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Ethnomedicinal plant is one of the important sources for drug discovery. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp is one of the ethnomedicinal plants that is currently gaining attention for its various pharmacological potentials.This review evaluates its traditional uses, chemical profiles, toxicological aspects, nutritional values, as well as its pharmacological properties. From our literature search in Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, it was found that S. polyanthum has valuable therapeutic potentials including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, antidiarrheal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, and dental plaque inhibition properties. However, few research areas, especially its toxicological profiles, mechanism of actions, as well as identification of its bioactive compound, require more in-depth studies. © 2019 Phcog.Net. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019 429
Pharmacogn J. 2019; 11(2): 429-438
A Multifaceted Journal in the eld of Natural Products and Pharmacognosy
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Review Article
COMMON NAMES AND PLANT
TAXONOMY
Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp is well known
among Malaysians as “salam”, serai kayu, or “samak
kelat, whereas in Indonesia, the plant is commonly
recognized as “ubar serai”, meselengan”, manting”,
Indonesia laurel, or Indonesian bay leaf.1 e scientic
name S. polyanthum was usually used in synonymous
with Eugenia polyantha.2 According to the Archive
of “Catalogue of Life,3 this plant belongs to Plantae
kingdom, Magnoliophyta phylum, Magnoliopsida class,
Myr tales order, Myrtaceae family, Syzygium genus,
and S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp species.
TRADITIONAL USES
Leaves, fruits, and barks of S. polyanthum are tradi-
tionally used for various medicinal and nonmedicinal
purposes. e roots and the fruits are consumed to
reverse the hangover eect with alcohol, whereas the
leaves are traditionally consumed for treating various
illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension,
gastritis, ulcers, diarrhea, skin diseases, as well as
infections.4,5 People in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, has
reported to add S. polyanthum leaves as one of the
ingredients in their soups, and it was consumed for
treating hypertension.6 Another alternative way of pre-
paring remedies from S. polyanthum leaves is by pre-
paring leaf decoction, usually by boiling few pieces of
S. polyanthum leaves in plain water until they become
concentrated.
Apart from its medicinal use, the young shoots of
S. polyanthum are consumed in its raw form as salad,
or locally known among Malay as “ulam” and, some-
times, the mature leaves are used to enhance avor in
Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
ABSTRACT
Ethnomedicinal plant is one of the important sources for drug discovery. Syzygium polyanthum
(Wight) Walp is one of the ethnomedicinal plants that is currently gaining attention for its
various pharmacological potentials. This review evaluates its traditional uses, chemical proles,
toxicological aspects, nutritional values, as well as its pharmacological properties. From our
literature search in Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, it was found that
S. polyanthum has valuable therapeutic potentials including antidiabetic, antihypertensive,
antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, antidiarrheal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory,
and dental plaque inhibition properties. However, few research areas, especially its toxicological
proles, mechanism of actions, as well as identication of its bioactive compound, require
more in-depth studies.
Keywords: Chemical, Nutritional, Pharmacological, Syzygium polyanthum, Toxicological
Azlini Ismail1*, Wan Amir Nizam Wan Ahmad2
Azlini Ismail1, Wan Amir
Nizam Wan Ahmad2
1Department of Fundamental Dental
and Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Den-
tistry, International Islamic University
Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA.
2Biomedicine Program, School of Health
Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti
Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MALAYSIA.
Correspondence
Dr. Azlini Ismail
Department of Fundamental Dental and
Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Dentistry,
International Islamic University Malaysia,
Kuantan Campus, Indera Mahkota,
25200 Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA.
E-mail: dr_azlini@iium.edu.my
Phone no: +6014-5010081
History
Submission Date: 04-09-2018;
Review completed: 27-11-2018;
Accepted Date: 19-12-2018
DOI : 10.5530/pj.2019.11.67
Article Available online
http://www.phcogj.com/v11/i2
Copyright
© 2019 Phcog.Net. This is an open-
access article distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International license.
Cite this article: Ismail A, Wan Ahmad WAN. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A potential
phytomedicine. Pharmacog J. 2019;11(2):429-38.
various local Malay dishes. Until now, it has been
recognized as one of the well-known culinary addi-
tives in Indonesia.7 Besides the leaves, the ripe or
unripe fruits of this plant are edible, and the taste is
usually described as “sweet-sour.”8 e fruits can be
harvested during fruiting season between April and
June in the northeastern part of ailand.8 Other
than the leaves and fruits, barks of S. polyanthum
can be used to dye nets in order to enhance their
strength.
PLANT DISTRIBUTION
S. polyanthum is distributed in South-East Asian
countries, including Malaysia,9 ailand,8
Indonesia,4,5 and Singapore.10 e plant can be found
on hilly areas and in the forests. However, in certain
rural areas, the plant is planted in the eld and gar-
den, near to the residential area.
PLANT MORPHOLOGY
e plant’s height may reach up to 25 m. e root is
straight and the trunk is rounded with lush branch
[Figure 1a]. e leaf shape is elliptical with length
ranging from 5 to 15 cm and width ranging from
3 to 8 cm [Figure 1b]. e base and the end of the
leaf are pointy. e upper part of the leaf is dark
green with lighter green on the lower part. e leaf
petiole is about 0.5–1 cm. e white-colored owers
are small with fragrance [Figure 1c]. e fruit is
round with a diameter of 8–9 mm. e unripe fruit
is green in color [Figure 1d], and the ripe fruit
[Figure 1e] is dark red in color. e brown-colored
seed is round with a diameter of 1 mm.
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
430 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019
CHEMICAL PROFILES
Several studies have revealed the phytochemical components of
S. polyanthum, but majority of these studies focused on the leaf part of
the plant. A preliminary phytochemical screening study conducted by
Kusuma et al.11 revealed that the leaves and unripe fruits of S. polyanthum
contain carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, and
avonoids, while the ripe fruits contain saponins, carbohydrates, tannins,
alkaloids, triterpenoids, and avonoids. In fact, several studies have
quantied the total phenolics and total avonoids in various types of
extracts from barks and leaves of S. polyanthum. Lelono et al.4 found
that methanolic–water extract from S. polyanthum bark had the greatest
total phenolic content (TPC) in comparison with both methanolic and
water extracts, when measured as catechin and gallic acid equivalents.
On the contrary, methanolic extract from S. polyanthum bark exhibited
the highest total avonoid content (TFC), when measured as rutin and
avonol equivalents in comparison with methanolic–water and water
extracts. When the TPC of S. polyanthum leaves was compared with that
of S. polyanthum barks from previous studies, the TPC of the former12,13
was found lower than the latter.4
Caeic acid, gallic acid,13 and 4-allyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene
(hydroxychavicol)2 were the three phenolic compounds previously
identied in S. polyanthum leaves. Instrumental analyses using high-
performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography
mass spectrometry showed the presence of both caeic acid and gal-
lic acid in the methanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves;13 meanwhile,
hydroxychavicol was isolated via bioassay-guided fractionation of ethyl
acetate layer from the hydroalcoholic extract of S. polyanthum leaves for
lipase inhibitory action.2 ree hydroxyl benzoic acid derivatives (1)
3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid), (2) 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy
benzoic acid, and (3) 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid were iden-
tied from fractionation of the methanol–water extract of S. polyanthum
leaves.7 Compounds 1–3 have basic phenolic structure with benzoic acid
moiety; however, only compounds 2–3 have alpha-glucosidase inhibi-
tory activity, a key enzyme for type 2 diabetes.
Other than that, squalene, a triterpenoid, was detected by using gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on methanol14,15 and n-hex-
ane15 extracts of S. polyanthum leaves. Hamad et al.15 have also identi-
ed n-hentriacontane, a long chain alkane hydrocarbon, a major vola-
tile compound in n-hexane extract of S. polyanthum leaves. Another
major compound found in ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves
is phytol, an acyclic diterpene alcohol.16 A recent study by Rahim et
al.17 also detected the presence of these two compounds (squalene
and phytol) in various types of S. polyanthum leaf extracts (n-hexane,
ethyl acetate, and methanol). e major composition of these three
extracts is sesquiterpenes, but other components such as other types of
terpenes (monoterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenes), phenolics, aldehydes,
hydrocarbons, and fatty acids were also identied. e same study also
highlighted the presence of some bioactive compounds with varying
pharmacological activities such as hentriacontane (anti-inammatory),
palmitic acid (anti-inammatory and antibacterial), nerolidol (anti-
inammatory, antinociceptive, antifungal, and antiulcer), linalool
(antibacterial, anti-inammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective),
α-pinene (anti-inammatory, antibacterial, and hypotensive),
α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol (antioxidant), as well as the two major
compounds, squalene (antioxidant, antitumor, and chemopreventive
eect), and phytol (anti-inammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial,
antioxidant, and antinociceptive).17
A latest isolation study by Setyawati et al.18 to nd skin-whitening
compound managed to isolate four compounds from methanolic extract
of S. polyanthum leaves; the rst compound was identied as 1-(2,3,5-
trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one; the second compound was
identied as 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one; and the
third compound was identied as (4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methyl-
phenyl)decan-1-one. ese three compounds are novel, while the fourth
isolated compound was 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-
1-one, a known compound. Compounds 1–4 signicantly decreased
melanin biosynthesis and were able to inhibit tyrosinase, two important
properties for skin whitening.
Other than analysis on the crude extract, there are also ongoing researches
on the identication of volatile compounds from the essential oil of
S. polyanthum leaves. Hydrodistillation of S. polyanthum dried leaves
produced essential oil with major composition of α-pinene, octanal, and
α-caryophyllene.19 Another recent study had identied few major
constituents in the essential oil of S. polyanthum leaves such as cis-4-decanal,
1-decyl aldehyde, and capryl aldehyde.20 In addition, few bioactive com-
pounds from terpene group such as α-humulene, α-copaene, α-selinene,
α-zingiberene, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were among
the identied compounds in the essential oil of this plant. Phytochemical
components in the extract and essential oil of S. polyanthum leaves are
shown in Table 1.
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT
e nutritional aspect of S. polyanthum is also an important aspect to
be studied as the leaves are edible and regularly being incorporated in
local Malay dishes. Karim et al.21 had determined the content of
Vitamins (B2, B3, and C) in S. polyanthum leaves. It was found that
every 100 mg of dry powder of S. polyanthum leaves contains 1.24 mg
riboavin (Vitamin B2), 0.58 mg niacin (Vitamin B3), and 0.40 mg of
ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), with the total vitamin content of 2.22 mg.21
e human body requires vitamins in trace amount in order to maintain
normal physiological functions; therefore, deciencies of vitamin may
lead to various detrimental consequences such as scurvy due to the lack
of Vitamin C and pellagra for niacin deciency.
TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Investigation on the toxicological aspect is another integral issue in eval-
uating the potential of any phytomedicine. Kusuma et al.11 previously
conducted a cytotoxicity test using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae.
e test usually serves as a preliminary assessment assay in evaluating the
potential toxicity of a plant extract prior to toxicity evaluation in higher
animals. Kusuma et al.11 reported that the ethanol extract of S. polyanthum
leaves has LC50 (lethal concentration that causes 50% morbidity in total
brine shrimp larvae) of more than 1000 μg/ml. An extract was consid-
ered as practically nontoxic if the LC50 in brine shrimp lethality test was
more than 500 μg/ml.22 erefore, the leaf extract was considered as non-
Figure 1: S. polyanthum (Wight.) Walp. (a) whole plant, (b) leaf, (c) owers,
(d) unripe fruits, and (e) ripe fruits
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019 431
Table 1: Phytochemical components in the essential oil and extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves
nTypes of sample Compounds Instrumentation References
1 Essential oil from
hydrodistillation of leaves
Aldehyde GCMS 19
Octanal
Terpenes
α-pinene
α-caryophyllene
Aldehyde GCMS 20
Cis-4-decanal
1-decyl aldehyde
Capryl aldehyde
Terpenes
α-humulene (α-caryophyllene)
α-copaene
α-selinene
α-zingiberene
β- caryophyllene
Caryophyllene oxide
2 Leaf extract Phenolics HPLC and LCMS 13
Caeic acid
Gallic acid
Phenolics NMR and ESI-MS 2
4-allyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (hydroxychavicol)
Phenolics Preparative HPLC 7
3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid (gallic acid)
4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid
Terpenes GCMS 14
Squalene
Alkane GCMS 15,17
Hentriacontane
Diterpene alcohol GCMS 16
Phytol
Acyclic alkene GCMS 17
1H cyclopropa[a]naphthalene
Aldehydes
n-heptanal
Octanal
Alkanes
Heptane
Eicosane
n-pentacosane
Bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Selina-4,11-diene (naphthalene)
Diol
Propylene glycol
Fatty acid
Palmitic acid
Stearic acid
Continue...
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
432 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019
Table 1: Cont ’d.
Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) (palmitin)
Fatty acid ester
Methyl oleate
Methyl palmitate
Lignan
9,12,15-Octadecatrien-1-ol
Methylated phenols (tocopherols)
α-tocopherol
β-tocopherol
γ-tocopherol
Oxygenated terpenes
Caryophyllene oxide
Peroxides
Humulene epoxide II
Phenolics
Pyrogallol
Steroidal
β-sitosterol
Saturated terpenoid alkane
Pentadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-
Terpenes
Azulene
Farnesol
α-copaene
δ-cadinene
α-cubebene
α-pinene
α-panasinsene
β-panasinsene
α-humulene
β-selinene
2-isopropenyl-4a,8-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7-
octahydronaphthalene (α-selinene)
Linalool
Neophytadiene
Nerolidol
Valencene
Unclassied
2-cyclohexen-3-ol-1-one, 2-[1-iminoethyl]-
2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one
Unclassied NMR and
MALDI-TOF–MS
18
1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one
1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one
(4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one
1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one
GCMS=Gas chromatography mass spectrometry, HPLC=High-performance liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS=Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-
time-of-ight-mass spectrometry, NMR=Nuclear magnetic resonance, ESI-MS=Electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019 433
toxic. e test also indicated the safety of fruits because the study also
revealed the LC50 of more than 1000 μg/ml for unripe fruits and 747.45
μg/ml for ripe fruits.11
Perumal et al.12 tested the cytotoxicity of S. polyanthum leaf extracts on
normal Vero cell lines which were derived from the kidney of African
green monkeys using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetra-
zolium bromide (MTT) assay. e colorimetric MTT assay determines
the viability of cells reected by the action of succinate dehydrogenase
enzyme on yellow tetrazolium dye, the MTT. e formation of insoluble
purple formazan salts indicates the number of viable cells present.
is study showed that the inhibitory concentration of S. polyanthum
leaf extract that caused 50% (IC50) of cytotoxicity of Vero cell lines was
53.50 μg/ml.12 erefore, the extract was noncytotoxic because it has
IC50 value of more than 20 μg/ml.23 Another MTT assay of methanolic
extract of S. polyanthum leaf at a concentration of 25–200 μg/mL has also
been tested on B16 melanoma cells for 72 h.18 Even at the highest
concentration of 200 μg/mL, the methanolic extract of S. polyanthum
leaves showed high cell viability.
PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
e pharmacological properties of the ripe and unripe fruits, the barks,
and mostly the leaves of S. polyanthum were widely studied. Currently,
S. polyanthum leaves were reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic,
antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antitumor, antidiarrheal, acetylcholin-
esterase inhibitory, and lipase inhibitory activities. A summary of these
pharmacological properties is outlined in Table 2.
Antioxidant
Plant is one of the rich sources of antioxidant; it can scavenge free
radicals, which is known to contribute in the development of cancer and
atherosclerosis by inducing oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids. Enormous antioxidant studies have been conducted on
various parts of S. polyanthum including the leaves, the ripe and unripe
fruits, as well as the bark. e most commonly employed method was
using the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay,27-29
followed by other methods such as ferric-reducing assay (FRAP),10,26,27
beta carotene bleaching assay,7,12,25 and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothio-
zoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical scavenging (ABTS) assay.27
Majority of antioxidant studies on this plant have focused on the leaf
parts which were extracted by using various solvents from various
ranges of polarity. Aqueous extract of S. polyanthum leaves exhib-
ited relatively high DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to
the other 24 tested plant extracts.10 Ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum
leaves at 50 and 100 ppm exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity
of 82.00% and 83.00%, respectively, as compared to 95.00% radical
scavenging activity by ascorbic acid as the reference compound.11Few
other studies reported almost similar values of EC50, for instance,
20.90 ± 0.26,12 24.09,13 and 21.24 ± 1.14 μg/ml24 for methanolic extracts
of S. polyanthum leaves.
In a few more comprehensive studies that compared the level of anti-
oxidant activity of leaf extracts, methanolic extract has exhibited the
strongest DPPH scavenging activity, followed by water, petroleum ether,
and chloroform extracts.27 Another study has similarly shown that the
methanolic extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by ethyl
acetate, dichloromethane, and hexane extracts.28 A latest study also
supported this whereby the authors found that methanolic extract has
highest antioxidant activities compared to ethyl acetate and hexane
extracts.29
Other than DPPH assay, the FRAP assay is another common assay to
demonstrate the antioxidant activity of an extract/compound. Wong
et al.10 had shown that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum leaves exhibited
relatively strong ferric ion-reducing activity as compared to the other
24 tested plant extracts. Later studies compared the ferric ion-reducing
activity of dierent types of S. polyanthum leaf extracts. Ethanolic (50%)
extract of S. polyanthum leaves was found to have higher reducing
capability compared to water and hexane extract.26 In agreement with
that, another study using similar assay showed that methanolic extract of
S. polyanthum leaves had the greatest reducing power followed by water,
chloroform, and petroleum ether extract.27
e less common antioxidant studies tested for S. polyanthum leaf
extract were using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS assay.
Previous researches using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay
have shown that the methanolic12 and water25 extracts of S. polyanthum
leaves exhibited almost similar antioxidant activity as compared to
the reference synthetic antioxidant compound, the butylated hydroxy-
toluene.12,25 Similarly, ABTS assay proved that methanolic extract of
S. polyanthum leaves also has the highest antioxidant capacity, followed
by chloroform extract, water extract, and petroleum ether extract.27 Alto-
gether, the ndings of DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays indicated that the
antioxidant compounds of S. polyanthum leaves were more concentrated
in polar solvents.
Besides leaves, the ripe and unripe fruits of S. polyanthum were also
tested and both showed very good antioxidant activity compared to
ascorbic acid as the reference compound.11 e ripe and unripe fruits
of S. polyanthum at 100 ppm possess 90.00% and 88.00% DPPH radical
scavenging activity as compared to 95.00% DPPH radical scavenging
activity of ascorbic acid.11
Not only fruits, but also the bark of this plant was also tested for antioxi-
dant activity. e methanolic, methanolic–water, and the water extracts
of S. polyanthum bark exhibited DPPH scavenging activity with EC50
value of 0.34 ± 0.16, 0.18 ± 0.04, and 0.35 ± 0.11 mg/ml, respectively.4
Meanwhile, by using hydrogen peroxide scavenging method, the
methanolic, methanolic-water, and the water extracts of S. polyanthum
bark exhibited hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of
28.00 ± 0.54%, 15.00 ± 4.22%, and 74.00 ± 0.53%, respectively.4 In
the meantime, by using β-carotene bleaching assay, the methanolic,
methanolic-water, and the water extracts of S. polyanthum bark exhibited
protection from β-carotene bleaching with percentages of 76.43 ± 0.91%,
85.72 ± 0.57%, and 74.33 ± 0.53%, respectively.4
Antidiabetic
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevailing metabolic disorders with
complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, impotency, stroke, and
heart attack.42 Patients with diabetes usually suer from hyperglycemic
condition as a consequence of insucient insulin secretion or exces-
sive glucagon secretion and even insulin resistance.1,7 In a preliminary
survey conducted among diabetic outpatients attending Health
Community Centre Sering in Medan, Indonesia, it was noted that the
most commonly used herb as a traditional remedy for diabetes mellitus
was S. polyanthum (57.1%).1
An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test on normal Sprague Dawley
(SD) rats has shown that petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic
extracts of S. polyanthum leaves did not signicantly alter the normal
rat’s glucose tolerance.1 In an acute hypoglycemic test on nondiabetic
rats, administration of methanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves at dos-
ages from 125 mg/kg to 1 g/kg did not signicantly reduce blood glucose
level of nondiabetic rats.14 However, in both alloxan-7,30 and streptozoto-
cin-1 induced diabetic rats, S. polyanthum leaf extract was shown to sig-
nicantly lower blood glucose levels of these two diabetic rat models.
Lelono7 had shown that 21-day daily treatment with aqueous extract of
S. polyanthum leaves at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg signicantly
reduced the blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In fact,
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
434 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019
Table 2: Summary of pharmacological activities of Syzygium polyanthum leaves, stem, fruits, and barks
nBiological activity Part of plant
used
Solvents Findings References
1 Antioxidant Leaf Wa ter DPPH test: Water extract of leaves has relatively high antioxidant activity
reected by the high scavenging activity as compared to the other 24 tested
edible plants
Ferric ion test: Water extract of leaves has relatively strong ferric ion-reducing
activity as compared to the other 24 tested plants
10
Ethanol DPPH test: 50 and 100 ppm of ethanolic extract of leaves exhibited 82.00%
and 83.00% of radical scavenging activity as compared to 95.00% radical
scavenging activity by ascorbic acid as a reference compound
11
Methanol DPPH test: Methanolic extract of leaves exhibited antioxidant activity with the
EC50 value of 20.9±0.26 μg/ml
Reducing power: Methanolic extract of leaves exhibited reducing power with
EC50 of 77.55±0.76 μg/ml
β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay: Methanolic extract of leaves
exhibited greatest inhibition of rates (91.43±2.52%) almost similar to reference
synthetic antioxidant compound, the BHT with rates of 92.69±3.15%
12
Methanol DPPH radical scavenging test: Methanolic extract of leaves have mild
antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 24.09 μg/ml as compared to standard
quercetin with IC50 value of 90.85 μg/ml
13
Methanol and ethyl
acetate
DPPH radical scavenging test: Methanolic extract of leaves has antioxidant
activity with IC50 value of 21.24±1.14 μg/ml, while the ethyl acetate extract has
lower IC50 value of 13.70±0.24 μg/ml
24
Wat er β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay: Water extract of leaves exhibited
almost similar antioxidant activity as compared to the reference synthetic
antioxidant compound, the BHT
25
Ethanol (50%),
water, and hexane
FRAP assay: Ethanolic (50%) extract of leaves has higher reducing capability
compared to water and hexane extracts
26
Methanol, water,
petroleum ether, and
chloroform
DPPH radical scavenging test: Methanolic extract of leaves has the highest
antioxidant activity in methanol extract, followed by water, petroleum ether,
and chloroform extracts
FRAP assay: Methanolic extract of leaves had the greatest reducing power
followed by water, chloroform, and petroleum ether extracts
ABTS assay: Methanolic extract of leaves also has the highest antioxidant
capacity, followed by chloroform, water, and petroleum ether extracts
27
Methanol,
ethyl acetate,
dichloromethane,
and hexane
DPPH radical scavenging test: Highest antioxidant activity was observed in
methanolic extract of leaves, followed by ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and
hexane extracts
28
Methanol, ethyl
acetate, and hexane
DPPH radical scavenging test: Methanolic extract of leaves has the highest
antioxidant activities compared to ethyl acetate and then hexane extract
29
Fruits (ripe) Ethanol DPPH test: Ethanolic extract of ripe fruits at 50 and 100 ppm possesses
88.00% and 90.00% radical scavenging activity, respectively, as compared to
95% radical scavenging activity by a reference compound, ascorbic acid
11
Fruits
(unripe)
Ethanol DPPH test: Unripe fruit ethanol extract at 50 and 100 ppm possessed 84.00%
and 88.00% radical scavenging activity, as compared to 95.00% radical
scavenging activity by a reference compound, the ascorbic acid
11
Bark Methanol,
methanol-water and
water
DPPH test: Bark methanol, methanol-water, and water extract exhibited
DPPH scavenging activity with EC50 value of 0.34±0.16 mg/ml, 0.18±0.04 mg/
ml, and 0.35±0.11 mg/ml
Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity: Bark methanol, methanolic–
water, and water extracts exhibited activity of 28.00±0.54%, 15.00±4.22%, and
74.00±0.53%, respectively
β-carotene bleaching assay: Bark methanol, methanol-water, and water
extracts exhibited protection from β-carotene bleaching with percentages of
76.43±0.91%, 85.72±0.57%, and 74.33±0.53%.
4
Continued...
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019 435
Table 2: Cont ’d.
2 Anti-diabetic Leaf Methanol,
methanol-water and
water
Leaves water extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) signicantly reduced blood
glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats aer 21 days of treatment
Leaves methanol-water extract exhibited the best inhibition of alpha-
glucosidase activity compared to methanol and water extracts
Two active compounds (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,
5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid) obtained from bioassay-guided fractionation of the
methanolic–water extract of the leaves have inhibitory activity against alpha-
glucosidase in vitro
7
Petroleum ether,
chloroform,
methanol and water
Single-dose administration of methanolic extracts of leaves (1.00 g/kg)
signicantly reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats aer 7 h of administration
1
Methanol Repeated dose (twice daily) administration of the leaves methanol extract at
250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg has signicantly reduced the fasting blood glucose
levels of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats aer 6 days
Leaves methanol extract inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine and
signicantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue
14
Wat er 200 mg/kg of water leaves extract signicantly reduced blood glucose level of
alloxan-induced diabetic rats as early as 7 days of treatment
30
3 Antihypertensive Leaf Methanol and water Water (20–100 mg/kg) and methanol (40–100 mg/kg) leaves extracts
signicantly reduced blood pressure of anesthetized normotensive WKY rats
and SHR
Autonomic nervous system receptors with the mediation of nitric oxide was
suggested to be partly involved in causing the reduction in blood pressure
9
Water and methanol leaves extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10
mg/ml caused signicant vasorelaxation on the isolated thoracic aorta rings
from WKY and SHR
Autonomic nervous system receptors with the mediation of nitric oxide was
suggested to be partly involved in causing the vasorelaxation eect
31
Single dose of leaves water (2.50 and 3.00 g/kg) and methanol (2.00, 2.50 and
3.00 g/kg) extracts caused signicant reduction in blood pressure of SHR rats,
but not in WKY rats when acutely administered
Leaves methanol extract (2.50 g/kg) caused signicant reduction in blood
pressure of SHR rats aer 2-week of administration, but the signicant
antihypertensive eect was observed aer 3-week of administration for leaves
water extract (2.50 g/kg)
32
Leaf Ethanol Leaves ethanol extract at a concentration 100 ppm showed inhibition of ACE
by 53.37±0.95% as compared to standard antihypertensive drug captopril by
88.17±2.89%
33
4 Anti-microbial
(antibacterial and
antifungal)
Leaf and stem Ethanol Leaves and stem ethanol extracts possessed anti-microbial activity against S.
aureus
34
Leaf Ethanol Leaves ethanol extract had antibacterial activity against S. dysenteriae, a Gram-
negative bacilli, with MBC values in the range of 10%–20% w/v
35
Leaf Essential oil Leaves essential oil strongly inhibited B. subtilis growth, but it did not inhibit
E. coli
20
Fruit (ripe) Ethanol Ripened fruit ethanol extract showed good activity on S. typhi, a Gram-
negative, rod-shaped bacterium, in relative to erythromycin as standard
11
Leaf Ethanol Ethanol leaves extract exhibited anti-fungal activities against A. alternata and
C. capsicii
36
Leaf and fruit
(ripe and
unripe)
Ethanol Leaves, ripe and unripe fruit ethanol extracts at 40, 60 and 80 µg/disk had low-
to-moderate activity against T. mentagrophytes
Good activity of the ripe and unripe fruit ethanol extracts (40, 60, and 80 µg/
disc) was observed against C. albicans
11
5Antidiarrheal Leaf Ethanol (70%) Leaves ethanol extract at 10, 20 and 30% have demonstrated anti-diarrheal
activity when induced by castor oil. is was shown by signicant inhibition of
the charcoal transit (marker) as compared to negative control
e activity of the highest concentration of extract at 30% were similar to that
of reference drug, loperamide hydrochloride at a dose of 10 ml/kg
37
Continued...
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
436 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019
Table 2: Cont ’d.
Leaves ethanol extract have antibacterial activity against S. dysenteriae
Leaves ethanol extract contains potassium with concentration of 2054 ppm
(1.03% w/w) which is benecial to provide for the associated hypokalemic
condition due to dysentery
35
6 Anti-cancer Leaf Flavonoid fraction Active avonoid fraction from the leaves possessed anti-proliferative activity
by inducing cell cycle arrest of HB4C5 at G1 to S phase, whereas the active
avonoid fraction stacked the cell cycle at G2/M phase
38
7 Anti-tumour Leaf Ethanol Leaves ethanol extract completely suppressed expression of the early-antigen
of Epstein-Barr virus which was induced by a tumor promoter, the phorbol
12-myristate 13-acetate
39
8 Dental plaque
inhibition
Leaf Water (decoction) Leaves water extract decreased plaque indexes by 43.1±4.02% when gargled by
a group of patients with xed orthodontic appliance
Treated patients achieved an average hygiene category (31–50), an eect which
was comparable to chlorhexidine (42.1±4.3%) a gold standard of antimicrobial
agent
40
9 Lipid-lowering Leaf Methanol (50%) 50% aqueous methanol leaves extract showed 73% inhibitory activity at 2.75
mg/mL against porcine pancreatic lipase
2
Leaf Methanol (80%) 500 μg/ml of leaves methanol extract has inhibitory activity on pancreatic
lipase activity by 43.1±4.02%
41
10 Acetylcholin-
esterase inhibitor
Leaf Methanol and ethyl
acetate
Leaves methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase
activity with the IC50 values of 47.30±3.54 μg/ml and 45.10±8.06 μg/ml,
respectively, using Ellman colorimetric assay
24
DPPH=2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS=2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid), ACE: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, FRAP=Ferric-
reducing assay, SHR=Spontaneously hypertensive rats, WKY=Wistar-Kyoto, MBC=Minimum bactericidal concentration, BHT=Butylated hydroxytoluene, S.
aureus=Staphylococcus aureus, S, dysenteriae=Shigella dysenteriae, B. subtilis=Bacillus subtilis, E. coli=Eschericia coli, S. typhi=Salmonella typhi, A. alternate=Alternaria
alternate, C. capsicii=Colletotrichum capsicii, T. mentagrophytes=Trichophyton mentagrophytes, C. albicans=Candida albicans
the onset for the antidiabetic eect can be seen as early as 7 days of
treatment in alloxan-induced diabetic rats when treated with aqueous
extract of S. polyanthum leaves at 200 mg/kg.30 In a dierent diabetic
rat model, Widyawati et al.1 showed that an acute single dose of
S. polyanthum methanolic extract at 1 g/kg can signicantly reduce
blood glucose level in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats aer 7 h of
treatment. In another experiment that introduced a repeated dose (twice
daily) administration of S. polyanthum methanolic extract at tested dose
from 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, there were signicant reductions in the
fasting blood glucose levels of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats aer
6 days.14 In fact, the selective antidiabetic eect by S. polyanthum leaves
only on diabetic rats is one of the noteworthy observations for this plant.
ere are few suggested mechanisms of antidiabetic action by
S. polyanthum leaf extract. is includes (i) inhibiting alpha-glucosi-
dase, (ii) decreasing glucose absorption, and (iii) increasing glucose
uptake by muscle. Alpha-glucosidase is an important enzyme which is
responsible for breaking down the large polysaccharides into glucose
or sucrose. Inhibition of this enzyme will slow down the time for
carbohydrate digestion and thus delays the digestion time. is will
lower the rate of glucose absorption. Lelono7 showed that methanol-
water extract of S. polyanthum leaves exhibited the best inhibition of
alpha-glucosidase activity as compared to both methanol and water
extracts. In fact, this is further supported by a more recent report that
showed the ability of methanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves to sig-
nicantly decrease the intestinal absorption of glucose and to signi-
cantly enhance the abdominal muscle tissue uptake of glucose in vitro.14
ere was also a report that examined the eect of S. polyanthum
leaf extract in combination with other common antidiabetic plants
(Andrographis paniculata). An extract mixture of S. polyanthum and
A. paniculata with a ratio of 1:6 displayed largest decrease in blood
glucose levels compared to groups treated with single extracts of either
S. polyanthum or A. paniculata.30 is has indicates for a synergistic
eect between the two plants. Andrographolide has been identied as
the bioactive antidiabetic compound in A. paniculata. Meanwhile, for
S. polyanthum, there were two active compounds (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-
benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid) obtained
from bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic–water extract of
S. polyanthum leaves with inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase
in vitro.7
Antihypertensive
One of the pertinent areas that is under ongoing investigations is the
antihypertensive eect of this plant. A previous study demonstrated that
aqueous and methanolic extracts of S. polyanthum leaves signicantly
lowered blood pressure of normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and sponta-
neously hypertensive rats (SHR) when the extracts were intravenously
administered.9 In order to mimic the traditional mode of consump-
tion, a recent study examined the eects of the two extracts when orally
gavaged to conscious WKY and SHR rats.32 e later study found that
an acute administration of aqueous and methanolic leaf extract via oral
route signicantly lowered the blood pressure of SHR rats, but not in
normal WKY.32 In the subsequent subacute study, methanolic leaf
extract at a dose of 2.50 g/kg when given once on a daily basis caused
signicant antihypertensive eect in SHR rats; the eect was seen as
early as aer 2 weeks of administration. In contrast, the antihypertensive
eect for the aqueous leaf extract was observed only aer 3 weeks of
administration.32
Recently, the antihypertensive research was extended into the search
of its mechanism of action. Studies have shown the possibility of
S. polyanthum leaf extract to cause antihypertensive eect via vasorelax-
ation and by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). In vitro
study by Ismail and Wan Ahmad31 demonstrated signicant vasorelax-
ation eect by aqueous and methanolic extracts of S. polyanthum leaves
on thoracic aorta rings isolated from WKY and SHR. ese researches
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019 437
is is benecial to provide for the associated hypokalemic condition
due to dysentery. e suggested potassium intake in patients with
hypokalemia dysentery is 1170 ppm.
Anticancer
Flavonoid fraction from S. polyanthum leaves was reported to be cyto-
toxic to mouse colon 26 adenocarcinoma cells and HB4C5 human
hybridoma from BALB/c mice.38 By using specic assays for apoptosis
such as caspase 3-gene expression and annexin-ow cytometry analyses,
Sulistiyani et al.38 suggested that the eect of cell proliferation inhibition
was not due to apoptosis; instead of that, the active avonoid fraction of
S. polyanthum in fact stacked the cell cycle at G2/M phase.
Antitumor
Ali et al.39 had shown that the ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves
was able to completely suppress the expression of the early antigen of
Epstein–Barr virus which was induced by a tumor promoter, the phorbol
12-myristate 13-acetate. Partial suppression by the ethanolic extract of
S. polyanthum leaves was observed at low concentrations of 12.5 and
25 µg/ml, indicative of a strong antitumor-promoting activity on this
plant extract.
Dental plaque inhibition
S. polyanthum leaves may have some potential usages in dentistry.5
Avriliyanti et al.40 had shown that aqueous decoction of S. polyanthum
leaves at a concentration of 60% has the ability to decrease plaque
indexes by 43.1±4.02% when the decoction was gargled by a group of
patients with xed orthodontic appliance. ese patients have actually
achieved an average hygiene category (31%–50%) in which the eect was
comparable to chlorhexidine (42.1±4.3%), a gold standard of anti-
microbial agent.
Lipase inhibitory
Several studies have shown the potential use of S. polyanthum leaves
in treating and preventing obesity.2,41 Kato et al.2 showed that 50%
aqueous-methanolic leaf extract at 2.75 mg/ml showed 73% inhibi-
tory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase, an enzyme which is
important for fat digestion. Hydroxychavicol and another two new
dimers have been identied as the active compounds responsible for
the lipase inhibitory action by S. polyanthum leaves.2 Alias et al.41 in
a recent study on 24 crude plant extracts reported that S. polyanthum
leaf extract has a medium inhibitory activity of 38.20±6.50% against
porcine lipase in comparison with the other 23 crude plant extracts.
Nevertheless, this nding made this plant interesting to be a part of food
additive in the treatment and prevention of obesity.
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor inhibits acetylcholinesterase from cleaving
the acetylcholine, thus prolonging the action of acetylcholine at the
synaptic junction. Darusman et al.24 had shown that the methanolic and
the ethyl acetate extracts of S. polyanthum leaves inhibited acetylcholin-
esterase activity with the IC50 values of 47.30 ± 3.54 μg/ml and 45.10 ±
8.06 μg/ml, respectively, using Ellman colorimetric assay. is activity is
mainly important for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, a
neurodegenerative disorder which is caused by degenerating cholinergic
neurons and a decrease in acetylcholine concentration.
Future recommendations
is review supports the various therapeutic potentials of S. polyanthum.
However, there is necessity to extend the research in few areas: (1) to
discover the active compounds responsible for these therapeutic eects,
have also suggested that autonomic receptors and nitric oxide may partly
be involved in causing vasorelaxation31 and antihypertensive eects.9
Other than vasorelaxation, inhibiting ACE, an enzyme important for the
conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, was one of the identied
mechanisms of antihypertensive action by S. polyanthum leaf extract.33
Muthia et al.33 showed that ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves at
a concentration of 100 ppm has ACE inhibitory action of 53.37±0.95%
as compared to standard antihypertensive drug captopril by 88.17±2.89%.
In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies on rats have shown some
signicant structural improvement of kidney, an important organ for
blood pressure regulation as well as on aorta. Studies have shown that
the morphology of kidney and aorta of SHR was signicantly ameliorated
when daily treated with the methanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves
for 4 week43 and 6 weeks,44 almost comparable to the kidney and aorta
of normal WKY rats. Other than that, contractility response to precon-
tractile agent phenylephrine was reduced in the femoral artery of SHR
when treated with methanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves. is nding
is important as it is indicative of a less hypersensitive artery.44
Antimicrobial
e high incidence of increased resistance against microorganisms
has paved interest into searching alternative antimicrobial therapeutics,
especially from plant sources. Extracts from leaves, fruits, as well as
essential oil of S. polyanthum have been tested with various bacteria and
fungi. Ethanolic extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and stem have anti-
bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive, round-
shaped bacterium.34 Another study has reported that ethanolic extract
of S. polyanthum leaves was active against Shigella dysenteriae, a Gram-
negative bacillus, with minimum bactericidal concentration values
ranging from 10% to 20% w/v.35 Essential oil of S. polyanthum leaves
strongly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis but not Eschericia coli.20
Ripened fruit extract of S. polyanthum showed good activity toward Sal-
monella typhi, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, in relative to
erythromycin as standard.11
Besides action on bacterium, S. polyanthum have some actions on certain
fungi. For instance, ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves inhibited
the growth of Alternaria alternate and Colletotrichum capsicii using the
lter paper disc diusion technique.36 Extracts of S. polyanthum leaves
and ripe and unripe fruits from 40, 60, and 80 µg/disc demonstrated
antifungal activities, ranging from low to moderate against Trichophyton
mentagrophytes, a fungus that causes dermatophytosis.11 Good activity
of S. polyanthum ripe and unripe fruit extracts (40, 60, and 80 µg/disc)
was observed against Candida albicans, but not that with S. polyanthum
leaves. is may suggest the therapeutic potential of S. polyanthum ripe
and unripe fruit extracts for vaginal yeast infection, skin and diaper
rashes, as well diseases caused by Candida.11
Antidiarrheal
Ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves at 10%, 20%, and 30% has
demonstrated antidiarrheal activity which was induced by castor oil.37
e extracts at these tested concentrations signicantly inhibited the
transit of charcoal which was used as a marker, as compared to the
negative control (carboxymethylcellulose). e activity of the highest
concentration of extract which was at 30% was similar to that of reference
drug, loperamide hydrochloride, at a dose of 10 ml/kg.37
Apart from these ndings, Fitri et al.35 had shown that S. polyanthum
leaves have antibacterial activity against Shigella dysenteriae, an infective
agent that causes shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an inammation of
the intestines, causing severe diarrhea with the presence of blood or
mucus. Another crucial nding was that ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum
leaves contains potassium at a concentration of 2054 ppm (1.03% w/w).35
Ismail and Wan Ahmad.: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A Potential Phytomedicine
438 Pharmacognosy Journal, Vol 11, Issue 2, Mar-Apr, 2019
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(2) to study the mechanism of its action, and (3) to comprehensively
evaluate its toxicological aspects.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
ere are no conicts of interest.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
e study was supported by the Research Initiative Grant Scheme
(RIGS15-039-0039) from International Islamic University Malaysia.
Financial support and sponsorship
e study was supported by the Research Initiative Grant Scheme
(RIGS15-039-0039) from International Islamic University Malaysia.
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Cite this article: Ismail A, Wan Ahmad WAN. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp: A potential phytomedicine. Phcog Rev Pharmacog
J. 2019;11(2):429-8.
... S. polyanthum also has various bioactivities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-tumour, dental plaque inhibition, lipid lowering, acetylcholine-esterase inhibition, antidiarrheal, and also anti-hypertensive properties. 4 Previous researches have reported the efficacy of S. polyanthum leaves as anti-hypertensive agent in normal and hypertensive rats model. [5][6][7] A preliminary ACE inhibition study has shown that 100 ppm of ethanolic extract of S. polyanthum leaves has ACE inhibitory activity of 53.97 ± 0.95% 8 and thus was considered as an active extract. ...
... 15 However, not all compounds can be extracted through aqueous extraction, thus sequential solvent extraction is also utilized to extract other compounds such as aldehydes, terpenes, fatty acids, esters as well as phenolics that could not be extracted through aqueous extraction. 4,15 Among the four types of extracts, the highest extraction yield was for MSP followed by ASP, EASP and HSP. The order of the yield in this study actually conforms with previous study on S. polyanthum that utilized the same extraction method. ...
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Introduction: One of the potential antihypertensive mechanisms include angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. So far, there is no in-depth study on the ACE inhibition activity of S. polyanthum, an ethnomedicinal plant used in treating hypertension. Thus, we aimed to study the ACE inhibition activity of S. polyanthum leaves by evaluating its potency, mechanism, and specificity. Methods: S. polyanthum leaves were macerated in a bath-sonicator with either water, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane producing aqueous (ASP), methanolic (MSP), ethyl acetate (EASP) and hexane (HSP) extracts. Each extract (100 μg/mL) were initially screened for ACE inhibition activity and then compared with standard drug, captopril (2.06 ng/mL), then the most active extract was further tested at 1 to 1000μg/ml. Inhibition mechanism was studied using zinc chloride and bovine serum albumin (BSA), while inhibition specificity was determined upon screening for α-chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibition activity. Results: ASP at 100 μg/ mL exhibited the highest inhibition activity (69.43 ± 0.60 %) compared to MSP (41.63 ± 0.15 %), EASP (9.62 ± 1.60 %), and HSP (45.40 ± 0.15 %). ASP showed dose-dependent ACE inhibition activity with IC50 of 41 μg/mL. ASP’s ACE inhibition activity was significantly reduced in the presence of BSA, but not upon the presence of zinc chloride. ASP did not significantly inhibit α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. Conclusion: This study showed that the enzyme inhibition activity by S. polyanthum leaves was specific towards ACE. The ACE inhibition possibly occurs via protein precipitation and was non-dependent to the chelation with zinc at ACE active site.
... (family Myrtaceae) also known as bay leaves, one medicinal plant found in Indonesia. S. polyanthum is rich in pharmacological potentials, such as anti-cholesterol (Hartanti et al., 2019), anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, andanti-inflammatory activities (Ismail andAhmad, 2019). The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms of S. polyanthum bioactive compounds remain unclear. ...
Article
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is significantly associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Syzygium polyanthum is a plant rich in pharmacological properties. Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammation and antioxidant potential of S. polyanthum bioactive compounds using in silico approach. Methods: The S. polyanthum was extracted using the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method, and the bioactive compounds were screened using Liquid Chromatography–High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. This study predicted the biological activity of S. polyanthum compounds using PASS Online server. Before docking, we analyzed the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) network of TNFα, NF-kB, SOD, and KEAP1. The molecular docking was done using Autodock Vina in PyRx software and visualized using Discovery Studio. Probability to be active (Pa) was determined. Results: The bioactive compounds found in S. polyanthum and used in this study were deoxyphomalone, NCGC00169066-01, and phloretin with retention times [min] of 0.886, 0.907, and 8.323, respectively. The predicted biological activity of compounds and controls were anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant, TNF expression inhibitor, immunomodulatory and HIF1α expression inhibitor (Pa>0.5 for all S. polyanthum compounds and Pa<0.5 for SPD304, MG-132, and MDF). Based on PPIs network analysis, TNFα, NF-kB, SOD, and KEAP1 are associated. The molecular docking analysis showed that deoxyphomalone, NCGC00169066-01, and phloretin had inhibition potential against TNFα and NF-kB, and activation potential against SOD, due to several residues involved in the interaction of compounds-protein was the same as the interaction of inhibitor (SPD-304 and MG-132) and activator (gallic acid) control against the protein. The residues may have the same inhibition or activation mechanism as the control. However, S. polyanthum bioactive compounds may still have inhibition potential against KEAP1 through Ala548 residue that is also involved in the interaction of DMF-KEAP1. Conclusions: The bioactive compounds of S. polyanthum showed anti-inflammation and antioxidant potential, which may have a good effect in the treatment of PCOS, yet still need to be confirmed in vitro or in vivo research.
... To the best of our knowledge, the phytochemicals of SPLE were only reported in several studies (Rahim et al. 2018;Ismail & Ahmad 2019). Caffeic acid and gallic acid were among the compounds identified by Har and Ismail (2012) in SPLE. ...
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Vascular dementia (VaD) is associated with the loss of cognitive function. The pharmacotherapy for dementia is cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). However, currently available ChEIs produce side effects. Therefore, new anticholinesterase agents are required for treating dementia. In vitro assays showed that Syzygium polyanthum leaf extract (SPLE) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Here, we evaluated the nootropic effect of SPLE, mediated via a cholinergic system with long-term hippocampal plasticity (LTP) in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries (POBCCA) or sham groups. An automated open field test (AOFT) was conducted to examine motor and exploratory functions. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. At the end of the behavioral task, the brain was harvested to determine cholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholine (ACh), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activities. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity was measured under urethane anesthetized rats. The study revealed SPLE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) (i) improved both non-spatial and spatial memories in NOR and MWM tests, respectively; (ii) promoted long-lasting LTP enhancement in CA3-CA1 synapses; (iii) increased the ACh, ChAT and BDNF activities in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Interestingly, the elevated AChE activity in the hippocampus was significantly inhibited by SPLE extract. SPLE executes its cognitive functions by restoration of the cholinergic system. The findings support the therapeutic potential of SPLE in the treatment of VaD.
... Its utilization as an ethno-medical plant has been studied for a long time. The leaf has been proved to have many therapeutic potentials such as antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and antidiarrheal [29]. We reported that the infections of A. psidii in S. polyanthum were found in the local garden, as this species has not been planted in the widescale plantation. ...
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Austropuccinia psidii is an invasive pathogenic rust that infects the Myrtaceae family. This rust is a threat to Myrtaceae plantations around the world due to its widespread distribution. In this study, we observed the presence of A. psidii in three species of Myrtaceae, i.e. Melaleuca cajuputi, Syzygium myrtifolium , and Syzygium polyanthum planted in Yogyakarta and Sukabumi. The symptoms of infection were yellow-reddish spot in young leaves, presence of urediniospores in infected spot, foliage, and branch dieback. To confirm the presence of A. psidii on those trees, a molecular detection was performed using specific primer for A. psidii (Ppsi1/Ppsi6) on DNA samples extracted from diseased leaves. The presence of A. psidii was proved by the presence of DNA amplicon sized around 500bp in all samples collected from three different hosts. In this study, S. myrtifolium was firstly reported to be infected by this rust in Indonesia. Further study about the presence and the economic impact of this pathogen in Indonesia should be conducted. Indonesia has many species numbers of Myrtaceae and some species are important for medicines, herbs, foods, and as industrial plants. A strategy to control this pathogen should be established to avoid large economic losses in Myrtaceae plantations in Indonesia.
... This plant is consumed raw and sometimes added to local dishes of people in Southeast Asia countries. Most importantly, it has ethnomedicinal values mainly in treating diabetes and hypertension, and at the same time, this plant has anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-tumor properties [1] . There are chemical composition variations reported between the same species of different geographical locations, which eventually affect the plant's therapeutic potential [2,3] . ...
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The data presented here is the liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profile of phytochemical compounds in the aqueous extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. leaves. This plant is consumed raw and sometimes added to local dishes of people in Southeast Asia countries. Most importantly, it has ethnomedicinal values mainly in treating diabetes and hypertension, and at the same time, this plant has anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-tumor properties [1]. There are chemical composition variations reported between the same species of different geographical locations, which eventually affect the plant's therapeutic potential [2,3]. This dataset represents the identified compounds for S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp. leaves, a variant collected from Kuantan, a city located in the Pahang state on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The leaves were then dried in an open-air at room temperature for three weeks, ground, and then macerated in water inside a bath-sonicator, freeze-dried, and then run using LCMS. The LCMS was run using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer detector, operated in a negative-ion mode. The mass spectral features from samples raw data were matched with Traditional Medicine (en) and Waters Screening libraries in the Waters UNIFI™ Scientific Information System software version 1.7 (Waters, USA) for compounds identification.
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The genus Syzygium comprises 1200–1800 species that belong to the family of Myrtaceae. Moreover, plants that are belonged to this genus are being used in the traditional system of medicine in Asian countries, especially in China, India, and Bangladesh. The aim of this review is to describe the scientific works and to provide organized information on the available traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of mostly available species of the genus Syzygium in Bangladesh. The information related to genus Syzygium was analytically composed from the scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Springer, Research Gate link, published books, and conference proceedings. Bioactive compounds such as flavanone derivatives, ellagic acid derivatives and other polyphenolics, and terpenoids are reported from several species of the genus Syzygium. However, many members of the species of the genus Syzygium need further comprehensive studies regarding phytochemical constituents and mechanism‐based pharmacological activities. The information related to genus Syzygium was analytically composed from the scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Springer, Research Gate link, published books, and conference proceedings. Bioactive compounds such as flavanone derivatives, ellagic acid derivatives and other polyphenolics, and terpenoids are reported from several species of the genus Syzygium. However, many members of the species of the genus Syzygium need further comprehensive studies regarding phytochemical constituents and mechanism‐based pharmacological activities.
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Indonesia has a high diversity of potential medicinal plants, which are the second-largest number of indigenous medicinal plants in the world. Syzygium polyanthum, known as Indonesian Bay Leaf or Salam, easily found, widely used in Indonesia as a spice in cooking and traditional medicine. Salam contains secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, phenols, steroids, and saponins. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the main bacteria that cause commensal infection and the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to know the antibacterial activity of the Salam ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureusand Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Salam leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol in the maceration method. Antibacterial activity was conducted by the disk diffusion method. The extract exhibits moderate activity (10.51±0.3 mm) at 75% of concentration and low activity (3.69±0.4 mm) at 100% of concentration against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis respectively. The test showed that salam leaves extract had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.
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Navia ZI, Suwardi AB, Baihaqi. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local communities in Sekerak Subdistrict, Aceh Tamiang, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4273-4281. Local communities in Aceh Tamiang have gained a wealth of medicinal knowledge through practice and experience in their long-term battles with the disease. However, because of a lack of written records and rapid economic development, their traditional medicinal knowledge is under threat. This study investigated medici nal plants and related traditional knowledge of local communities in the Sekerak subdistrict, Aceh Taming District, Indonesia. Field surveys, plant collections, and interviews with communities were used in this study. The Snowball Sampling technique was used to select 60 informants for the interviews. A total of 46 medicinal plant species belonging to 40 genera and 26 families were used for medicinal purposes by local communities to treat 28 different diseases. The itch, swelling, cough, and nosebleed were the most commonly treated. With a use-value index of 0.98, Tagetes erecta was the most commonly used medicinal plant by local communities. In addition, local communities identified the leaf (50%) as the most widely used plant part and oral administration (65%) as the most common met hod of administering traditional medicine. Elders have more knowledge of medicinal plants than younger generations, indicating that traditional knowledge is eroding across generations. However, initiatives to promote and conserve medicinal plants must be improved, particularly among the younger generation. This is required to ensure the availability of medicinal plants and the preservation of traditional knowledge in the future.
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Navia ZI, Suwardi AB, Baihaqi. 2021. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local communities in Sekerak Subdistrict, Aceh Tamiang, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4273-4281. Local communities in Aceh Tamiang have gained a wealth of medicinal knowledge through practice and experience in their long-term battles with the disease. However, because of a lack of written records and rapid economic development, their traditional medicinal knowledge is under threat. This study investigated medici nal plants and related traditional knowledge of local communities in the Sekerak subdistrict, Aceh Taming District, Indonesia. Field surveys, plant collections, and interviews with communities were used in this study. The Snowball Sampling technique was used to select 60 informants for the interviews. A total of 46 medicinal plant species belonging to 40 genera and 26 families were used for medicinal purposes by local communities to treat 28 different diseases. The itch, swelling, cough, and nosebleed were the most commonly treated. With a use-value index of 0.98, Tagetes erecta was the most commonly used medicinal plant by local communities. In addition, local communities identified the leaf (50%) as the most widely used plant part and oral administration (65%) as the most common met hod of administering traditional medicine. Elders have more knowledge of medicinal plants than younger generations, indicating that traditional knowledge is eroding across generations. However, initiatives to promote and conserve medicinal plants must be improved, particularly among the younger generation. This is required to ensure the availability of medicinal plants and the preservation of traditional knowledge in the future.
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Evidence has shown that there is a strong relationship between hypertension and kidney-disorder. Syzygium polyanthum, a local plant that has been claimed traditionally as anti-hypertensive and believed to-be an effective remedy for kidney problems as well. This study aimed to investigate the oral effect of 4-weeks administration of methanolic extract from S. polyanthum (MESP) leaves towards renal structural improvement in hypertensive-renal damage among spontaneous-hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive-rats (WKY). The study utilized 15-male; 10 SHR and 5 WKY rats. Methanolic-extract was successively prepared via ultrasound-assisted method. Both Group 1 (n=5) and Group 2 (n=5) received distilled water and served as negative control group of WKY and SHR respectively. The treatment group of SHR; Group 3 (n=5) received 2000 mg/kg MESP. At the end of study, all rats were euthanized and kidney tissues were isolated for histopathological studies using light microscopy (H&E-stain) and scanning electron microscopy. The study revealed that there was improvement of renal structure of the MESP-treated group; similar like normal structure WKY. The Bowman's capsule is well capsulated and the Bowman's space is well-defi ned. Meanwhile, the podocyte had better morphology. In contrast to untreated-SHR, the appearance of kidney structure is slightly attenuated due-to distortion and engorgement of the glomerulus. In conclusion, the result suggests that oral-administration of S. polyanthum has a renoprotective effect in improving renal morphology in hypertensive-renal damage of SHR rats.
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Context: Aqueous decoction of Syzygium polyanthum (ADSP) leaf is one of Malay traditional-remedial-preparations for hypertension. Intravenous ADSP reduced blood pressure of anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneously-Hypertensive rats (SHR); however, acute and sub-acute effects of oral ADSP on conscious rats and its bioactive compound(s) are not comprehensively studied. This study aims to examine the acute and sub-acute effects of ADSP in comparison to methanol extract (MESP) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) of conscious WKY and SHR rats, as well as to identify their major phenolic-compound using high-performance-liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Methodology: For acute study, SHR and WKY rats were gavaged with single-dose of ADSP or MESP (2.00, 2.50 or 3.00 g/kg), vehicles, or losartan (0.01 g/kg). SBP was measured after 1, 3, 5, 6 and 24 hr-post-administration. For sub-acute experiment, SHR rats were gavaged once-daily with ADSP or MESP (2.50 g/kg/day), vehicles, or losartan (0.01 g/kg/day) for 3-week and their SBP was weekly-measured. Phenolic compounds were screened using ferric-chloride test, then gallic acid was determined using HPLC. Results: Acute administration of ADSP (2.50 to 3.00 g/kg) and MESP (2.00 to 3.00 g/ kg) significantly reduced SBP of SHR, but not of WKY rats. Repeated-daily-dose administration of MESP (2.5 g/kg/day) significantly reduced SBP of SHR after 2-week and sustained until 3-week, while ADSP (2.5 g/kg/day) significantly reduced SBP only after 3-week. Gallic acid was the major phenolic-compound in ADSP (157.09 ± 4.18 ppm) and MESP (134.04 ± 10.30 ppm). Conclusion: Oral ADSP and MESP that contain gallic acid possess acute and sub-acute antihypertensive effects in SHR, but MESP’s effect was more prominent than ADSP.
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Water and ethanolic extracts of four Malaysian local herbs, Tenggek burung (Melicope Iunu-ankenda), Kesum (Polygonum minus), Curry leave (Murraya Koenigii) and Salam (Eugenia polyantha) were investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant activities (AA). Total phenolic content (TPC) of the herbs was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while the total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined based on aluminium chloride-flavonoid assay. The determination of AA was done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activitiy and β-carotene bleaching assays (BCB). Different extraction solvents significantly affected the TPC, TFC and AA of all herbs studied (p < 0.05). Both Tenggek burung and Kesum showed highest TPC, TFC and AA regardless of extraction solvents compared to Curry leave and Salam. All herbs showed strong positive correlation between TPC and DPPH assay. However, negative and low correlation between TFC and AA were obtained for all herbs studied. This showed that phenolic compounds of certain structures were responsible for the AA of all the herbs in this study. In conclusion, all herbs in this study except curry leave could be inexpensive sources of good natural antioxidants with nutraceutical potential in food industry.
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Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect. Settings and design: Both extracts will be tested on isolated thoracic aorta rings of WKY and SHR. The involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide will be elucidated using respective blockers. Materials and methods: Isolated thoracic aorta rings from WKY and SHR were mounted onto myograph chambers to measure changes in the aorta tension. Increasing concentrations of AESP and MESP, from 1 μg/ml to 10 mg/ml were added onto the myograph chambers. Blockers such as atropine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), propranolol (1 μM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) were preincubated before addition of extracts to check for involvement of muscarinic, α- and β-adrenergic receptors (AR) as well as nitric oxide, respectively. Statistical analysis used: Two-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Bonferroni test was used, where P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant. Results: AESP and MESP caused significant vasorelaxations through nitric oxide pathway. The former was mediated through α-AR while the latter was mediated by β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Conclusion: Vasorelaxation effect by AESP and MESP involved nitric oxide pathway which is possibly mediated by the autonomic receptors. Summary: This is the first study that reveals significant vasorelaxation effect induced by Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract. Vasorelaxation maybe one of the possible mechanisms for its ability to reduce blood pressure. This study also suggested that the vasorelaxation effect by this plant extract may involve nitric oxide pathway mediated by the autonomic receptors. Abbreviations Used: AESP: Aqueous extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. MESP: Methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rat, WKY: Wistar-Kyoto rat.
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Context: Syzygium polyanthum has been traditionally formulated by the folklore for the treatment of diseases including diarrhea, rheumatism, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, gastritis and hyperuricemia. Normally, its phytochemicals are always extracted using solvent, maceration and steam distillation methods, but the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method is still not well documented. Aims: This study aims to extract the phytochemical compounds present in S. polyanthum leaves using UAE and to identify them by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Methodology: The leaves were consecutively soaked with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in a bath sonicator to derive n-hexane (HSP), ethyl acetate (EASP), and methanol (MSP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and then the extracts were subjected to GC-MS analysis. Mass-spectral databases of peaks were compared with database from Wiley, NIST and FNSCC libraries for compound identification. Results: GC-MS analyses of HSP, EASP and MSP showed the presence of 21, 27, and 31 peaks, respectively. The major compound for HSP (31.912%), EASP (27.042%), and MSP (22.386%) were unknown compounds which were detected at retention time between 61.980 and 62.29 min, thus requires further characterization. Squalene and phytol were among the other major compounds present in all three extracts. Several identified compounds in the extracts such as squalene, phytol, hentriacontane, palmitic acid, α-pinene, nerolidol, linalool, α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol were known bioactive compounds. Conclusion: GC-MS analyses of n-hexane (HSP), ethyl acetate (EASP), and methanol (MSP) of S. polyanthum leaves extracts have revealed the presence of some known bioactive compounds with therapeutic importance.
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Natural products are a vast source of potential compounds that can be developed as anti-obesity agent. One of the mechanisms of anti-obesity agents is inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Assay of 24 crude extracts for their in vitro activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) detected four extracts demonstrating high (>70%) inhibition, seven extracts had medium (30-70%) inhibition and the remaining 13 extracts exhibited low (<30%) inhibition when incubated with PPL at a concentration of 500 µg/ml for 10 min at 37°C. Phyllanthus niruri extract displayed the most potent PPL inhibitor, followed by Orthosiphon stamineus, Murraya paniculata and Averrhoa bilimbi with the IC50 value of 27.7<34.7< 41.5<55.2 µg/ml, respectively. P. niruri & O. stamineus (the best two extracts) showed noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibition, respectively. P. niruri & O. stamineus displayed total phenolic content of 431.0 ± 0.01 and 103.0 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g dry extract, while total flavonoid content of 14.8 ± 0.07 and 21.6 ± 0.03 mg QE/g dry extract, respectively. Both P. niruri & O. stamineus extracts showed high antioxidant activity, with EC50 values of 8.4 and 26.3 µg/ml, respectively. The results suggest that P. niruri & O. stamineus may be beneficial for obesity treatment via pancreatic lipase inhibition action.
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Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a common signature of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) which could define as fasting blood glucose higher than 110 mg/dL or 2-hour post prandial blood glucose higher than 180 mg/dL. One of the consequences of hyperglycemia is increased rate of the oxidative process that could potentially damage many organs. The damage could be assessed by measuring 8-Hydroxy-2 Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) that represent the damage of the plasma membrane. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium polyanthum leaves extracts as antioxidant agent on hyperglycemic Wistar rats. Methods: 40 Wistar rats were used in this study. Hyperglycemic state was achieved by administration of alloxan for two weeks for each rat. 3 Kg of S.polyanthum leaves was used for extraction which yields 0,730 ethanol extract. The rats were divided into positive control, P1 (alloxan only), P2 (Alloxan+ 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight Z polyanthum extract), P3 (Alloxan+ 2.0 mg kg-1 body weight Z polyanthum extract), P4 (Alloxan+ 5.0 mg kg-1 body weight S.polyanthum extract), P5 (Alloxan+ 0.18 mg/day/ kgbody weight glibenclamide). Result: The result shown that the rats which received S.polyanthum extract had significantly lower blood glucose level (65.91 % lower than control) and lower level of 8-OHdG (50.20% lower than control). The effective dose to optimally lower blood glucose and 8-OHdG was found at 5,0 mg kg-1. Conclusion: S.polyanthum ethanolic leaves extract was an effective anti-hypoglycemic and antioxidant agent with optimal dose found at 5,0 mg kg-1.
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Diabetes mellitus is a group of physiological dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia resulting directly from insulin resistance, inadequate insulin secretion, or excessive glucagon secretion. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder leading to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is much more common, is primarily a problem of progressively impaired glucose regulation due to a combination of dysfunctional pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of type 2 diabetes and its complications, and to discuss the most recent treatment guidelines.
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In order to identify a novel whitening agent, the methanol extract of S. polyanthum leaf was focused on by the screening test using nine Indonesian medicinal plants for the inhibition of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells. Three novel compounds [(1) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)hexane-1-one, (2) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy methylphenyl)octane-1-one, and (3) (4E)-1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one and one known compound [(4) 1-(2,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methylphenyl)decan-1-one were isolated from the methanol extract. Our study demonstrated that S. polyanthum leaf methanol extract at 25–200 μg/mL decreased extracellular melanin formation ca. 20–80%, with high cell viability. Compounds 1–4 were found to be active in melanogenesis and tyrosinase inhibition. Compound 3 was the most active against tyrosinase activity (83.98 μM), particularly when l-tyrosine was the substrate. Compounds 1–4 significantly diminished extracellular melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells (> 80%), with high cell viability. Thus, our study suggested that compounds 1–4 isolated from the methanol extract of S. polyanthum leaf play important roles in decreasing extracellular melanogenesis and inhibiting tyrosinase.