PresentationPDF Available

Direct Conversion of CO2 and Sunlight to Liquid Fuels

Authors:
  • Keith D. Patch

Abstract

Joule is the most advanced and most scalable carbon-neutral source of energy for the mobility sector. To date, the company has committed $200MM to develop proprietary 4th-generation algal biofuels technology. All advancements support the industrialization process. Joule's technology involves the direct secretion of either diesel/jet fuel or ethanol into the growth medium of the cyanobateria.
Liquidfuelfromthesun™
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
DirectConversionofCO2andSunlight
toLiquidFuels
13th InternationalConferenceon
CarbonDioxideUtilization(ICCDUXIII)
UniversityTown ,Singapore
KeithD.Patch
ProcessEngineeringManager
JouleUnlimitedTechnologies,Inc.
July6,2015,11:40AMto12:00PM
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
RenewableTransportationFuelsareNeeded
Largescalerenewablegroundtransportationfuelsareneeded
Batteryelectricvehicles(BEV)usecurrentelectricutilitypowersupplies
Currentelectricutilitypowersuppliesareprimarilyfossilfuelbased
Hydrogenforfuelcellelectricvehicles(FCEVs)isprimarilyfromnaturalgas
Largescalerenewableairtransportationfuelsareneeded
Commercialairtransportwithbatterypowerisimpractical
CommercialairtransportwithhydrogenFCEVtechnologyisimpractical
Jouleisdevelopinglargescalerenewabletransportationfuels
Renewableethanolisbeingproducedatdemonstrationplantscaletoday
Renewablediesel/jetfuelisbeingproducedinthelabtoday
Bothuseaonestep,continuouscarbondioxidetofuelsequence
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©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
JouleSummary
Jouleisthemostadvancedandmostscalable carbonneutralsourceofenergy
forthemobilitysector
RecyclesCO2emissionsthroughbiocatalysttoproduceethanolanddiesel/jetfuels
Alsousessunlight,nonpotablebrackishwaterandnonarableland
Protectsexistingassetsfromcarbontaxesandemissioncapsthroughemissionsreuse
Canbenefitfromincentivesforadvancedbiofuelsandlowcarbonfuelmarkets
Utilizesexistinginfrastructure,logistics,andservicestationnetworks
Todate,thecompanyhascommitted$200mtodeveloptechnology
ProvenfieldoperationsatdemonstrationplantfacilityinHobbs,NM,USA
ProducedindependentlyvalidatedUSandEUfuelgradeethanolanddiesel/jetblendstock
Currentlyrollingoutthefirstphaseoftheindustrializationprocess
Jouleisassemblingastrongnetwork
Acoalitionofafewlarge,internationalindustrialcompaniestojoinAudiasstrategicpartners
Alladvancementssupporttheindustrializationprocess
Commissioningoffirstcommercialplantin2019
Targetingfullscalecommercialrolloutin2020
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©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
IdentifiedOver1,000PotentialLocationsforJoulePlantsGlobally
4
IndicativeselectionofsitesfromJouleCO2emitterdatabase,withCO2emissions>=300kton/year,maximumtheoreticalproductivity>=18,000gal/acre/yr,airtemperature>=0°C,wetbulbtemperature<=25°C.
Source:TeamAnalysis,NASAclimatedata.Notalllocationsadjustedforavailabilityofland.
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
ChannelingPhotosynthesistoConvertSolarPowerintoFuels
5
Nature’sWay
Sunlight,CO2andwaterenabletrees’
growthandproducesO2
95%ofEnergy
toProduct
5%ofEnergy
forCell
Maintenance
Fuel
Oxygen
Carbon
Dioxide
Water
Sunlight
Joule’sWay
Sunlight,CO2andwaterenable
biocatalyticconversiontosecretefuel
(andproducesO2)
100%for
Maintenance&
Growth
Carbon
Dioxide
Water
Sunlight
Oxygen
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Extremelyamenabletogenomeengineering
Nonucleus,chloroplastormitochondial
compartments
Rapidmetabolismandcelldivision
MultipleCO2concentratingmechanisms
NophotorespirationorenergydissipationathighCO2
Canbeengineeredasathermotolerant speciesfor
thermalmanagement
Nobiofilmorfoulingissues
Manybarrierstogenomeengineering
Nucleus,chloroplastandmitochondriaareseparate
membraneboundedcompartments
Eachcompartmenthasdistinctchromosomes
Difficulttocontroltheintegrationandsegregationof
DNA
Slowmetabolismandcelldivision
Mitochondriacontributetoenergycostofmetabolism
ALGAE
CYANOBACTERIA OUTER
MEMBRANE
THYLAKOID
MEMBRANE
CHLOROPLAST
NUCLEUS
GENOME
MITOCHONDRION
BaseOrganism:Cyanobacteriavs.Algae
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
TheJouleProcess:CellularLevelPhotosynthesis
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EitherEthanolorDieselPathwaycanbeImplemented
MetabolicSwitchDisablingBiomassCreationisUsedwithBothPathways
C8,10,12 fatty
acylcarrier
protein(ACP)
AcetylCoA
3Phosphoglycerate
(3PG)
Pyruvate
Acetaldehyde Ethanol
NEWETHANOLPATHWAY
Ethanol
C8,10,12
fattyacid
C8,10,12
aldehyde
C7,9,11
alkane
Diesel
JetFuel
Gasoline
NEWALKANEPATHWAY
EXISTINGPATHWAY;
OPTIMIZEDCO2UPTAKE
EXISTINGPATHWAY;
INCREASEDFLUX
BIOMASSCREATION
DISABLED
EXISTINGPATHWAY
Biomass
MetabolicSwitch
MetabolicSwitch
MetabolicSwitch
CO2
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Joule’sProcessisnotConventionalAlgalBiofuels
8
JouleUsesCyanobacteriainaClosedPhotobioreactor
Ethanolor
Diesel/JetFuel
Open
Pond
Phototroph
Closed
Bioreactor
Algal
Oil
Algal
Oil
Catalysis
Metathesis
Trans
esterification
Catalysis
Diesel/
JetFuel
Diesel/
JetFuel
Biodiesel
Diesel/
JetFuel
ClosedPhotobioreactor EthanolorDiesel/JetFuelCyanobacteria
Joule’sProcess
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Joule’sProcessisnotConventionalAlgalBiofuels
9
ConventionalAlgalBiomass:1XProductivity
ConventionalAlgalBiomassisGrown,HarvestedandRefinedintoBiofuels
Joule’sCyanobacterial BiocatalystContinuouslySecretesBiofuel
Joule’sCyanobacterialBiocatalyst:5XProductivityofConventionalAlgalBiomass
(NoHarvestingorRefiningNeeded)
Grow
Algae Harvest Dry BreakCell
Walls
Solvent
Extraction
Refineinto
Biofuels
Repeat
Grow
Cyanobacteria
Repeat
ContinuousSecretion
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Joule’sProcesshasMuchHigherProductivities
10
CornStarch
Sugarcane(Brazilian)
CellulosicSwitchgrass
ConventionalAlgae
Joule’sLiquidFuelfromtheSunTM
RelativeAnnualVolumetricProduction
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Organism&ProcessEngineeringCombinetoMaximizeEthanol
Production
11
Resistancetohighlevelsofsolar
radiation
Oxidationprotection
ImprovedCO2uptake
Improvedmetabolicpathways
GAINSFROMORGANISM
ENGINEERING
Reactordepth
Mediumoptimization
Culturemixing
Gasmasstransfer
Thermalmanagement
GAINSFROMPROCESS
ENGINEERING
Singlerandom
mutation
Mutant+process
variables
EthanolTiter
Time
Biocatalyst1,OptimizedReactorDesign
Biocatalyst1,StandardReactorDesign
BaseStrain
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
DemoPlantOperatingTodayInHobbs,NM,USA
12
EngineeredCatalyst
Ethanol
Diesel
JetFuel
JouleDemonstrationPlant
Adisruptivecarbonneutralfueltechnologybasedonsuperiorbiology&biotechnologicalcompetence
Patentedtechnology
SunlightCO2Water
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
ProductionUnit1:Hobbs, NewMexico,USA
0.1acre,4,500litertotalvolume
Deployedwith6,22channelcapsules
Capsulelengthof50m;expandableto100m
Activeareaof180m2– 360m2
SPECIFICATIONS
13
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Reiner Mangold,AUDI AG
Head of Sustainable Product Development and e-fuels
Hobbs,NMPlantProducingEthanol
14
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
RecentProgress
15
IndependenttestresultsconfirmthatJoule’sDiesel(C11
alkane)meetsASTMdieselstandardD975whenblended
upto50%withNo.2diesel
SameC11moleculecanbeblendedupto25%with
commercialjetfuel
Providesadditionalbenefitofloweringfuelsulfurlevels
ASTMASTM
MCANMCAN
Joule'sfirstMicrobialCommercialActivityNotice(MCAN)
foradirectfuelproductionbiocatalystfavorablyreviewed
byU.S.EPA
Voluntaryconsentorderenablescommercialuseof
biocatalyststrainatJoule’sdemonstrationplant
Facilitates future regulatorycomplianceforJoule’s
continued strainimprovements
Advanced
Bioengineering
Advanced
Bioengineering
RecentU.S.PatentforJouleDiesel/jetfuel(C11alkane)
Achievedmultiweekcontaminationfreeproductionruns
inlargescaleoutdoorsystem
ASTM&DINASTM&DIN
IndependenttestresultsconfirmthatJoule’sethanol
meetsU.S.andEuropeanspecifications
ASTMD4806–Denaturedfuelethanolforblendingwith
gasolinesforuseasautomotivesparkignitionenginefuel
DINEN15376–Ethanolasablendingcomponentfor
petrol
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Ecologicallysound:conservesarableland,cropsandfreshwater(notfoodforfuel)Ecologicallysound:conservesarableland,cropsandfreshwater(notfoodforfuel)
ACO2toFuelsPlatformwithRecordBreakingAdvantages
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MonetizesCO2:enablingnewmarketsandrevenuesforindustrialemittersMonetizesCO2:enablingnewmarketsandrevenuesforindustrialemitters
Infrastructurereadyproducts:ethanolanddieselwithnochemicalprocessing
Competitivetargetcosts:$1.30/gal,$50/barrel(inideallocations)Competitivetargetcosts:$1.30/gal,$50/barrel(inideallocations)
Unrivaledtargetproductivity:upto25,000gal/acre/yearforethanoland
15,000gal/acre/yeardiesel
Unrivaledtargetproductivity:upto25,000gal/acre/yearforethanoland
15,000gal/acre/yeardiesel
Infrastructurereadyproducts:ethanolanddieselwithnodownstreamprocessingInfrastructurereadyproducts:ethanolanddieselwithnodownstreamprocessing
Abundantinputs:sunlight,wasteCO2andnonpotable(brackish)waterAbundantinputs:sunlight,wasteCO2andnonpotable(brackish)water
Massivescaleandsupply:enableslocalizedcreationofabovegroundfuelreservesMassivescaleandsupply:enableslocalizedcreationofabovegroundfuelreserves
©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
Summary
DemonstratedendtoendproductionofCO2recycledfuels
MitigatesCO2emissions,capturestax&carbonincentives
AbroadproprietarytechnologywithstrongIP
Highlyexperiencedmanagementteaminplace
Foundedin2007&raised$200MMtodate
MainofficeinBedford,MA,USA
DemonstrationfacilityinHobbs,NM,USA
130Employees,including27PhDs
Industrializationprocessisunderway
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©2015Joule.RightsReserved..www.jouleunlimited.com
References
Automotivefuels‐ Ethanolasablendingcomponentforpetrol‐ Requirementsandtest
methods,DINEN15376:2014,2014,http://www.beuth.de/en/standard/dinen
15376/205428341
D.E.Robertsonetal,“A NewDawnforIndustrialPhotosynthesis,Photosynthesis
Research,March2011,Volume107,Issue3,pp269277,DOI10.1007/s11120011
96317;http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs1112001196317.pdf
F.A .SkralyandN.Li,“Recombinantsynthesisofmediumchainlengthalkanes,U.S.
Patent9,034,629,May19,2015
StandardSpecificationforAviationTurbineFuelContainingSynthesizedHydrocarbons,
ASTMD7566– 14c,2014,http://www.astm.org/Standards/D7566.htm
StandardSpecificationforDenaturedFuelEthanolforBlendingwithGasolinesforUseas
AutomotiveSparkIgnitionEngineFuel,ASTMD4806– 15,2015,
http://www.astm.org/Standards/D4806.htm
StandardSpecificationforDieselFuelOils,ASTMD975– 15a,2015,
http://www.astm.org/Standards/D975.htm
18
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Massive scale and supply: enables localized creation of above-ground fuel reserves Massive scale and supply: enables localized creation of above-ground fuel reserves References  Automotive fuels -Ethanol as a blending component for petrol -Requirements and test methods
Massive scale and supply: enables localized creation of above-ground fuel reserves Massive scale and supply: enables localized creation of above-ground fuel reserves References  Automotive fuels -Ethanol as a blending component for petrol -Requirements and test methods, DIN EN 15376:2014, 2014, http://www.beuth.de/en/standard/din-en-15376/205428341