HAL Id: hal-02051757
Submitted on 28 Feb 2019
HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access
archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci-
entic research documents, whether they are pub-
lished or not. The documents may come from
teaching and research institutions in France or
abroad, or from public or private research centers.
L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est
destinée au dépôt et à la diusion de documents
scientiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non,
émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de
recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires
publics ou privés.
Implementation of SCHC in NS-3 Simulator and
Comparison with 6LoWPAN
Wael Ayoub, Fabienne Nouvel, Sarah Hmede, Abed Samhat, Mohamad
Mroue, Jean-Christophe Prévotet
To cite this version:
Wael Ayoub, Fabienne Nouvel, Sarah Hmede, Abed Samhat, Mohamad Mroue, et al.. Implementa-
tion of SCHC in NS-3 Simulator and Comparison with 6LoWPAN. 26th International Conference on
Telecommunications (ICT), Apr 2019, HA NOI, France. <hal-02051757>
Implementation of SCHC in NS-3 Simulator and Comparison with
Wael Ayoub∗†, Fabienne Nouvel∗, Sarah Hmede†, Abed Ellatif Samhat†, Mohamad Mroue†
and Jean-christophe Pr´
∗Institut National des Sciences Appliqu´
ees de Rennes — IETR-INSA, Rennes, France.
†Faculty of Engineering - CRSI, Lebanese University, Hadath Campus, Hadath, Lebanon
Email†: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract—The rapid growth of IoT applications usage enables
the Internet connectivity of a massive number of devices using
different technologies. Most of these technologies, such as Low
Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs), are non-IP due to the
difﬁculties of using IP on constrained devices. These nodes are
characterized by more constraints with respect to other IoT
technologies. According to , IPv6 offers many beneﬁts for
IoT, which motivated the IETF to form a Working Group (WG)
to study and propose new solutions to run IPv6 on the new
technologies of IoT , . The key to solving this issue is
the header compression mechanisms. In this paper, we analyze
the two IETF standardized solutions, SCHC and 6LoWPAN, to
compress IPv6 over constrained nodes within LPWAN. Based
on , we implement the SCHC mechanism  in the network
simulator NS3 . We also show that SCHC protocol solution as
an adaptation layer between the network layer and the link layer
is better in term of header compression by providing a smaller
header size compared to 6LoWPAN.
Index Terms—IoT communication, LPWAN, IPv6, SCHC,
6LoWPAN, NS3, Long-Range, and Header Compression.
In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted the
attention of industry and researchers. Arm declared in , 
that 100 billion chips had been shipped over 26 years between
1991 and 2017 to support connected devices, whereas the
same quantity has been shipped since 2017. To respond to the
exponential growth in the number of connected objects in the
coming years, creating a reliable and efﬁcient network infras-
tructure is essential. Apart from exceptional cases, connected
objects transmit only a few data for long distances. In most
applications, there is a real need for autonomy and a lifespan
of several years. Existing networks, such as WIFI, Bluetooth,
cellular networks, etc., do not respond to this need. That led to
the emergence of new IoT communication networks developed
to adapt to these requirements known as LPWANs.
The emerging of LPWANs has received considerable at-
tention from the research community and industry. LPWANs
studies and developments have obtained momentum in many
domains such as smart city, trafﬁc control, health care,
water/energy/waste management, agriculture, etc. This over-
growth led to the presence of heterogeneous architectures,
standards, middlewares, and a diversity of applications. Cur-
rently and for future, LPWAN technologies are required to
provide scalability, stability, and on wide areas, for End-
Devices (ED). Furthermore, this heterogeneity is an obstruc-
tion for industry and developments, that usually seek a homo-
geneous solution to support the diversity of technologies to
gain marketing and other purposes. Such technologies include
LoRaWAN, Sigfox, DASH7, etc.
Previously, heterogeneity of technologies was solved in sev-
eral ways. One of the most common solutions that researchers
adopted was to create a middleware that can be adapted and
be common between the different technologies. However, with
the presence of new types of technologies, i.e., LPWAN, these
middlewares are no more applicable and require a signiﬁcant
update. The objective is to create a common solution for het-
erogeneity that can be easily adapted to any new technology.
In , authors show that IPv6 offers several features that make
it a successful solution for IoT developments. IPv6 provides
scalability, security, stateless address auto-conﬁguration, and
a set of complementary solutions for the loT needs: e.g.,
6LoWPAN, 6TiSCH, etc. Furthermore, IPv6 may be a solution
for heterogeneity, and it supports mobility.
However, IPv6 solutions must consider the LPWANs con-
straints and challenges. These challenges can be summarized
•Large-scale constrained networks including a massive
number of ED.
•Payload size support in the physical frame as low as 12
bytes, i.e., SigFox.
•Limited rate of frames on air per data.
•Low data rate and small bandwidth up to 250 kbps.
•Frame loss increases as the number of ED increases.
•Do not support fragmentation in case of large frames.
•Power consumption and radio constraints
Among these complementary solutions that IPv6 provides, we
investigate in this paper two IPv6 mechanisms that consider
the LPWANs constraints: IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)  and Static Context
Header Compression (SCHC) . These two solutions, stan-
dardized by IETF, are used to extend the protocol stack of
LPWAN technology with an adaptation layer. This layer con-
verges from non-IP to IPv6-based technology which enables
homogeneous access for applications and services. Based on
this study, we propose to use the SCHC protocol solution as an
adaptation layer between the network layer and the link layer
for the LPWAN technologies to reduce IPv6 header size.
This paper is structured as follows: In section II we illustrate
related work. In Section III, we present the SCHC mechanism,
explain the terms and ﬁelds followed by a brief, concen-
trated description of the header compression in 6LoWPAN.
In Section IV, we illustrate the implementation procedure of
the SCHC mechanism on the NS3 and explain the compres-
sion/decompression structure of the algorithm. In Section V,
we draw a scenario to compare between SCHC and 6LoWPAN
on NS3. Finally, Section VI provides a summary of the two
mechanisms and the requirements considered in SCHC with
the future work.
II. RE LATE D WO RK
A lot of studies have been carried out to compare the two
solutions, but to our best knowledge, they do not propose a
real implementation to compare them. In , authors propose
LSCHC mechanism based on SCHC standard for compress-
ing of IPv6. Also, authors address the memory constraint
generated by SCHC mechanism and propose the LSCHC
as a solution. The proposed mechanism solves the memory
constraint of the device but adds constraints on the radio
communication which is against the main goals of SCHC.
In , and , authors beneﬁt from the use of 6LoWPAN
mechanism in compressing IPv6 for LoRaWAN technology
. Moreover, in  authors propose Co-iOAM mechanism
for compression based on 6LoWPAN. In , authors com-
pare the 6LoWPAN with LPWANs layer by layer. A similar
comparison on the use of 6LoWPAN will be given in section
V. In , an adaptation layer is proposed based on the SCHC
mechanism for compression and decompression. This solution
deals with vehicular communication and moving devices. But
SCHC mechanism is developed for the static device, so update
and improvements on this mechanism are required to support
III. HEA DE R COMPRESSION MECHANISMS
The IETF has established an LPWAN WG to explore
a solution that adopts IPv6 over constrained networks in
LPWANs. The proposed solution is based on two conditions:
•Solution for star topology networks that are characterized
by small bandwidth and low power, and support for
•Static predetermined ﬂow of data.
This WG has proposed the Static Context Header Compression
(SCHC)  mechanism as a header compression scheme
that compresses IPv6 header into less than 1 byte. However,
and like its predecessor 6LoWPAN, SCHC is currently being
updated to cover the IPv6/UDP/CoAP (Constrained Applica-
tion Protocol) headers and to be adapted to other LPWANs
technologies. SCHC compression mechanism considers static
devices with predetermined context saved on the device and
server memory. This context does not change during packet
transmission. SCHC avoids the complexity of synchronization
mechanisms. These mechanisms are not required when dealing
with LPWANs. Moreover, SCHC is an adaptation layer that is
placed between the network and data link layer as 6LoWPAN.
SCHC compresses the IPv6/UDP/CoAP headers into ruleID
and sends the data to lower layers for transmission.
Fig. 1. SCHC Architecture.
The context saved on device and server consists of rules as
shown in Fig. 1. Each rule consists of several ﬁelds. Each ﬁeld
corresponds to a parameter from the header. A rule holds the
information of the header. The ruleID is formed by:
•Field ID (FID): A unique value used to represent the
•Field Length (FL): Used to specify the header segment
•Field Position (FP): In case the ﬁeld is an array, ﬁeld
position is used to select a deﬁnite item in the array.
•Direction Indicator (DI): Used to specify the direction of
the packet, whether uplink (Up); data are from device to
server, downlink (Dw); data are from the server to device,
or Bidirectional (Bi).
•Target Value (TV): This ﬁeld contains the value that ED
received to compare with the saved value.
•Matching Operator (MO): This operator is applied in
comparing received TV with saved one.
•Compression Decompression Action (CDA): It describes
the method used beside each ﬁeld to compress and
decompress the TV.
IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
6LoWPAN  offers a lot of advantages for low power
wireless sensor networks and other forms of low power
wireless networks like LPWANs. In late 2004, 6LoWPAN WG
formed by the Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF 
to enable IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 networks. The mission of
the 6LoWPAN WG was to build an adaptation layer under
the IPv6 protocol on the network layer and above the IEEE
802.15.4. This open standard was aimed to run for low power
wireless system that operates at the 2.4 GHz frequencies,
but now it is adapted and updated to run with many other
wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, Power Line Com-
munication, LoRaWAN, etc. In the 6LoWPAN standard, the
WG deﬁned the compression/decompression mechanisms and
encapsulation/fragmentation that enable running IPv6 packet
data on constrained wireless networks. Currently, 6LoWPAN
is an adaptation layer that allows IPv6 packets to be carried
efﬁciently within small link layer frames. Moreover, this
adaptation layer deﬁnes one reduced header format for IPv6
and one reduced format for UDP packet headers. Today,
6LoWPAN is one of the most important technologies for
the integration of IPv6 in smart objects based on Wireless
Sensor Networks with low power, limited bandwidth, and
reduced memory capabilities. Furthermore, the 6LoWPAN
bridge translates the 6LoWPAN header of the packets received
via the WPAN interface to the IPv6/UDP headers. These
packets are transmitted through the MAC/PHY interface, and
vice versa, transparently.
Fig. 2. 6LoWPAN Communication Scenarios.
Fig. 2 shows three communication scenarios for 6LoWPAN:
•In scenario 1, communication is within the 6LoWPAN
network between two devices. In this case, the devices
use the link-local addresses. 6LoWPAN can compress the
IPv6 header down to 2 bytes.
•In scenario 2, communication is with a device outside
the 6LoWPAN network, but the preﬁx of the external
network is known. In this case, 6LoWPAN can compress
the IPv6 header down to 12 bytes.
•In scenario 3, communication is similar to 2, but the
preﬁx of the external network is unknown. In this case,
6LoWPAN compresses the IPv6 header down to 20 bytes.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHC MODULE
In order to compare the two mechanisms, SCHC and
6LoWPAN, we used Network Simulator 3 (NS3) . NS3
is free popular software for discrete event simulation. The
6LoWPAN mechanism was already implemented on NS3 but
SCHC still not available. Based on , we created the SCHC
module  that implements the functions of compression and
decompression. Then, this module was integrated and tested
in NS3. In the following, we provide a brief description of the
compression and decompression mechanisms on SCHC. The
implementation, structure, and installation of the module on
NS3 can be found in .
Fig. 3. SCHC Module Structure.
The implementation of the SCHC algorithm on NS3 was
done using the C++ language. This choice was motivated
by the fact that a C++ compiler is usually present on most
available hardware platforms. SCHC has been structured and
implemented in several ﬁles found under the SCHC module
folder as shown in Fig. 3. A new module named SCHC was
created to model the behavior of the SCHC protocol. This
module is essentially a collection of classes that work together
to describe the compression and decompression functions used
in SCHC. The set of classes and ﬁles needed to simulate a
network formed by devices that use SCHC as an adaptation
layer are described in the following.
Fig. 4. Protocol Stack Installed in NetDevice.
The helper ﬁle contains the SCHC-helper class that installs
an SCHC adaptation layer between IPV6 and L2 layer (Data
link layer). Furthermore, the SCHC-helper class was used to
install a protocol stack that contains the SCHC protocol on
the NetDevice as shown in Fig. 4.
1) SCHC-rule: It speciﬁes the rules contained in the SCHC
context that deﬁnes the structure of the algorithm of the
SCHC protocol. A rule will be of type structure formed by
a ruleID and an array of type SCHC Rule ﬁeld (rule ﬁeld)
containing the description of the different ﬁelds that make up
an IPV6/UDP packet as shown in Fig. 5. The ruleID is a binary
value and consists of a series of zeros and ones.
Fig. 5. SCHC Rule Structure.
2) Compression mechanism: The compression mechanism
compresses the headers of the packet received from the net-
work layer using the CompressSCHC function. This function
follows the ﬂowchart structure represented in Fig. 6. Before
starting the SCHC compression algorithm, separation for the
IP and the UDP headers from the payload is done. The goal
of the compression is to ﬁnd a ruleID, represented by a few
bits, to identify the contexts of the ﬁelds in the packet header
UDP/IP. To select a ruleID, the packet header ﬁelds will be
matched with the saved context in memory. The best ruleID
that matches the context of the packet header will be selected.
Then this ruleID is used to compress the packet header. As
shown in Fig. 6, the SCHC compression starts by loading all
the rules saved in memory in a ”for loop.” The algorithm
iterates the rules one by one and checks for each iteration
if all the ﬁelds of the rule, are in agreement with the IP
and UDP header ﬁelds. In case of a mismatch, the algorithm
goes to the next rule. Then, the algorithm loads the ﬁelds
of each rule in a ”for loop.” In a ﬁrst step, the algorithm
chooses the ﬁeld description based on its direction, based on
the direction indicator (DI) parameter. Any ﬁeld description
with no proper DI will be ignored, and the algorithm will
check the next ﬁeld. The rule will be ignored if all the packet
ﬁelds do not have an appropriate ﬁeld description with the
required DI. Then, the following rule will be checked. With
the successful match of DI, the algorithm recognizes the ﬁelds
regarding their Field Position (FP). The rule will be discarded
if the FP does not match. After successful matches of DI and
FP with the packet header context, the algorithm starts by
comparing each ﬁeld of the packet header (example: as shown
in Fig. 2 of the IPv6) with the Target Value (TV) saved on the
rule. This comparison between received TV and saved one is
based on the rules speciﬁed by the received Matching Operator
(MO) as shown in Table I. After matching all the ﬁelds and
the packet header with the selected rule, the compression
starts based on the actions of the rule.After that, a new ”for
loop” is created to compress the packet header values. The
compression mechanism is performed by applying, for each
ﬁeld, the compression action corresponding to the rule. Once
the compression operations are done, the algorithm returns the
ruleID. In case of more than one rule matches, the rule that
provides better header compression will be selected. If no rule
matches, the headers will be sent uncompressed in the ﬁeld
speciﬁed by SCHC for transmitted headers. Depending on the
L2 layer of the technology and allowed frame size, SCHC
decides whether to fragment the packet or not.
3) Decompression mechanism: On the network side, de-
compression mechanism is different from the that on Device.
The network side holds rules that correspond to several
devices. A compressed packet received on the network side
needs the device address and ruleID. The SCHC decompres-
sor loads the ruleIDs corresponding to this device. These
ruleIDs are available in the database of the network under
the device identity. Otherwise, on the device side, only the
ruleID is needed, since each device holds its own rules.
The decompression algorithm is implemented in the schc-
net-device.cc ﬁle following the structure is shown in Fig.
6. In decompression, the input is the context containing the
”compression header” and the ”ruleID.” The method returns a
Boolean value, which will be true when the package has been
properly uncompressed, or false if an error has occurred. First,
the algorithm starts by separating the SCHC headers from the
payload and makes the ﬁrst check to determine if the rule is
present in the context. Then, it starts the process of rebuilding
the original package. At this stage, the algorithm begins to
analyze all the ﬁelds described in the rule, check the direction
of the communication ﬂow, apply CDA method to decompress
the value, and rebuild all the ﬁelds to obtain the IP/UDP packet
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
To evaluate the performance of the SCHC protocol, we
performed three simulation scenarios as shown in Fig. 7.
In the three scenarios, we sent a ping from the device to
server passing by the gateway. In scenario A, packets trans-
mitted without compression. In scenario B, packet headers
are compressed using 6LoWPAN compression. In scenario C,
the headers are compressed using the SCHC compression. In
SCHC, we consider the ruleID with the compression headers
space together as a header. The SCHC context header was
composed of a ruleID formed of 3 bits, and n bytes for the
header compress. Table II shows the compression gain in case
of normal transmission and when compressing the headers
Fig. 6. SCHC Algorithm Structure for Compression and Decompression.
using 6LoWPAN and SCHC. This table shows that SCHC
can reach a compression factor of 0.9 compared to 0.43 for
6LoWPAN. The compression ratio is calculated as follows:
where C is the compression ratio, Lorignal represents the
packet header length, and Lcompressed is the header compres-
In term of header compression, SCHC device starts by
sending a map for the UDP/IPv6 headers used by the server.
Consider the scenario where the ruleID was ”001” (3bits), and
the compression header ﬁelds contain the UDP/IPv6 header
values as shown in Table I. The ﬁrst transmitting packet header
was 5 bytes, and all the following packets headers were only 3
bits as ruleID and 5 bits for padding. As shown in Table I, most
of the ﬁelds are known to the server. So device rule conﬁgura-
tion does not need to be sent.The only sent ﬁelds are the UDP
source and destination ports which are equal to 4 bytes. The 5
bytes header is composed of 3 bits for ruleID, 4 bytes data in
the ”compression headers” and 5 bits of padding. In the case
of mobility, SCHC mechanism does not support mobility and
only considers static devices. In the case of network topology,
SCHC only deals with star networks which make it successful
for LPWANs technologies but not for mesh IoT technologies
such as Zigbee, etc. SCHC has been a solution to IoT networks
with radio constraints, but as headers increase, the amount of
data saved in memory increases and the searching time for
the applicable rule will also increase. This requires better data
management mechanism and searching algorithm to manage
the stored data between device and server. In summary, SCHC
is a trade-off between radio constraints, memory usage, and
Consider a static device communicating with a server. All
data transmitted from the device to server holds the same
header. Even with the use of header compression, we will show
Fig. 7. Testing Scenarios on NS3.
RUL E SENT
Field FP FL DL TV MO C/D
IPv6 Header Fields
Version 1 4 bi 6 equal not-sent
Class 1 8 bi 0x00 equal not-sent
Label 1 20 bi 0x000000 ignore not-sent
Length 1 16 bi None ignore Compute-
Header 1 8 bi 17 equal not-sent
Limit 1 1 bi 30 ignore not-sent
Source id 1 64 bi 2001:63:
80:8 equal not-sent
Source id 1 64 bi ::2 equal not-sent
Destination 1 64 bi 2001:63:
80:9 equal not-sent
Destination 1 64 bi ::2 equal not-sent
UDP Header Fields
Port 1 2 bi 5682 ignore value-sent
Port 1 2 bi 5555 ignore value-sent
Length 1 2 bi None ignore Compute-
Checksum 1 2 bi None ignore Compute-
Fig. 8. Bytes of the headers generated from 10 packets.
THR EE SCE NAR IOS COMPARISON
Scenario A:IPv6 B:6LoWPAN C:SCHC
Data rate high medium low
Memory Usage low low High
Mobility support Yes Yes No
Interoperability Yes Yes Speciﬁc
Scalability Yes Yes No
Network topology Mesh Mesh/star Star
Header compression no
48 bytes header
compression 48 bytes 27 bytes
Compression gain 0% 43% 90%
the number of bytes generated to send only ten packets by each
standard. During the transmission of the packets, the necessary
header ﬁelds hold unchangeable values such as IP and the
port of communication between the source and destination.
To show the amount of these bytes, we set at the gateway
a byte counter to count the headers size generated by each
standard after the transmission of 10 packets. As shown in Fig.
8, we compare one 6LoWPAN device with ten SCHC devices.
The results show that more than 600 bytes are consumed as
headers to transmit ten packets. While ten devices using SCHC
standard consume less than 150 bytes. Therefore, in the case
of radio constraints, SCHC standard is preferable.
This work analyzed two header compression solutions used
to compress IPv6 protocol to run on constrained devices. The
mechanism of the SCHC protocol has been implemented on
NS3. The mechanism of 6LoWPAN was already implemented
and proposed on NS3. We simulated three scenarios, and the
results showed that SCHC is more efﬁcient for the LPWAN
context. However, SCHC is a mechanism that is characterized
by a static context. Thus, SCHC could be considered as a
solution for only predetermined ﬁxed ﬂows which is the case
of most LPWANs technologies. Furthermore, SCHC uses a
single static context to save the different rules, and rules
can cover several layers of the network stack. In case we
have two IPv6/UDP ﬂows to the same IPv6 host, then one
IPv6 header and two different UDP ports are considered. That
corresponds to the case of running two concurrent applications
on different UDP ports. SCHC mechanism would include
a rule for each ﬂow, resulting in a similar context. In this
case, SCHC mechanism stores two similar versions of the
ﬁelds for the IPv6 header. That storage increases memory
usage in constrained devices with duplicate information. The
limitations mentioned above will be the subject of future work.
Our implemented module only deals with the compression of
IPv6/UDP packets. However, this work could be extended to
support the compression of application layer protocol CoAP.
 W. Ayoub, M. Mroue, F. Nouvel, A. E. Samhat, and J. c. Prvotet,
“Towards ip over lpwans technologies: Lorawan, dash7, nb-iot,” in 2018
Sixth International Conference on Digital Information, Networking, and
Wireless Communications (DINWC), pp. 43–47, April 2018.
 Z. Sheng, S. Yang, Y. Yu, A. V. Vasilakos, J. A. Mccann, and K. K.
Leung, “A survey on the ietf protocol suite for the internet of things:
standards, challenges, and opportunities,” IEEE Wireless Communica-
tions, vol. 20, pp. 91–98, December 2013.
 C. G. D. B. J. Z. A. Minaburo, L. Toutain, “Lpwan static context header
compression (schc) and fragmentation for ipv6 and udp draft-ietf-lpwan-
ipv6-static-context-hc-17,” October 22, 2018.
 W. Ayoub and S. Hmede, “Schc mechanism module on ns3.”
 H. Al-Kashoash and A. Kemp, “Comparison of 6lowpan and lp-
wan for the internet of things,” Australian Journal of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 268–274, December 2017. c
2017 Engineers Australia. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an
article published by Taylor & Francis in Australian Journal of Elec-
trical and Electronics Engineering on 1 December 2017, available
Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.
 https://www.nsnam.org/releases/,September 4, 2018.
 C. Yanamadala and K. Marneweck, “Why silicon security may be cru-
cial for next design.” https://pages.arm.com/Webinar-recording-silicon-
security-crucial-for-iot-device-typ.html?aliId=42779824, October 2018.
 E. A. Kobus Marneweck, Senior Product Manager, “An
introduction to the arm cortex-m35p processor, white paper.”
 H. A. A. Al-Kashoash and A. H. Kemp, “Comparison of 6lowpan and
lpwan for the internet of things,” Australian Journal of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 268–274, 2016.
 K. Q. Abdelfadeel, V. Cionca, and D. Pesch, “Lschc: Layered static
context header compression for lpwans,” in Proceedings of the 12th
Workshop on Challenged Networks, CHANTS ’17, (New York, NY,
USA), pp. 13–18, ACM, 2017.
 P. Weber, D. Jckle, D. Rahusen, and A. Sikora, “Ipv6 over lorawan,”
in 2016 3rd International Symposium on Wireless Systems within the
Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing
Systems (IDAACS-SWS), pp. 75–79, Sept 2016.
 S. Thielemans, M. Bezunartea, and K. Steenhaut, “Establishing trans-
parent ipv6 communication on lora based low power wide area networks
(lpwans),” in 2017 Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS),
pp. 1–6, April 2017.
 W. Ayoub, A. E. Samhat, F. Nouvel, M. Mroue, and J. Prvotet,
“Internet of mobile things: Overview of lorawan, dash7, and nb-iot
in lpwans standards and supported mobility,” IEEE Communications
Surveys Tutorials, pp. 1–1, 2018.
 R. Ballamajalu, S. V. R. Anand, and M. Hegde, “Co-ioam: In-situ
telemetry metadata transport for resource constrained networks within
ietf standards framework,” in 2018 10th International Conference on
Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS), pp. 573–576, Jan
 R. Sanchez-Iborra, J. Snchez-Gmez, J. Santa, P. J. Fernndez, and A. F.
Skarmeta, “Ipv6 communications over lora for future iov services,” in
2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), pp. 92–97,
 D. Minoli, IPv6 Over LowPower WPAN (6Lowpan). Wiley, 2013.
 P. Thubert, “Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams over IEEE
802.15.4-Based Networks.” RFC 6282, Sept. 2011.