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Students on a Social Media ‘Detox’: Disrupting the Everyday Practices of Social Media Use



This article explores how disruption of habitual social media use reshapes the information behavior of emerging adults. Using the core ideas from theories about the social acceleration of time, reverse domestication and social media literacies, we designed a study where full-time BA-level students (N = 42) were asked to keep a diary about quitting social media for five consecutive days. Despite temporary disconnection, participants expressed anxiety and negative emotions brought on by the non-usage and perceived slowing of time – meaning mostly boredom and ‘fear of missing out’ while being inaccessible to others. Alternatively, many participants expressed fulfillment and a sense of serenity from the absence of constant availability. Considering this exercise of contemplating taken-for-granted activities, we propose a simple tool to reflect upon information behavior in the context of accelerating social time, to ensure subjectively perceived comfortable sense of time.
Students on a Social Media Detox: Disrupting
the Everyday Practices of Social Media Use
Krista Lepik
and Maria Murumaa-Mengel
University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Abstract. This article explores how disruption of habitual social media use
reshapes the information behavior of emerging adults. Using the core ideas from
theories about the social acceleration of time, reverse domestication and social
media literacies, we designed a study where full-time BA-level students
(N = 42) were asked to keep a diary about quitting social media for ve con-
secutive days. Despite temporary disconnection, participants expressed anxiety
and negative emotions brought on by the non-usage and perceived slowing of
time meaning mostly boredom and fear of missing outwhile being inac-
cessible to others. Alternatively, many participants expressed fulllment and a
sense of serenity from the absence of constant availability. Considering this
exercise of contemplating taken-for-granted activities, we propose a simple tool
to reect upon information behavior in the context of accelerating social time, to
ensure subjectively perceived comfortable sense of time.
Keywords: Information behavior Self-reexivity Social media use
1 Introduction
In our paper, we discuss the initial results of our recent study exploring how disruption
of habitual social media use reshapes information behavior of young adults. By con-
textualizing this study in theories of accelerating social time [1,2], and uses and
gratications [3,4], we explore peoples perceptions of passing time: its pace, and
connections between perceptions of time, and sustaining various relationships during a
disruption of everyday practices. These relationships, kept up by connected presence,
expressive communication, and micro-coordination[5] often remain taken for
granted due to the quick pace of life thus, a certain amount of reexivity (part of both
social media literacies [6] and media domestication [7]) is needed to revisit already
established, but unnoticeably changing information behavior under daily pressure [8].
There is existing research on disconnection and non-use with the focus on people
who are disconnected because of digital divides [9], who give up or abstain from social
media as means of ideological resistance [10], or have different strategies for limiting
their use of specic platforms [11]. We aim to explore how planned disruption of
habitual use of social media can enable and empower participantsself-reexivity and
how detoxinginuences the perception of time and social relationships.
©Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
S. Kurbanoğlu et al. (Eds.): ECIL 2018, CCIS 989, pp. 110, 2019.
Author Proof
Our study involves personal diaries about social media usage disruption during ve
consecutive days. Over 40 BA-level students at the University of Tartu kept diaries as
part of their homework during the Information Society and New Mediacourses.
These students normally have social media occupying an important part in their lives,
so this homework enabled them to step back and see what would happen in case social
media would be entirely removed from their reach for a few days. As has been dis-
cussed elsewhere [12], ones own choice or forced disruption in non-use or disruption
of social media can also matter in the form of so-called have-notsor want-nots. In
the present context, the students were presented with a task to abstain, so they were
forced to become have-nots, but through the use of such exercise, many could explore
the depth and overlap of their belonging to the want-notsgroup to a certain extent.
Thus, our study functions as an initial test of a low-cost and low-tech tool for self-
diagnosis which, instead of demanding to do something, demands not doing something.
This way, our study proposes easily accessible and applicable social media literacy-
related practical recommendations, potentially inspiring the teaching practices of col-
leagues teaching courses about learning skills, and at the same time, shedding light on
relevant aspects of emerging adultsinformation behavior.
2 Theoretical and Empirical Background
Several recent studies have stressed the importance and effect of the increased pace of
our daily life, including rapid production and consumption of information [8]. The pace
of life, characterized by imperatives of exibilityand efciency[1], taken-for-
granted instantaneity [8], multitasking and other symptomsof acceleration of social
time [2] affects lives of people with different socio-demographic backgrounds [13].
While some studies have stressed the temporal factors in information seeking [14],
the context of fast-paced life has been considered in fewer works [15,16]. To gain a
better understanding about the impact of the accelerating pace of life on information
behavior (containing both active and passive activities to obtain information, but also
information avoiding strategies [17]), the slow principles like reexivity and mind-
fulness, control over speed of information consumption, the non-task aspect of much
information behavior[8, p. 700] have been discussed. Yet, these principles still
contain possibilities for further inquiries. It is even possible to stress the urgency of
studies that consider the acceleration of social time in the framework of the information
behavior as apparently, previously established time-management strategies or mindsets
might not be useful under those new circumstances [18].
Theoretically, our study takes its vantage point from the uses and gratications
theory [3,4]. The basic needs that both traditional media and social media fulll, are:
cognitive needs to acquire information and knowledge;
affective needs to view content for excitement, enjoyment, and pleasure;
social needs to create a sense of group belonging, inuencing and contributing to
individual needs to enhance self-promotion, personal gain and condence;
escapist needs to use the technology to ee from reality and create an alternative
virtual and imagined reality [4].
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Considering the needs and active roles [4] of social media users, to some extent, we
also need to rely on media domestication theory which describes how media and
communication technologies are becoming increasingly interwoven in userslives[7,
p. 27]. Some technologies and platforms have been domesticated to the point where
they are perceived as reliable and trustworthy tools, thus losing their magic and
becoming unnoticeable part of the routines [19].
As social media is used for a number of reasons for example, nding and sharing
information; maintaining, managing and building relationships, and ones own
identity/communities, participating on many levels and modes [20]our study also
focuses on social-media-specic literacies. As has been stated previously [21], neither
engineers nor policymakers are proposing serious solutions to the disorienting super-
abundance of digital communication. Furthermore, digital and social media literacies
are often framed as the responsibility and expression of individual agency [22]. So
designing and testing a tool for developing such literacies in our research participants,
can potentially serve as an attempt to ll the aforementioned gap both in theory and
In fact, there are various and often overlapping concepts (such as information
literacies, media literacies, new media literacies, digital literacies) used when talking
about peoples ability to apply informational self-determination in online settings and
participatory cultures [23] in a meaningful way. We will focus on a more specic and
relevant subset of digital skills social media literacies [6,24]. Social media literacies
have also been analyzed in ve sets of skills and knowledge related to attention,
participation, collaboration, network awareness, and critical consumption [6]. These
skills are not always linear and interconnected, with attention as fundamental to all
others and at the center of our study to be aware, present and mindful, knowing when
to be alert and vigilant, when to block out distractions and make use of disengagement
practices. In fact, the boundaries between use and non-use are increasingly blurred,
with emerging practices enabling diverse ways and degrees of engagement with and
disengagement from social media [11,12]. In media domestication theory this kind of
reexivity is bound to reversed media domesticationentailing reection on the
cognitive and practical strategies for distancing and withdrawal[7, p. 29] from social
media, and developing strategies of controlled reduction of media intake[8]qua
different information or social media diets. Eventually, self-reexivity or the
reexive form of knowledgeability[25] is a core concept for the agency of people in
general, not just social media.
The notions of accelerating social time, uses and gratications theory, but also
social media literacies inform our research questions. Firstly, to set the focus of our
study on the fast-paced life, we approach the studentssocial media disruption diaries
to ask how they described the pace of time when absent from social media. Secondly,
considering various uses and gratications of social media, and the reexive nature of
our study, we are interested in how these perceptions of time were connected to
sustaining peer, family and work-life relationships. These two aspects can both be
considered as important contributors to learnerssuccess, and thus, can be discussed
fruitfully in the context of academic life and social media literacies.
Students on a Social Media Detox3
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3 Methodology of the Research
We conducted our study at the Institute of Social Studies, at the University of Tartu. In
the fall semester of 2017 and spring semester of 2018, we asked BA-level students
enrolled in the Information Society and New Mediacourses to stop using social
media for ve consecutive days. The students (91 in total) kept personal social media
detoxdiaries about this experience. As the courses were held in English, the diaries
were written in the same language, as well. We encouraged the students to write as if
they would write for themselves without constraining or censoring themselves. Over
ve days, the average length per diary was four pages (using standard formatting). We
offered the students the option of submitting their diaries for our study 42 students
agreed to do so. Submitting a diary was entirely voluntary. After grading the diaries as
part of the homework in the course, we invited students to submit their diary with a
disclaimer that they could opt out of participating in our study any time. We also
empowered the participants by giving them control over the nal printed word[26]
they could edit the diary when necessary, and we also kept our promise to properly
erase all the personal details from the diaries for the analysis. While analyzing the
diaries, we considered their performative nature [27], and the fact that the diaries were
related to homework, thus still subjugated to certain Freirean power hierarchies.
Despite these limitations, our research design allows us to evoke self-reexivity on the
participantslevel, and provides us with qualitative insights into aspects of peoples
lives often left unexamined.
The diaries were submitted by a rather heterogeneous group of students: the
majority of students enrolled in this course were 1923 year-olds from Estonia,
studying journalism and communication, while about a quarter of students had an
international background (coming from various countries via student exchange pro-
grams). Of the participants, 27 were female and 15 were male. We collected the diaries
presented by full-time regular students but many Estonian students also work (part-
time), so their work-life might also be heavily integrated with active social media use.
We analyzed the 42 submitted diaries (174 pages in total) using within-case and
cross-case qualitative text analysis, more specically, thematic qualitative text analysis
[28]. This type of analysis suggests that researchers identify what is common to the
way a topic is talked or written about and of making sense of those commonalities[28,
p. 57]. We identied our approach as combining inductive and deductive analytical
logic, being of experiential nature and making use of the social constructivist frame-
work [28, p. 58]. Deductive analysis was purposeful to consider the context of our
theoretical reasoning behind the diaries. At the same time, while looking for answers to
our research questions about the perceptions of pace of time and its impacts on various
relationships, we approached the diaries inductively and experientially in terms of
letting our diary authors speak for themselves.
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4 Results
Before turning the focus specically to our research questions, it is interesting to take a
look at how the participants started the detox. The beginning was usually carefully
planned and we saw two distinct time-related strategies for starting their disruption.
First, matching the expected slow tempo with the most similarly-paced part of their
existing routines. For example, participants were describing starting their detox on a
day off, just before a weekend trip with their friends or going to visit their parents, often
at the countryside (where the disruption seemed more justiable and accepted by others
than going off the grid in the city). The second strategy was timing the detox to cover a
period of time where there is much and intensive (home)work to be accomplished,
hoping to increase productivity and ght the anticipated boredom by keeping busy.
4.1 Perception of Time During the Detox
Although the perception of time was not mentioned in the description of the detox task,
it was a central concept in studentsdiaries. When describing their usual habits that the
participants were forced to break, social media was described as a time-ller, time-
killer or time-stealer. Without social media and the distractions that come with constant
multitasking, students usually described their day as passing by more slowly:
M1: The day goes by pretty slowly when u dont use social media. But you win a lot of time!
I managed to do a lot of work. That was the biggest positive.
From this quote we can see an example of how the slowing of time, and essentially
free timewas quickly re-contextualized as a possibility to increase productivity in
work or school-related tasks. Which can, without the availability of connected presence
and micro-coordination [5] be more time-consuming and thus social media platforms
lose their domesticatedstatus, becoming more visible once again [19].
Or alternatively, to increase work-related productivity, the participants exchanged
one type of media to another reading, watching and listening to the news constantly
and intensely and thus fullling their cognitive needs (in the form of news) or affective
needs (entertainment and enjoyment mostly achieved via Netix or Spotify). In these
cases, there is proof of looking for substitute activities, not adjusting to the newfound
pace. In some diaries, we noticed that the participant had anticipated slowing of time
and initial boredom that might come with it and even overplannedtheir days:
F21: I was really productive. However, by the end of the day my head was heavy and I felt as
though it would explode any second. I realized that it was because I hadnt had any breaks to
Time without social media can feel wasted or unpurposeful which was evident from
how the participants described their activities (eating, having a phone call, falling
asleep, waking up) as being just that and nothing else, for example:
F1: This morning I spent this fteen minutes in the kitchen. I just sat there without using my
smartphone and I drank my tea all alone. I was so bored and watched the grey walls of our
Students on a Social Media Detox5
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On the other hand, time without social media can feel precious, the slower pace
might transfer to other communication modes, as described here:
F15: Without social media, communication speed is slower, time is slower, too. I suddenly want
to write rather than typing, slowly rather than quickly. And when I described the stories and my
feelings in the letters, I tried to get the language correct and beautiful. Actually I nd that some
words I wrote on the letters I might never type on the social media.
Mundane routines and activities are often accompanied by screens so time being
spent without that stimulation can feel quiet and slow. In addition, the downside of
gaining extra time, perceiving slowing of time was the feeling of FOMO (fear of
missing out) set in motion by not being able to do these micro-checks constantly.
Typically, the participants settled in to the disruption in a couple of days. What
usually began as a change in outward-oriented time (such as I have to share this,
FOMO, worrying about contact with others) transformed somewhat into inward-
oriented time perception or reexive form of knowledgeability[25], or awareness [6]
which was usually described as a positive feeling:
F26: And while thinking my thoughts, I realized, that they were so pure and so my own
thoughts. I thought about things, that I hadnt thought about for a while, (but I wished I would).
This seemed such a new and fresh feeling, it felt like for a very long time //I was instead
thinking about a lot more interesting and important things, about my own life, my own dreams
and wishes, about my future.
Furthermore, most participants described increased face-to-face communication
with others, as well as going back to and making use of old schoolphone calls and
When detoxes came to an end, we noticed a typical scenario in the diaries that can
be termed sped-up acceleration. The participants often found solace even during the
detox from getting back to normalitysoon, to binge-scroll everything after the ve-
day-abstinence. And many of them did exactly that, for example:
F2: It took me around 2 h until I was well-informed again. It is quite strange that I had no
problems renouncing on social media, but then used it again as I would be addicted.
But in long-term, nearly half of the participants described different changes they
had made to their social media usage based on the detox, for example: some had
declutteredtheir feeds by unfollowing people, groups and pages; others had switched
off notications that serve as a constant reminder or temptation to check different
platforms or moved the app out of sight, to the last screen page on phone; few had even
de-installed certain apps or stopped using them entirely (mostly Snapchat). In essence,
some of the diary keepers explored the affordances of stepping into the shoes of the
want-notsgroup [12]. Interestingly, many of the participants expressed similar
opinions about the length of the detox - feeling like they would have gained a deeper
insight to their informational needs and invisible media usage patterns by being absent
for a longer period of time:
M8: During the last days, my brain received and processed so little amount of information,
comparing to the previous periods. I think, there would emerge much more crucial changes and
realizations if the detox period was longer.
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Some students wrote in their diaries that now when they know the genreand how
to approach the disruption, they plan to make time for similar detoxes independently.
4.2 Relationships Affected by Detox
As we live in the always-on, on-demand society, most of the students felt like they
could not just go off the grid and start the detox but rather prepare carefully. These
preparations usually involved communicating their unusual circumstancesto
important others and very noticeably, often taking a certain amount of pride of their
uncommon choices:
M1: My great preparations managed to save my relationships. Most of the people knew that I
was not going to use for some time and they totally accepted it. A friend even said I should
write a feature about it. What a feature that would be!
Othersreactions mostly mirrored the norm of availability, according to the diaries,
as friends, family members and colleagues expressed surprise and in their reactions
conrmed once again the exceptionality of such a disruption to the participants:
F27: Some people were almost swept off their feet (again, denitely not an exaggeration). Why
on Earth would you do something like that?,Is everything okay?,So what will you and
what will you not be using? Is Youtube social media? Should we start an iMessage chat? Can
you cheat?etc. Honestly I was not too sure myself.
One participant wrote about different generations having a different look at these
aspects, when telling her (older) co-workers about going on a detox, they pointed out
the unoriginal specialnessof such disruption:
F11: The funny thing is that when I told the people that I work with that I am doing a detox they
said How millennial of you.Its scary because the older generations can go without social
media, it is us, the newer generations, who feel the constant need to use it to not miss out on
In addition, the availability of facts and being able to seek additional information
about people was sometimes perceived as making people anti-social:
F22: I guess that Facebook makes me a bit more uncommunicative at some points, as I
sometimes dont ask people where they live or come from, because I think I can look that up
Most dominantly notications about going on a detox were contextualized as
important information for friends and family (so they know I havent died), as
usually social media functions as a platform for small acts of care: being there for
others constantly and paying attention, extra closenessas F27 put it. Most impor-
tantly, though, school and work relationships were brought up as something needing
preparation and reorganizing:
M1: Facebook is the only social media site I use every day. It has turned into a work site
because of my usage. All of my group work goes on in Facebook and that is why this detox is a
bit dangerous to be honest. It carries all possible functions and it turns out it has become
Students on a Social Media Detox7
Author Proof
Majority of participants described how the detox increased the amount of time
spent on face-to-face communication that was perceived as having supremacy over
computer-mediated communication, a shift from quantitative communication to qual-
itative one.
And to a few, the detox itself was a testing tool for existing friendships who will
care if I am not constantly available?
5 Discussion and Conclusions
In our study, we have kept in mind the specic constellation of accelerating social time
[1,2,8], uses and gratications [3] related to social media [4], media domestication [7],
and social media literacies [6,24]. Although it may seem that all these notions do not
have much in common, there is still a common thread of agency and reexivity binding
these notions. The acceleration of social time, however, leaves little time to ponder on
the technological and social changes (including acceptance of newer technologies), and
may eventually cause an uncomfortable sensation fear of missing outor just boredom.
The question is thus: can reexivity on media produsage[23] in this aforementioned
context be treated as a transferable skill that can also be supported in various learning
environments (such as a university, among others)?
The principle of keeping a social media detoxdiary is simple as it helps to reect
on something one does not do. There can be different aspects one might consider
writing about in her diary (like mood changes, small hints related to smartphone apps,
reections on a critical choice of information sources), yet one of those aspects is
related to the perception of time, bound to the peer and work-life relationships. While
theories on social media literacies in general point fruitfully towards the agency of
social media users, participating and collaborating in different activities [6,24], critical
media consumption, but also attention [6], these kinds of awareness have seldom been
related to temporality, that is what about the perception of time with or without [7]
social media, and the connection between time ow and fostering peer relationships.
For the eld of media and information literacy, our study holds signicance, as it
points towards easy and fun ways to increase and develop peoples media and infor-
mation literacies. Considering that updating these nuanced and context-specic lit-
eracies are often framed as a personal responsibility [22], the accessibility and ease-of-
use of tools and methods is crucial. Usually we turn our focus toward what it is that
people do and what kinds of knowledge and skills are needed in order to engage in
something, but we emphasize the importance and potential of not doing something, as a
part of different literacies and the value of disengagement, serving as a mirror for self-
reexivity or exploring alternative media repertoires. So if the system is geared towards
constant acceleration of time and there is a need for new time-management strategies
[18], approaches enabling people to shift gearsare worthy of exploration. After all,
peoples agency is characterized by an innate ability to imagine different outcomes [25]
which can bring change and restructuring.
Without preferring any attitudes of some research participants over attitudes of
others, this study helped us to better understand the meaning of social media detoxin
terms of perception of time. The social media detoxprovided both new possibilities
8 K. Lepik and M. Murumaa-Mengel
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(of doing something you did not have time to do before), but also new challenges (how
to avoid boredom and solitude, and keep in touch with family and friends, how to run
even the smallest errands outside social media). Also, the diaries revealed very vividly
different categories related to diary keepersevaluations about usage of time: whether it
was well-spent,wasted,killedthe diaries provided these useful insights both
from the time before (when social media was still used), and the time after (when
social media detoxleft a certain amount of spare time).
The previous intensity of social media usage and satisfaction with time spent away
from social media seem to form certain continua that invite posing new hypotheses
whether the intensive usage of social media usage induces stronger positive or negative
emotions, related to perception of social media diet? Or, besides the intensity of social
media usage, what are the affordances of the absence from social media, and how
strong do these affordances need to be in order to challenge the taken-for-granted
normality of being instantly available [8]? These different questions and continua yield
us understanding about subjectively perceived comfortable sense of time.
On the basis of our sample (N = 42) whose members were of relatively the same
age, we were able to detect very different attitudes towards relatively similarly altered
pace of time. Similarly, the absence from social media had very different impacts on
sustaining various social relationships: some of our research participants happily
sought new possibilities to communicate to their signicant peers, while some were
struggling to nd these possibilities. Thus, our results help to take a look at the different
social- media-related patterns of time consumption of emerging adults.
Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful for the support of International Programme DoRa,
carried out by Foundation Archimedes. We also thank the students who agreed to have excerpts
from their diaries included in this paper. Last but not least we thank the reviewers of this article
for their helpful comments and suggestions.
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Günümüzde dijitalleşme ile beraber birçok kavram hayatımızın bir parçası olmuştur. Özellikle her bir mecranın kendini özgü doğası bu kavramların oluşmasında etkilidir. Sosyal medya etkileyiciliğinin yeni bir biçimini oluşturan Doll Influencerlar özellikle Barbie bebekleri içerik olarak kullanarak takipçilerinin tüketim, moda ve yaşam biçimleri üzerinde derin etkiler oluşturabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada sosyal medya etkileyiciliğinde yeni ve farklı bir boyut olan oyuncak bebek fenomenleri yani Doll Influencerlar dijital görünüm ve tüketim bağlamında ele alınmıştır. Doll Influencer kavramı, akademik alanyazında tam anlamıyla dikkati çekmiş bir kavram değildir. Bu açıdan bu çalışma literatüre sunduğu katkı açısından önemlidir. Diğer yandan Türkiye özelinde konuşulduğunda, Doll Influencer gibi bir sürecin ülkemizdeki sosyal medya kullanıcılarının içerik üretimi konusunda tercih ettiği bir yöntem olmadığı görülmüştür. Türk kullanıcılar yabancı Doll Influencerları takip ederken buna benzer bir sayfa yönetimine sahip değildir. Burada sosyal medyayı kullanma pratikleri ve kültürel kodların belirleyici olduğu düşünülmektedir. Diğer yandan Türkiye’de Barbie bebek kültürünün üretim değil marka tüketimine yoğunlaşması bu farklılıklardan bir diğeri olmuştur. Çalışmada yüksek takipçisi olan sosyal medya hesapları ele alınmış, doküman incelemesi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler nitel içerik analizi ile kavramla bağlantı kurularak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda Doll Influencer olarak geçen yeni pazarlama biçiminin tüketimden modaya, yaşam biçiminden markalaşmaya kadar birçok alanda yeni oluşumlar ortaya çıkardığı görülmüştür.
Temporary and permanent disconnection from digital devices, platforms, or tools has gained traction from users and, subsequently, in academic discourse. A rapidly growing body of research focuses on so-called digital disconnection practices. However, the literature is highly scattered, with limited comprehensive work and consensus on essential foundations for this field. This study provides a systematic review of the digital disconnection literature following the PRISMA flow and Cochrane guidelines. We investigated 112 articles based on the following eight themes of digital disconnection: (1) definitions, (2) measurements, (3) prevalence, (4) motives, (5) strategies, (6) consequences/effectiveness, (7) relapsing, and (8) interventions. The review shows that research on this topic suffers from conceptual ambiguity and lacks consensus on terminology, definition, and measurement. As a first step to solving these lacunae, we provide a working definition, describing digital disconnection as a deliberate form of non-use of devices, platforms, features, interactions and/or messages that varies in frequency and duration with the aim of restoring or improving one's perceived overuse, social interactions, psychological well-being, productivity, privacy and/or perceived usefulness. Moreover, we discuss the identified empirical and theoretical shortcomings and provide recommendations for future research.
The rise of the Internet has brought social media into our lives. In one way or another, a huge portion of the population utilizes social media daily. Yet many fail to consider the impact of social media in their lives. To what extent has social media changed your life? Are there sides to it that we are unaware of? The analysis of social media may seem straightforward on the outside, however, research has revealed its multifaceted impact. What is the difference between active and passive users? Has social media increased our tolerance? How has social media changed the landscape for businesses? What type of algorithms are used to decide what appears on a user’s newsfeed? These questions as well as many others are addressed in this book. The book also provides different worksheets that help the reader implement what is discussed and to become aware of how they utilize social media in their lives.
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O presente artigo propõe-se a analisar a competência em informação como sendo um fator de promoção de inovação social, tendo-se em vista uma possível correlação entre as matrizes teóricas dessas duas temáticas. A inovação social visa à transformação social por meio de mudanças nas práticas sociais, satisfazendo necessidades humanas e promovendo inclusão social, com uma consequente mudança de relações de poder, uma vez que o próprio conhecimento pode ser considerado inovação social. A competência em informação é considerada base para a aprendizagem ao longo da vida pois se trata de uma meta-competência capaz de auxiliar o indivíduo a lidar com necessidades informacionais e a compreender, criar e utilizar criticamente a informação nos mais variados contextos. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo delinear o alinhamento dos temas inovação social e competência em informação, realizando uma análise sobre como a perspectiva transformacional de estudos primários realizados na literatura sobre competência em informação pode ser correlacionada à inovação social em uma perspectiva de inclusão e emancipação sociais.
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Bu çalışma; günümüzde sayıları gittikçe azalmakta olan, bilinçli şekilde sosyal medyadan uzak durmayı tercih etmiş bireylere odaklanmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, sosyal medya kullanıcısı olmayanların gözüyle sosyal medyayı farklı bir açıdan değerlendirmek ve sosyal medyasız yaşam deneyiminin günümüzdeki durumunu anlamaya çalışmaktır. Sosyal medya kullanımının insan hayatının merkezine yerleşmiş olmasının birey ve toplum üzerindeki etkileri daha çok kullanıcılar üzerinden pek çok bilimsel araştırmaya konu olmaktadır. Bu çalışma dışarıda kalmayı tercih edenler üzerinden gerçekleştirildiği için çoğunluğu oluşturan diğer çalışmalardan ayrılmaktadır. Çalışma nitel araştırma yönteminin veri toplama tekniklerinden birisi olan derinlemesine görüşme yoluyla gerçekleştirilmiş ve elde edilen veriler tematik ve betimsel analiz yoluyla çözümlenmiştir. Çalışmaya dâhil edilen katılımcılar; eğitimli ve sosyoekonomik açıdan sosyal medya kullanabilme olanaklarına sahip olmasına rağmen hiç kullanmamış ya da daha önce kullanmış ama daha sonra tamamen terk etmiş kişilerdir. Toplam 9 katılımcıyla yapılan görüşme sonucunda katılımcıların; sosyal medyaya ilişkin algıları, sosyal medya kullanıcılarıyla ilgili gözlemleri, kendilerini konumlandırdıkları yer ve davranış boyutuna ulaşacak düzeyde içselleştirdikleri uzakta durma gerekçeleri ile ilgili elde edilen veriler kodlanarak temalara ayrılmış ve gruplandırılmıştır. Buna göre; katılımcıları sosyal medyadan uzak durmaya iten 4 temel neden olarak bağımlılık yapması, mahremiyet ve güvenliği tehdit etmesi, ilişkileri yapaylaştırması ve tu􀇅ketim nesnesine do􀇅nu􀇅ştu􀇅rme riski dile getirilmiştir.
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Meediakasutust puudutavad isiksuseomadused on kujunenud olulisteks põlvkondliku enesemääratluse ja identiteedi osisteks. Artiklis tutvustatakse meediapõlvkondade kultuurilisest käsitlusest lähtuvat lähenemist, mis näeb tänapäeva lapsi ja noori sotsiaalmeedia põlvkonnana. Mitmete empiiriliste uuringute tulemustele tuginevalt antakse artiklis ülevaade peamistest Eesti noortele omastest internetikasutuse harjumustest ja internetitegevustest. Millisena tajuvad sotsiaalmeedia põlvkonna esindajad sotsiaalmeedia rolli enda igapäevaelus, näitavad viieks päevaks sotsiaalmeedia kasutamisest loobunud noorte kogemuspäevikute sissekanded.
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The aim of this thesis is to explore how people perceive and construct their imagined audiences on social media and which social media literacies are central to the process. In addition, the methodological approach of creative research methods and researcher’s role in studying sensitive topic is analysed. Due to living in technologically mediated continuous mutual surveillance we have witnessed the rise of problematic cases that have sprouted from situations where one has misjudged the size and expectations of their online audience, ending in massive online public shaming, negative consequences in private or professional sphere. When sharing information on social networking sites, people tend to focus on the expectations and anticipated reactions of the „ideal readers“ of their imagined audiences, those perceived to be similar to ourselves. However, „nightmare readers“ who usually decode the messages significantly differently, will also have access to this information. Two groups’ perceptions – the young and their nightmare readers, the teachers – are at the heart of this thesis. For the young, technologically saturated sociality is the new norm, including the disclosure of various types of information about themselves and inevitability of making mistakes online. Interviewed teachers have difficulties in understanding these new norms and label the youth as a „digital generation“ with superior digital skills. At the same time they express juvenoia, the classic „youth is doomed“, based on young people’s online behavior. When teachers have mostly made use of privacy protecting strategies that are based on self-censorship, moderate use and trying to control the spread of the information, the repertoire of strategies for the youth is noticeably wider, often aiming to hide the meaning of the information (e.g. social steganography, shift of responsibility, data obfuscation) rather than information itself. The social media literacies necessary for successful navigation of imagined audiences include being aware of different audiences and their shifting norms, the knowledge and use of audience management strategies and the reaction and restriction of self as audience.
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Academic social-networking sites (ASNS) such as and ResearchGate are becoming very popular among academics. These sites allow uploading academic articles, abstracts, and links to published articles; track demand for published articles, and engage in professional interaction. This study investigates the nature of the use and the perceived utility of the sites for academics. The study employs the Uses and Gratifications theory to analyze the use of ASNS. A questionnaire was sent to all faculty members at three academic institutions. The findings indicate that researchers use ASNS mainly for consumption of information, slightly less for sharing of information, and very scantily for interaction with others. As for the gratifications that motivate users to visit ASNS, four main ones were found: self-promotion and ego-bolstering, acquisition of professional knowledge, belonging to a peer community, and interaction with peers.
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There is an emerging range of self-help guides advising users on how to minimise their interaction with media. The aim is to create a lifestyle and identity that is less media-centred and more grounded in “real life”. This article discusses media self-help in the light of theories of media domestication, highlighting processes where the aim is to reduce the importance of, rather than to incorporate, media and communication technology into users’ lives. Based on a sample of 30 guides from the self-help site Wikihow dealing with how to handle television, games and social media respectively, the article discusses media self-help strategies in relation to key concepts of domestication theory: appropriation, objectification, incorporation and conversion. In conclusion, the article argues that strategies of withdrawal and resistance should receive more attention in media studies, and point to the concept of reverse domestication as one way of highlighting such strategies.
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This article deals with insights gained from data analysis of feedback comments on transcripts sent to interviewees. It contributes to understanding of research studies that include transcripts, specifically on the contribution of participants' review of transcripts on the quality of those transcripts, and thus on the quality of research. The transfer of the transcripts to the interviewees was intended to validate the transcripts, to preserve research ethics, and to empower the interviewees by allowing them control of what was written. Interviewee responses related to the ratification of content, the authenticity of that which was said during the interview, corrections of language, additional clarifications, power interactions and changes in the balance of power between the interviewer and interviewees, feelings of embarrassment and threat, research ethics, and reflective responses. The experience of sending the transcripts to the interviewees raised research and ethical issues that require added caution and consideration when sending transcripts to interviewees.
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This article examines explanations for both Internet non-use and use by older individuals. Seniors are often considered as a homogeneous group with uniform reasons for Internet non-use, or when they are online, practicing a uniform range of activities. The study gathered data concerning senior non-users through a national telephone survey. Data concerning senior Internet users was obtained through a national representative online survey. The findings suggest that although a substantial part of the senior Internet non-users live in surroundings that enable Internet uptake, they seem to be uneager or unable to do so. Important differences among senior non-users are based on gender, age, education, household composition, and attitude towards the Internet. Differences amongst users where based on life stage, social environment and psychological characteristics. The paper thus reveals that older citizens are a very diverse group in which some are more likely to be digitally excluded than others.
As the internet and new online technologies are becoming embedded in everyday life, there are increasing questions about their social implications and consequences. Children, young people and their families tend to be at the forefront of new media adoption but they also encounter a range of risky or negative experiences for which they may be unprepared, which are subject to continual change. This book captures the diverse, topical and timely expertise generated by the EU Kids Online project, which brings together 70 researchers in 21 countries across Europe. Each chapter has a distinct pan-European focus resulting in a uniquely comparative approach.
This article considers the centrality of short message system (SMS) texting in the communication repertoires of young Danes. Recent years have seen dramatic changes in the mediascape with a multitude of new possibilities for text-based communication; Facebook, in particular, has become popular among young Danes. Some have suggested that the role of SMS texting, a technology that was previously an entrenched part of young people’s communication repertoires, has changed in this diversified media environment. Based on interviews with 31 Danish high school students and drawing on the domestication approach, this article examines the use practices and meanings associated with SMS texting in today’s complex and evolving mediascape. This article argues that SMS texting is becoming re-domesticated, its meanings changing, and the technology finding a new position in the communication repertoires of users.
The mass media are ranked with respect to their perceived helpfulness in satisfying clusters of needs arising from social roles and individual dispositions. For example, integration into the sociopolitical order is best served by newspaper; while "knowing oneself" is best served by books. Cinema and books are more helpful as means of "escape" than is television. Primary relations, holidays and other cultural activities are often more important than the mass media in satisfying needs. Television is the least specialized medium, serving many different personal and political needs. The "interchangeability" of the media over a variety of functions orders televisions, radio, newspapers, books, and cinema in a circumplex. We speculate about which attributes of the media explain the social and psychological needs they serve best. The data, drawn from an Israeli survey, are presented as a basis for cross-cultural comparison.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the principles of the Slow Movement may be applied to information behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses three methods: a literature analysis and synthesis; a Delphi study; and a focus group. All are carried out in accordance with Slow principles, to assess the value of Slow in the conduct of the research itself. Findings – Slow principles are applicable to both the theory and practice of information behaviour. They allow theory to be more realistic by encompassing a broader range of behaviours than those included in most established models of information behaviour and information literacy, particularly behaviours relating to temporal and experiential factors. The use of Slow principles in information practice may help to overcome problems relating to personal information management. The notion of “informational balance” stems from Slow ideas and is a useful concept for theory and practice. Research limitations/implications – The empirical parts of the study use small groups of participants, and the emphasis of the focus group in particular was on everyday information, rather than on professional or academic information. The results of the study show that research and theory in information behaviour would benefit form more explicit attention to time factors. Practical implications – The findings may be used in the design of information literacy instruction, and in encouraging a more reflective approach to personal information management. Originality/value – This is the first study to examine the applicability of Slow principles in an information context. It is also original in explicitly applying Slow principles to the research design.