CO 81321
26 April 2016
To: Montezuma County Colorado Coroner
A requirement of our state permit to conduct archaeological excavations is to contact the local
coroner to advise that we will be doing scientific excavations at Wallace Ruin (5MT6970) May 1
through 30 November 2018. I am the director of the work and hold the state permit (#74016).
Unmarked graves with human remains may be encountered during the process of excavation.
Part CRS 24-80-1303 of the state law will be followed in such a case. The co-PI of the project,
Cynthia Bradley is a PhD-qualified physical anthropologist with extensive experience in analysis
of Ancestral Puebloan remains. In most cases, it is our intention to conduct in-field analysis
without removing the remains from their primary context. They will then be covered over in their
original position. If it is determined that significant information can only be gained by removal of
the remains, this will be done in accordance with the provisions set forth in CRS 24-80-1302-4.
As stipulated, if we encounter human remains that may be less than 100 years old and/or have
potential forensic interest, we will immediately contact your office. You have the option to be
contacted for any unmarked human remains and we ask whether or not you would like us to
contact you if we encounter remains older than 100 years?
Bruce Bradley
Professor Emeritus
23213 Road D
Cortez, Colorado
Letter to Sheriff
Prof. Bruce Bradley
23213 Road D
Cortez, CO 81321
26 April 2018
To: Montezuma County Sheriff
730 East Driscoll Street,
Cortez, CO 81321
Dear Sir:
A requirement of our state permit to conduct archaeological excavations is to contact the local
sheriff to advise that we will be doing scientific excavations at Wallace Ruin (5MT6970) May 1
through 30 November 2018. The site is located south of County Road L, east of County Road
29 (37o22’33”N 108o30’19”W). I am the director of the work and hold the state permit (#74016).
Unmarked graves with human remains may be encountered during the process of excavation.
Part CRS 24-80-1303 of the state law will be followed in such a case. The co-PI of the project,
Cynthia Bradley is a PhD-qualified physical anthropologist with extensive experience in analysis
of human remains. In most cases, it is our intention to conduct in-field analysis without
removing the remains from their primary context. They will then be covered over in their original
position. If it is determined that significant information can only be gained by removal of the
remains, this will be done in accordance with the provisions set forth in CRS 24-80-1302-4.
As stipulated, if we encounter human remains that may be less than 100 years old and/or have
potential forensic interest, we will immediately contact your office and the county coroner. If
remains are encountered that are determined to be older than 100 years we will not contact
your office unless you wish to be contacted.
Bruce Bradley
Professor Emeritus
23213 Road D
Cortez, Colorado
Appendix 2 Field Specimen Forms
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