Since the mid-twentieth century, transgender individuals have become increasingly visible. Strong advocacy group efforts and increasing government support have improved access to medical care for people with gender dysphoria. Physicians should be aware of the unique conditions and challenges affecting this population. Healthcare professional organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the Endocrine Society, and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health have concluded that hormonal and surgical treatment of gender dysphoria is medically necessary to prevent long-term morbidity. Furthermore, physicians caring for transgender persons must have sufficient experience to recognize gender dysphoria as a spectrum of conditions, and should be adept in tailoring therapy to the individual patient. Many, but not all, gender dysphoric individuals presenting for care will ultimately seek endocrine therapy for the modulation of endogenous hormone production and exogenous hormone supplementation, to improve their quality of life.