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Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils

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Abstract

Aromatherapy involves the use of high-quality essential oils entering the body via the airway or skin. When the first route is used, essential oils are inhaled; room aromatisation is less common. In direct aromatherapy, essential oils, diluted in water or a fatty carrier, are applied directly to the skin. Numerous aromatherapeutic methods and preparations are available, providing a wide range of application options. Aromatherapeutic procedures or their elements can be used for therapeutic, cosmetic or marketing purposes. A suitable choice of high-quality essential oils and safety of their use are pivotal to successful aromatherapy.
ORIGINAL PAPER
Copyright © 2018 Vincent Pol University in Lublin, Poland
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils
Monika Michalak
Department of Dermatology and Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Poland
Abstract
Aromatherapy involves the use of high-quality essential oils entering the body via the airway or skin. When
the rst route is used, essential oils are inhaled; room aromatisation is less common. In direct aromatherapy,
essential oils, diluted in water or a fatty carrier, are applied directly to the skin. Numerous aromatherapeutic
methods and preparations are available, providing a wide range of application options. Aromatherapeutic
procedures or their elements can be used for therapeutic, cosmetic or marketing purposes. A suitable choice
of high-quality essential oils and safety of their use are pivotal to successful aromatherapy.
Key words: aromatherapy, essential oils, health, cosmetology
Introduction
Aromatherapy (from the word aroma - fragrance
and therapy - treatment) is the use of natural
essential oils of a denite origin. Aromatherapy
involves the use of high-quality essential oils
entering the body via the airway or skin [1, 2].
People have been interested in fragrances since
the 6th millennium BC. Essential oils have been
used in various cultures for many purposes [1].
e Egyptians used aniseed, cedar and myrrh to
prepare perfumes, cosmetics and ointments. In
China and India over 700 substances were used for
therapeutic purposes, including cinnamon, ginger,
myrrh and sandal tree; in ancient Greece, thyme,
saron, marjoram, caraway, and pepper mint were
applied [2]. Aromatherapy has established itself for
the treatment of various conditions and diseases.
Over the centuries the essential oils have gained
their importance in therapeutic, cosmetic and
aromatic uses [1].
e essential oils are obtained from raw plant
materials (owers, leaves, roots, herbs, wood, bark,
branches, seeds, fruits, etc.) by distillation with
water vapour or water, squeezing or spinning of
fruit peels or dry distillation of wood. Moreover,
maceration and extraction are applied. e above
mentioned processes require chemical solvents,
however their residues can remain in the nal
product, i.e. the essential oil. erefore, only oils
obtained by natural methods are recommended for
aromatherapy procedures. e remaining products
can be applied only for room aromatisation or as
the ingredients of fragrant compositions [3].
e aim of the present review is to discuss
in detail the essence of aromatherapy, as well as
aromatherapeutic procedures and methods.
Aromatherapy raw materials
Essential oils are volatile substances, mostly
colourless or light yellow, of intense odour and oily
consistency, soluble in liquid fats, alcohol, ether or
chloroform [1, 4].
The oils designed for aromatherapeutic
procedures should fulfil high quality
standards according to the Polish or European
Pharmacopoeia. Moreover, they can be approved
by the National Institute of Hygiene and meet the
recommended norms (Polish - PN, international -
26 Monika Michalak
ISO, European - CEN). e oils used over the skin
can also be registered as the products designed
for contact with skin, i.e. cosmetics, according
to the detailed regulations on cosmetics [3]. e
basic information that a particular product is a
cosmetic is provided on the outer pack according
to the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic
Ingredients (INCI). Seals of approval and norms
should be specied on the outer pack and in the
leaet. Furthermore, essential oil labels should
contain the phases “Essential oil” or “Natural
essential oil”, the name of a particular oil (plant)
in Polish with a detailed specication of the plant
part used to obtain the oil, the full name according
to INCI, the name and address of a manufacturer
or distributor, expiry date, methods of application
or possible limitations of its use [5].
To ensure proper product quality, the essential
oils used in aromatherapy should be packed in
airtight, dark, light impervious, glass containers
with a dropper to facilitate oil dosing. In order to
maintain their quality, the oils should be stored at
suitable temperatures, i.e. 5-10°C. e stability of
oils depends on their type; the stability of citric
oils is 12-18 months while that of wood, resin and
root oils - even 3-4 years. e remaining oils can
be stored in proper containers for up to 2 years [4,
6, 7].
e biological activity and fragrance of oils are
conditioned by their chemical composition. e
oil composition depends on numerous factors,
including the origin of raw materials or conditions
of plant growth. The essential oils are not
chemically homogeneous; in most cases, they are
the mixtures of many organic compounds (terpene
hydrocarbons and their oxygen derivatives,
alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, esters,
ethers). In general, one substance predominates in
a particular oil (Table 1), accompanied by a variety
of complementary substances in lower amounts
[1, 2, 4]
Table 1. Some of the dominant ingredients found
in aromatic plants
Main
ingredient Aromatic plant
limonene mint, hyssop, lavender, marjoram,
oregano, thyme, vervain
β-pinene parsley, basil, caraway, fennel, marjoram,
oregano, sage
carvone dill, coriander
camphor balm, basil, lavender, marjoram, sage
thymol marjoram, oregano, thyme, balm
α-thujene dill, balm, caraway, lavender, marjoram,
oregano, sage
e source: [2]
e eects of essential oils are multidirectional
(Table 2) and markedly depend on the properties
of a dominant ingredient. Moreover, they can
result from synergistic or antagonistic action of
the individual constituents [8, 9]. e essential oils
show the antimicrobial activity against bacteria,
viruses, fungi and protozoa [2, 8, 10, 11, 12].
ey also exert antiseptic, immunostimulating,
antioxidative, antineoplastic, anti-inammatory,
analgesic, expectorating, vaso-dilating and
anti-diabetic effects [1, 2, 13, 14, 10, 15, 12].
According to the available literature data, they
also have anxiolytic, tranquillising, anti-stress and
adaptogenic eects [1, 13, 16, 17].
Routes that essential oils penetrate the body
In classic aromatherapy, the natural plant oils
are administered via the airway or skin, never
orally [1]. e inhalation route is the most popular
and typically associated with aromatherapy.
Patients inhale oils with water vapour or smoke
of burnt oil material. The oils enter the body
through the nasal mucosa and lungs to reach the
bloodstream exerting systemic eects and aecting
the patient`s mind. e procedures associated with
this route include classic inhalation (an inhaler, oil
vapours dropped into hot water, a cloth soaked in
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
27
Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils
oil solution) and room aromatisation (burners,
nebulisers, pot-pouri) [1, 5, 7].
e essential oils applied to the skin, either
dissolved in water (baths, poultices, compresses)
or in a fatty carrier (massage), have topical eects;
however, with suitably long skin exposure, they
can permeate the bloodstream. e inhalation of
oil vapours during such procedures is unavoidable,
thus direct aromatherapy is usually accompanied
by air aromatherapy [18].
Possible uses of essential oils
Inhalations
Smelling and inhaling the vapours of essential
oil solutions should be carried out using a special
device directing the vapour stream directly into
the nostrils and the oral cavity. This method
enables patients to control and regulate the air
outflow and oil intensity. The easier methods
involve inhaling the vapours of oils poured into
a container with hot water or smelling a cloth
soaked in oil solution. e undeniable asset of
inhalation, as compared to oral administration
of drugs, is that the gastrointestinal tract is not
aected, particularly when the target is to be the
airway and /or lungs. is method is particularly
important in the treatment of respiratory system
diseases, inflammations of the oral cavity
and throat, or nervous ailments; moreover, it
can activate the immune system and assist in
psychotherapy [3, 4, 7, 16]. e studies regarding
the absorption of inhaled essential oils are scarce;
however, the available data demonstrate that direct
delivery of lipophilic components of essential oils
is substantial and quick. According to one study,
1.8-cineol is quickly absorbed from eucalyptus
Table 2. Possible uses of some essential oils
Eects of essential oils on the human body
some health issues, eect on mood and mental status eect on skin
fatigue: Angelica archangelica, Citrus aurantium, Coriandrum sativum,
Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus radiata, Juniperus communis, Mentha
spicata, Pelargonium graveolens, Pinus sylvestris, Rosmarinus ocinalis,
Salvia sclarea, Zingiber ocinale
antibacterial activity: Melaleuca alternifolia,
Leptospermum scoparium, Rosmarinus ocinalis,
Lavandula ocinalis
insomnia: Angelica archangelica, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantium,
Cistus ladaniferus, Citrus bergamia, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata,
Citrus sinensis, Cuminum cyminum, Juniperus communis, Lavandula
angustifolia, Litsea cubeba, Melissa ocinalis, Myrtus communis, Ocimum
basilicum, Origanum majorana, Valeriana ocinalis
antifungal activity: Melaleuca ericifolia, Melaleuca
armillaris, Melaleuca leucadendron, Melaleuca
styphelioides, Mentha piperita, Brassica nigra,
Angelica archangelica, Cymbopogon nardus, Skimmia
laureola, Artemisia sieberi, Cuminum cyminum
anxiety, agitation, stress: Angelica archangelica, Cistus ladaniferus,
Citrus aurantium, Citrus aurantium, Cymbopogon martinii, Eucalyptus
staigeriana, Lavandula angustifolia, Litsea cubeba, Ocimum basilicum,
Origanum majorana, Pelargonium graveolens , Pogostemon patchouli,
Valeriana ocinalis
anti-inammatory action: Melaleuca alternifolia,
Citrus limon, Lavandula ocinalis, Pogostemon
patchouli, Rosmarinus ocinalis, Santalum album
mental exhaustion, burnout: Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum,
Helichrysum angustifolium
strengthening vascular walls: Pelargonium
graveolens Citrus amara, Rosmarinus ocinalis, Rosa
damascena
memory loss: Litsea cubeba, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus ocinalis delaying skin ageing: Citrus limon, Citrus amara,
Rosa damascena
pains of various origins, including bone and joint pains: Rosmarinus
ocinalis, Juniperus communis, Cinnamonumzeylanicum, Zingiber
ocinale, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria recutita, Leptospermum
scoparium, Origanum majorana, Pinus mugo
removal of metabolic wastes, improvement of
lymph circulation, anti-cellulite action: Citrus
limon, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens,
Cupressus sempervirens, Rosmarinus ocinalis,
Santalum album, Citrus paradisi
e source: [1, 2, 5, 12]
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
28
oil and the peak serum concentration is observed
aer 18 minutes [6].
The ingredients of compositions designed
for inhalation include also the oils exerting
expectorating and antiseptic effects, e.g. pine,
turpentine, eucalyptus, thyme, cajeput, juniper,
carnation or mint oils [12].
Aromatherapeutic massages
e basic procedure of direct aromatherapy
is massage. Each type of massage can be applied
in aromatherapy yet the key element is a suitable
choice of oils. e eects of aromatherapy massages
result from the massage itself and from the oil
being used. e oil or a mixture of oils selected
for the procedure should be dissolved in an
appropriate carrier, i.e. the base oil of high quality
facilitating the distribution of a small amount of
the essential oil over the larger body area. e
most valuable plant oils used for aromatherapeutic
massages include sesame, grape seed, avocado,
jojoba, almond, wheat sprout, as well as apricot,
peach or plum stone oils [5, 7]. Most commonly,
the aromatherapeutic massage is combined with
the strengthening or relaxing massage [1, 19, 20].
e study conducted in a group of 40 individuals
undergoing massages with the mixture of
lavender and bergamot oils has conrmed their
positive eects on the mental status and provided
evidence for their use to treat depression or
anxiety [20]. According to Ćwirlej et al. (2005), the
aromatherapeutic massage exerts better analgesic
eects, as compared to the classical massage [21]
and is particularly useful for relieving pain when
pharmacological agents are not recommended
[22]. e essential oils of antioxidant properties,
which improve the lymph circulation and detoxify
the body (e.g. ginger, rosemary, clary sage, cypress,
geranium, juniper or sandal oils) can also be used
for enhancing the eects of lymphatic massage
[23].
Aromatherapeutic baths
Aromatherapeutic baths are special procedures,
in which the therapeutic properties of essential
oils are used. During the bath, the therapeutic
substances contained in essential oils penetrate
the bloodstream through the sebaceous and
sweat glands as well as the airway. Full and
partial immersion baths are administered in
aromatherapy. e temperature of water should be
about 40°C and the bath should last 15-30 minutes;
it is important that soap and foaming agents are
not used. Aer the bath, the body should be rinsed
with water and fully dried. e aromatherapeutic
bath can be supported by hydro-massage or
underwater massage [4, 7]. e aromatherapeutic
baths are applied for various systemic, dermal,
nervous or cardiovascular diseases and as muscle
relaxing or strengthening procedures. ey are
available in spa and wellness centres as cosmetic or
relaxation procedures [5, 24, 25, 26].
Sauna
Another example of the use of essential oils
in spa and wellness centres is sauna, which is
a combination of air and skin aromatherapy.
Sauna creates the conditions (dilatation of
superficial blood vessels resulting from high
temperature, increased perspiration) facilitating
the penetration of oils to the body. Regular use
of sauna relaxes, toughens up the body, increases
the body immunity and helps to maintain physical
eciency. e individually chosen mixtures, e.g.
generally relaxing, calming-relaxing, stimulating
or restoring the airway patency, can be applied in
various ways, taking into consideration the body
condition and scent preferences of clients [5, 24].
Essential oils as the ingredients of cosmetic
preparations
Smell is a relevant criterion for purchasing
cosmetic preparations. Essential oils are added to
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
Monika Michalak
29
skincare and bath cosmetics, massage preparations
as the substances providing fragrance and as
active ingredients of cosmetic products. ey have
antiseptic, anti-acne, antioxidative, anti-wrinkle,
anti-dandru eects and prevent hair loss [12, 27,
28]. Moreover, they stimulate skin regeneration
and support wound healing [29].
Essential oils are also used in modern cosmetics
and dermocosmetics as promoters of absorption,
i.e. auxiliary substances reacting with lipids of the
stratum corneum, reversibly altering its structure
[12, 30]. The promoters of the transepidermal
route, that the ingredients of essential oils belong
to, (including menthol, limonene, carvacrol,
linalool, α-pinene or terpineol) increase the skin
permeability not only to themselves but also to
hydrophilic components of cosmetic preparations
[9, 12].
Due to their potent antimicrobial action,
essential oils are also used as natural preservatives
to prolong the durability of cosmetics [9].
Moreover, the fragrant composition is of
importance for creating new cosmetic preparations.
A wide range of essential oils is oered and their
marketing potential is enormous [31]. Scent is an
element of sensory analysis of cosmetics. Together
the instrumental analysis of the skin and hair,
sensory analysis is one of the most dynamically
developing fields regarding knowledge about
cosmetics [32].
Aromatherapy offers a variety of possible
applications of essential oils in beauty salons or
spa and wellness centres. e addition of suitable
essential oil mixtures to creams, masks and massage
preparations enables the preparation of novel care
programmes adjusted to the skin condition as well
as individual needs and preferences of clients [33].
Air aromatisation
Air aromatisation in shopping centres, public
places or workplaces mainly for marketing
purposes is enjoying a renaissance [34, 35]. Such
strategies depart from treatment, especially when
synthetic fragrant compositions are used; due
to mental changes induced by particular smells,
clients are urged to purchase certain goods or eat
certain foods, associate products or services with
brands; air aromatisation is also used to increase
the concentration of employees, which results in
their higher eciency. Moreover, scents are likely
to aect the pleasure of staying in beauty salons
or spas. A suitably chosen mixture of essential oils
favours relaxation, creating joyful atmosphere and
encouraging clients to come back. Air aromatisation
is one of the mildest forms of aromatherapy as it is
characterised by the lowest intensity of oils and
can be used without direct involvement of patients;
therefore, it is suitable for therapeutic procedures
in children or disabled individuals [33, 34, 35, 36].
Safety issues in aromatherapy
Although aromatherapy uses only natural
agents, some adverse side eects are associated
with it and therefore should be applied with
great caution [1]. e most common side eects
are allergic reactions and skin irritations due to
hypersensitivity or allergy to oil ingredients. e
ingredients which may trigger allergic reactions
include benzyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol,
hydroxycitronellal, isoeugenol, benzyl salicylate,
cinnamaldehyde, coumarin, geraniol, anisyl
alcohol, benzyl cinnamate, farnesol, linalol, benzyl
benzoate, citronellol, or limonene [6]. In order to
avoid allergic reactions, the sensitivity test should
be performed. A minimum amount of oil mixture
in a given carrier should be applied to a place of
potentially high susceptibility and permeability
and possible reactions observed for 24-48 hours.
Whenever reddening, itching or swelling are
observed, the tested oils should not be used [7, 37].
e applications of aromatherapy are limited
in pregnant and breast-feeding women or small
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils
30
children. Great caution should be exercised in
individuals with epilepsy, hypertension, lung or
oncologic diseases as well as the history of allergies,
skin irritations and hypersensitivity to UV
radiation. ere were cases of berloque dermatitis,
resulting from sun exposure following skin contact
with bergamot oils or other citric oils. e other
phototoxic essential oils include yarrow, angelica,
neroli, petitgrain, cedarwood, rosemary, cassia,
calamus, eucalyptus, anise, bitter almond or ylang-
ylang oils. e individuals sensitive to fragrances
can develop headaches, dizziness, nausea, fatigue,
dyspnoea and concentration diculties. erefore,
pre-procedure consultations with patients prove
useful to determine possible scent intolerances [6,
7, 37, 38].
It should be also mentioned that essential oils
have potent, sometimes irritating eects, and they
should not be applied without dilution. For safety
reasons, it is important to choose a proper ratio of
oil to solvent ( e.g. water or a massage carrier). e
recommended dose should not be exceeded as it
can be dangerous and intensify side eects [3, 7,
37].
Conclusion
Aromatherapy is readily used for therapeutic
and cosmetic purposes. Since a variety of
aromatherapeutic methods and agents are
available, the application options are wide.
Essential oils have holistic properties, aecting the
organic, mental and spiritual structure of a human
being; therefore, they are an excellent remedy for
complaints resulting from improper diets, habits,
fatigue or stress.
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23-27 Sept. 2007 ‘Developments in the Global Aroma
Chemicals and Essential Oils Industries’ p. 152-156.
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marketingu sensorycznego Marketing i Rynek,
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36. Pietrzak R., Gościańska J., Krzyżanek S. Wpływ
aromaterapii na koncentrację i przyswajanie wiedzy
Pol J Cosmet, 2012; 15(2): 75-84.
37. Konopacka-Brud I., Brud W.S. Bezpieczeństwo
stosowania olejków eterycznych w zabiegach
aromaterapeutycznych. Aromaterapia, 2012; 3 (69).
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Corresponding author address:
Monika Michalak
e-mail: monika.michalak@ujk.edu.pl
Department of Dermatology and Cosmetology,
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce,
Poland
Arch Physiother Glob Res 2018; 22 (2): 25-31
Aromatherapy and methods of applying essential oils
... Aromaterapide kullanılan yağlar hem fiziksel hem de ruhsal sıkıntıları çözmek için kullanılmaktadır (Steflitsch ve Steflitsch, 2008;Shibamoto vd., 2010;Shah vd., 2011;Schneider vd., 2018;Michalak, 2018). Aromaterapi yağları kullanım amacına göre buhurdanlık içinde, suya eklenerek, haricen sürülerek, gıda takviyesi olarak kullanılabilmektedir. Bazı tıbbi ve aromatik bitkiler antioksidan ve antimikrobiyal özellikleri nedeniyle gıda takviyesi, bitki çayı, katkı maddesi, aroma verici, gıda takviyesi ve baharat olarak kullanılmaktadır (Toker vd., 2015). ...
... Furthermore, it also has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antipyretic activity, and it is even considered an anticancer agent [10]. On the other hand, Ocimum essential oil is frequently used in aromatherapy due to its calming effect on the nervous system, and it also decreases migraines, improves memory, and eliminates mental fatigue and insomnia [11,12]. This essential oil is significant for its antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, and antiinflammatory effects as well as being a suitable anti-acne agent [5,13]. ...
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The genus Ocimum has many species that are used to treat diverse kinds of illnesses and sicknesses from ancient times. One of them, Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as basil, has a vital role due to its various medicinal goods. It is best known as a plant with pharmacological activities, but also as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal agent. Although it has been traditionally used in Serbia in traditional medicine for centuries as an insecticidal, antibacterial, and antifungal plant as well as a traditional culinary plant, none of the O. basilicum varieties have been commercialised until today. There are significant numbers of information across the world that oils and by-products are part of the global market, but no references to the essential oil composition of Serbian plants were found. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of essential oil and hydrolate of two different varieties: O. basilicum var. genovese and Ocimum. basilicum var. minimum originating from Serbia for further industrial production of antimicrobial- and/or antioxidant-valued products. The results of this study confirm that essential oils of O. basilicum var. genovese and var. minimum represent a significant source of bioactive compounds, especially linalool, with a high rate of biological activities. Similar behaviour is observed for hydrolates, which are the by-product of the essential oil distillation process and can be utilised as bioactive-rich waste in further investigation.
... On each card, the name of the desired group was written in sequence. e inclusion criteria were: willingness to participate in the study, age range of 18-65 years, no history of any allergies (because allergy is one of the side effects of essential oils [29]), no respiratory diseases, having a healthy sense of smell and hearing, no drug addiction, no thyroid disease, stable vital signs, no history of psychiatric illness, and no use of psychotropic drugs. In order to assess the health of the sense of smell, the openness of the nostrils was examined. ...
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Patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) have a high level of anxiety. This study was aimed to compare the effect of music therapy and aromatherapy on patients’ anxiety levels during SWL. In this clinical trial, 176 patients undergoing SWL were randomly assigned to four groups: music therapy, aromatherapy, combined music therapy and aromatherapy, and control. The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) was used to collect data. In the aromatherapy group, three drops of rosemary essential oil were used during SWL. For the music therapy group, soft music was played during SWL. In the music therapy and aromatherapy group, soft music and three drops of rosemary essential oil were used simultaneously. In the control group, three drops of aromatic distilled water were used. The results showed that all patients had moderate anxiety before the intervention. The analysis of variance test did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups, but this difference was significant after the intervention. The levels of anxiety after the intervention were higher in the music therapy, aromatherapy, and combined music therapy and aromatherapy groups than in the control group. The results of the paired t-test showed the level of anxiety after the intervention was significantly increased in the intervention group (P<001). In conclusion, the results indicated that music therapy, aromatherapy, and combined music therapy and aromatherapy had no effect on reducing patients’ anxiety during SWL.
... However, when studying the therapeutic action of aromatic compounds on general well-being, it must be taken into account the fact that in clinical trials aromatherapy is rather prescribed over a long period of time, i.e. in a chronically administrated manner. The administration of PEA in the present study was performed by inhalation, which reflects the usual aromatherapeutic use by vaporization of essential oils in humans [77]. Furthermore, inhalation allows avoiding the additional stress associated with intraperitoneal injection, the delivery method used in the majority of preclinical studies [34,38,78,79]. ...
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Chronic distress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis deregulations have been associated with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Currently available drugs treating such pathological conditions have limited efficacy and diverse side effects, revealing the need of new safer strategies. Aromatic plant-based compounds are largely used in herbal medicine due to their therapeutic properties on mood, physiology, and general well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), one of the pharmacologically active constituents of rose essential oil, on chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced behavioral and neurobiological changes in female mice. Animals followed a prolonged PEA inhalation exposure (30 min per day) for 15 consecutive days prior to behavioral evaluation with open-field, forced swim and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. CORT treatment induced an anxio-depressive-like phenotype, evidenced by a reduced locomotor activity in the open-field, and an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding paradigms. To elucidate the neural correlates of our behavioral results, immunohistochemistry was further performed to provide a global map of neural activity based on cerebral cFos expression. The altered feeding behavior was accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of cFos-positive cells in the olfactory bulb, and altered functional brain connectivity as shown by cross-correlation-based network analysis. CORT-induced behavioral and neurobiological alterations were reversed by prolonged PEA inhalation, suggesting a therapeutic action that allows regulating the activity of neural circuits involved in sensory, emotional and feeding behaviors. These findings might contribute to better understand the therapeutic potential of PEA on anxio-depressive symptoms.
... Minyak tidak terkonsentrasi dari seluruh bagian tanaman tidak seperti obat-obatan herbal tetapi diekstraksi umumnya dengan distilasi uap. Berdasarkan kepercayaan orang-orang yang ada sejak beberapa tahun kebelakang, diketahui mulanya hanya terdapat dalam bentuk cairan essensial (Michalak, 2018). ...
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This community service aims to educate partners to increase the economic value of used cooking oil waste into aromatherapy candles so that it leads to a productive economy. Assistance to people who have used a lot of cooking oil in their cooking process plays a strong role in building human resources and quality Indonesian products towards Advanced Indonesia. The priority of partner issues is that there are no products that are produced and become selling points that can lift the partner's economy, due to the lack of knowledge about making aromatherapy candles, especially those that use waste materials. The implementation method in this service is Community Based Research, which is a design that takes place in a community environment and involves community members in the design and implementation of research projects, shows respect for the successful contributions made by community partners, and respects the "no harm" principle for the communities involved. . So that this activity makes: first, improving skills in making products made from used cooking oil waste which becomes aromatherphy candles. Second, increasing awareness of maintaining environmental cleanliness and health and the dangers of disposing of used cooking oil waste carelessly. Third, improving the household economy by selling aromatherapy candles made from used cooking oil waste. Keywords: Education; Waste Cooking Oil, Aromatherapy Candle
... Several studies have investigated aromatherapy with various essential oils as a non-invasive nursing intervention in different conditions, including the improvement of anxiety in patients undergoing angiography and stenting, hemodialysis, general surgery, reduction of cortisol concentration and cardiac parameters such as blood pressure and pulse rate (16). In addition, a number of studies have reported the positive effects of herb essential oil inhalation on reducing anxiety in patients with cardiovascular diseases (17). The present study is a systematic review determining the effects of aromatherapy with different plants in patients undergoing angiography. ...
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As a diagnostic and therapeutic technique for coronary artery disease, angiography is usually associated with some disorders and complications such as fear, pain, discomfort, limited mobility, and anxiety. The present study is a systematic review determining the effects of aromatherapy with different plants in patients undergoing angiography. This review was conducted according to the 06-PRISMA guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Facility (SyRF) database. The English databases were Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect to search articles regarding the effects of aromatherapy with different plants in patients experiencing angiography without a date limitation. The searched keywords in this study were "aromatherapy", "angiography", "coronary artery disease", "anxiety", "stress", and "cardiovascular diseases". Out of 1835 papers, 20 papers up to 2021, met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review with the data extracted. Most studies were intended to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy on patients’ anxiety with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (11 papers, 55.0%). The most widely used essential oil belonged to the lavender essential oil (13 papers, 65.0%). The results of the current review confirmed that aromatherapy management with lavender, damask rose, orange, and peppermint is able to significantly decrease anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, sleep quality, hemodynamic indices, blood pressure, etc. in patients with coronary angiography. However, more investigation is required to confirm the precise mechanisms and side effects of the alternative treatment.
... However, when studying the therapeutic action of aromatic compounds on general well-being, it must be taken into account the fact that in clinical trials aromatherapy is rather prescribed over a long period of time, i.e. in a chronically administrated manner. The administration of PEA in the present study was performed by inhalation, which reflects the usual aromatherapeutic use by vaporization of essential oils in humans [77]. Furthermore, inhalation allows avoiding the additional stress associated with intraperitoneal injection, the delivery method used in the majority of preclinical studies [34,38,78,79]. ...
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Chronic distress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis deregulations have been associated with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Currently available drugs treating such pathological conditions have limited efficacy and diverse side effects, revealing the need of new safer strategies. Aromatic plant-based compounds are largely used in herbal medicine due to their therapeutic properties on mood, physiology, and general well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), one of the pharmacologically active constituents of rose essential oil, on chronic corticosterone (CORT)-induced behavioral and neurobiological changes in female mice. Animals followed a prolonged PEA inhalation exposure (30 min per day) for 15 consecutive days prior to behavioral evaluation with open-field, forced swim and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. CORT treatment induced an anxio-depressive-like phenotype, evidenced by a reduced locomotor activity in the open-field, and an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding paradigms. To elucidate the neural correlates of our behavioral results, cerebral cFos expression analysis was further performed to provide a global map of neuronal activity. The altered feeding behavior was accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of cFos-positive cells in the olfactory bulb, and altered brain connectivity as shown by cross-correlation-based network analysis. CORT-induced behavioral and neurobiological alterations were reversed by prolonged PEA inhalation, suggesting a therapeutic action that allows regulating the activity of neural circuits involved in sensory, emotional and feeding behaviors. These findings might contribute to better understand the therapeutic potential of PEA on anxio-depressive symptoms.
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