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Abstract

Modern society seeks to consume foods that can treat and prevent disease, as well as increase longevity, and in this context stand out functional foods rich in antioxidant compounds with proven health benefits, as well as beverages that bring benefits to the health and are widely used by the population, such as wine. Wine has always been linked in some way to the history of man, either because it is a beverage with its own flavor and personality or because of the health benefits it brings. Studies carried out throughout the world show that wine, taken in a moderate amount, contributes to the health of the human organism, increasing the quality and the life time, being the polyphenols the main compounds present in the wine responsible for this contribution. In this context, the objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographical review on the main researches and studies carried out with the theme wine and health, with emphasis on the beneficial effect of the phenolic composition of red wines, and thus contribute to the dissemination of the benefits of regular consumption and wine to human health.
BIO Web of Conferences 12, 04001 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20191204001
41st World Congress of Vine and Wine
Wine and health: A review of its benefits to human health
D.A. Wurz
Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Av. Expedicion´
arios, 2150, CEP 89460-000, Canoinhas, SC, Brazil
Abstract.Modern society seeks to consume foods that can treat and prevent disease, as well as increase
longevity, and in this context stand out functional foods rich in antioxidant compounds with proven health
benefits, as well as beverages that bring benefits to the health and are widely used by the population, such as
wine. Wine has always been linked in some way to the history of man, either because it is a beverage with its
own flavor and personality or because of the health benefits it brings. Studies carried out throughout the world
show that wine, taken in a moderate amount, contributes to the health of the human organism, increasing the
quality and the life time, being the polyphenols the main compounds present in the wine responsible for this
contribution. In this context, the objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographical review on the main
researches and studies carried out with the theme wine and health, with emphasis on the beneficial effect
of the phenolic composition of red wines, and thus contribute to the dissemination of the benefits of regular
consumption and wine to human health.
1. Introduction
Wine is a beverage from the alcoholic fermentation of ripe
and fresh grapes or fresh grape juice. As a biochemical
definition would be: drink from the alcoholic fermentation
of grape juice sugars by yeast. Wine has always been
linked in some way to the history of man, either because
it is a beverage with its own flavor and personality or
because of the benefits it brings to health. Important
ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians, the Greeks and
the Romans, besides the Hindus, used wine as medicine
for the body and for the soul. Historical records show that
the medicinal use of wine by man has been a practice made
for over 2000 years [1].
In general, we can mention as benefits of wine:
prevention of heart and circulatory diseases; if drink
together with the meal is the most beneficial for diabetics;
favorable to the fight against obesity; provides greater
longevity and quality of life; creates barriers to the
development of dementia; the meal accompanied by wine
results in a better digestion; anti-infective effect; beneficial
effects on women’s health; are excellent for the skin;
can prevent blindness; have anti-inflammatory action; can
alleviate lung diseases; besides being a very pleasant
drink [2].
Wine is one of the oldest beverages, has always
been related to the history of man and presents benefits
to human health [3]. Although there have been reports
of wine consumption for more than 7,000 years, the
benefits of wine were only highlighted in 1992, when the
French Paradox was published [4]. What arouses scientific
attention is related to the eating habits adopted by the
French, who, despite having high levels of sedentary
lifestyle, smoking, high consumption of saturated fats
and higher cholesterol levels, when compared with
other industrialized countries, have a lower incidence of
diseases coronary diseases, a fact attributed to the high
consumption of wine [5]. Data presented by the World
Health Organization (WHO) show that the mortality rates
due to cardiovascular diseases in France are smaller when
compared to other countries, which is why the name of the
French Paradox has appeared [6].
In this context it is possible to associate wine
consumption with health benefits associated with healthy
eating and quality of life, but this only happens if it is
consumed in a certain quantity [7].
In this context, the objective of this study is to carry out
a bibliographical review on the main researches and studies
carried out with the theme wine and health, with emphasis
on the beneficial effect of the phenolic composition of
red wines, and thus contribute to the dissemination of the
benefits of regular consumption and wine to human health.
2. Materials and methods
The study is based on a literature review and research
results from institutions that work in this area.
For the development of the work, scientific works
were compiled, referring to national and international
publications related to the theme “Wine and Health”
and “Wine: functional food”, “Resveratrol”, which were
consulted through periodicals indexed in the Scielo portal,
as well as data collection in official institutions, such as
UVIBRA (Brazilian Union of Viticulture).
Each work was cataloged and the data were organized
in such a way that it was possible to elaborate the present
work.
3. Results and discussion
The medicinal use of wine was widely employed by
the Greeks. Hippocrates (460-370 BC) reported on the
therapeutic properties of wine, a beverage used as a dietary
supplement in cachexia, diuretic, purgative, antipyretic,
c
The Authors, published by EDP Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
BIO Web of Conferences 12, 04001 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1051/bioconf/20191204001
41st World Congress of Vine and Wine
antiseptic, in plasters and also against depression during
convalescence [8]. The main constituents of wine salts are
the mineral anions, sulfate, phosphate, chloride and sulfite,
and organic, tartrate, malate and lactate, as well as some
cations such as K +,Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+, Fe2 +,Al2+
and Cu2 +[9]. Calcium and iron salts are used in medicine
for the treatment of descaling and anemia [10].
The richness of the elements that make it make it, in
fact, a true liquid food of incomparable virtues and the
main condition for wine to bring health benefits is that it
be taken moderately and together with meals, absorption
of the nutrients that are contained in food [11].
Studies conducted worldwide prove that wine taken
in moderate amounts contributes to the health of the
human body [12]. It is suggested that resveratrol may
be one of the constituents of the wine conferring this
protection [13]. Resveratrol acts in the prevention of heart
disease, associated with the consumption of red wine,
as well as inhibition of platelet aggregation, alteration
in eucosanoid synthesis and by modulating lipid and
lipoprotein metabolism [14].
The most abundant sources of resveratrol are the
grapes Vitis vinifera, V. labrusca, V. muscadine which
are normally employed in the manufacture of wine.
Resveratrol is found in vines, roots, seeds and stalks, but
the highest concentration is in the film of grapes containing
50 to 100 æg/g [7]. The concentrations of resveratrol found
in different wine types vary depending on the infection
with Botrytis cinerea, grape cultivar, geographical origin,
wine type and oenological practices [15].
Its antioxidant capacity is related to the prevention
of cardiovascular diseases [16], anticancer and anti-
inflammatory properties [17]. Resveratrol can inhibit the
initiation, promotion and progression of tumors [18],
reduction of cell death by oxidative stress [19], inhibition
of oxidation of low density human lipoprotein (LDL)
[20,21], inhibition of platelet aggregation, impairment of
anti-inflammatory activity [22] and reduced effects of
some neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s [23].
The concentration of resveratrol is a response of
the plant to an aggressor agent and is influenced by
the presence of pathogenic microorganisms [24]. The
cardioprotective effect of wine can be attributed to
resveratrol. It induces protection against reperfusion injury
after ischemia (R/I), has been documented in the heart,
kidney and brain. Resveratrol has high power to sequester
oxygen free radicals and increase nitric oxide production.
In Brazilian wines, Vanderlinde et al. [25] found
higher values of resveratrol in relation to Argentine,
Chilean and Uruguayan wines. Grapes grown in hot, dry
climates that are less affected by the fungus have lower
concentrations of resveratrol, whereas in cold and humid
climates they have higher concentrations [14]. Rosier
et al. [26], quantified resveratrol content in red and
white wines, Brazilian, Argentine and Chilean wines. The
wines presented an average of 2.33 mg L1for reds and
0.091 mg L1for whites, respectively. In relation to the
varieties, the highest levels were observed for Merlot with
an average of 3,580 mg L1and the highest concentration
was found in a Brazilian red wine, with 8,247 mg L1.
The phenolic compounds present in products derived
from grapes, Vitis vinifera L., such as grape juice and
wines, especially red wine, have antioxidant activity
that combats free radicals. Studies aimed at evaluating
antioxidant activity and quantifying phenolic compounds,
have proven that red wine had higher phenolic compounds
contents and better antioxidant activity. For Europeans,
wine is considered a food supplement, as it contains
carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, from the grape. In
addition to water (80 to 85% of the volume), the drink still
provides the body with energy in the form of sugars such as
glucose and fructose. Minerals include potassium, copper,
zinc, fluorine, magnesium, aluminum, iodine, boron and
silicon which, even in small quantities, are indispensable
for the body to perform well all its functions [27].
Like any alcoholic beverage, wine also causes
problems, when ingested, beyond limits. In 100 ml (half
a cup) there are 8 to 10 g of ethanol. Therefore, those who
take excessive amounts of wine (more than half a liter),
regardless of their quality, are subject to the unpleasant
effects of ethanolic intoxication the next day. Among other
harmful effects, such as dehydration of the organism,
alcohol, when absorbed, rapidly falls into the circulatory
chain, causing peripheral vasodilation, responsible for
headache. There is no fixed rule to say what a person’s
limit is in relation to alcohol. This will depend on some
factors, such as age, sex and emotional state, in addition to
the fact that each has its own level of tolerance to alcohol,
that is, each organism responds differently to alcohol [28].
4. Conclusion
A series of studies prove the benefits of regular and
moderate consumption of red wine to human health,
mainly relating to its phenolic composition. Since ancient
times, wine has been closely linked to the evolution
of medicine, and the consumption of red wine is now
recognized as beneficial to health by medicine.
The components of red wine are known as potent
antioxidants and have been identified as having anticar-
cinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
The components present in wines show that wine can
be considered a functional food.
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Red wine, an alcoholic beverage is composed of a spectrum of complex compounds such as water, alcohol, glycerol, organic acid, carbohydrates, polyphenols, and minerals as well as volatile compounds. Major factors that affect the levels of phenolic compounds in red wines are the variety of grapes and the storage of the wines. Among the constituents of red wine, phenolic compounds play a crucial role in attributes including color and mouthfeel and confer beneficial properties on health. Most importantly, phenolic compounds such as flavanols, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, tannins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and resveratrol can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, inflammation, and some other chronic diseases.
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