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Innovation and innovation management

Authors:
Innovation contributes to corporate competitiveness, economic performance and environmental
sustainability. In the Internet era, innovation intelligence is transferred across borders and
languages at an unprecedented rate, yet the ability to benefit from it seems to become more
divergent among different corporations and countries. How much an organization can benefit
from innovation largely depends on how well innovation is managed in it. Thus, there is a
discernible increase in interest in the study of innovation management. This handbook provides
a comprehensive guide to this subject.
The handbook introduces the basic framework of innovation and innovation management.
It also presents innovation management from the perspectives of strategy, organization and
resource, as well as institution and culture. The book’s comprehensive coverage on all areas of
innovation management makes this a very useful reference for anyone interested in the subject.
Jin Chen is Professor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
Alexander Brem is Professor at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg and
University of Southern Denmark.
Eric Viardot is Director of the Global Innovation Management Centre and Permanent
Professor of Strategy and Marketing at EADA Business School in Barcelona, Spain.
Poh Kam Wong is Professor in Entrepreneurship and Innovation strategy at the NUS Business
School, National University of Singapore.
THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO
INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
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THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO THE HISTORY OF RETAILING
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THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
Edited by Jin Chen, Alexander Brem, Eric Viardot and Poh Kam Wong
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ROUTLEDGE COMPANIONS IN BUSINESS, MANAGEMENT
AND ACCOUNTING
THE ROUTLEDGE
COMPANION TO
INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
Edited by Jin Chen, Alexander Brem, Eric Viardot and
Poh Kam Wong
First published 2019
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2019 selection and editorial matter, Jin Chen, Alexander Brem, Eric
Viardot and Poh Kam Wong; individual chapters, the contributors
The right of Jin Chen, Alexander Brem, Eric Viardot and Poh Kam
Wong to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the
authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with
sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
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Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or
registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation
without intent to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Chen, Jin, editor. | Brem, Alexander, editor. | Viardot, Eric, editor.
Title: The Routledge companion to innovation management / edited by
Jin Chen, Alexander Brem, Eric Viardot and Poh Kam Wong.
Description: New York : Routledge, 2019. | Series: Routledge companions
in business, management and accounting | Includes bibliographical
references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018046350| ISBN 9781138244719 (hardback) |
ISBN 9781315276670 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Technological innovations—Management. |
Organizational change.
Classification: LCC HD45 .R756 2019 | DDC 658.4/063—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018046350
ISBN: 978-1-138-24471-9 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-27667-0 (ebk)
Typeset in Bembo
by Apex CoVantage, LLC
v
List of figures viii
List of tables xi
List of contributors xiii
PART I
Introduction to innovation and innovation management 1
1 Innovation and innovation management 3
Jin Chen, Eric Viardot and Alexander Brem
2 Deliberate and spontaneous: the impact of cognitive disinhibition on
people management 17
Franc Ponti
3 Connotation and types of innovation 26
Jin Chen and Ximing Yin
4 The fundamentals of innovation management 55
Petra A. Nylund
5 The systems approach to innovation management 73
Magnus Karlsson and Mats Magnusson
6 Innovation and innovation management in an age of changes 91
Jin Chen and Liang Mei
CONTENTS
vi
Contents
PART II
The strategic perspective of innovation 105
7 Strategic management of innovation 107
Emigdio Alfaro, Fei Yu, Naqeeb Ur Rehman, Eglantina Hysa and
Patrice Kandolo Kabeya
8 The free innovation paradigm 169
Eric von Hippel
9 Open innovation 180
Yufen Chen and Wim Vanhaverbeke
10 Bringing open innovation into practice: methods and approaches 204
Frank Piller, Sumit Mitra, and Susanna Ghosh Mitra
11 R&D strategies for disruptive innovation 220
Chang-Chieh Hang and Yi Ruan
12 Smart prototyping 237
Fei Yu and Bastian Enste
13 Frugal innovation: developing and managing innovations in resource-
constrained settings 269
Eugenia Rosca, Nivedita Agarwal, and Jakob Schlegel
14 Innovation in the digital age 278
Michael Dowling, Elisabeth Noll, and Kristina Zisler
15 Perspectives on policies to promote convergence in innovation 297
Kong-rae Lee
16 Responsible innovation: origin, attribution and theoretical framework 307
Liang Mei and Jin Chen
17 Serendipity and innovation: beyond planning and experimental-
driven exploration 343
Martin Kamprath and Tassilo Henike
PART III
The organizational perspective of innovation 361
18 Innovation management within the organisation 363
Regina Lenart-Gansiniec
vii
Contents
19 Interorganizational relations within innovation systems 377
Terje Grønning and Parisa Afshin
20 The crucial human factor in innovation 393
Georges Haour
PART IV
Institutions and norms for innovation management 413
21 Institutional design of innovation towards the ‘active
innovation paradigm’ 415
Dirk Meissner
22 Ethics in innovation management as meta-responsibility:
the practice of responsible research and innovation in
human brain simulation 435
Bernd Carsten Stahl, Jos Timmermans, Stephen Rainey and Mark Shaw
23 Intellectual property and innovation management 457
Can Huang and Suli Zheng
PART V
Methodologies for innovation management 477
24 Standards, models, and methodologies for innovation management 479
Emigdio Alfaro
25 Technological innovation audit 516
Xuesong Geng
26 Innovation management simulations using agent-based modelling 539
Petra Ahrweiler
27 Technology innovation investment portfolio planning: a systems
approach with application examples 560
Oliver Yu
Index 590
viii
1.1 Evolution of corporate management 7
1.2 Evolution of the corporate development model 9
1.3 Sketch map of the innovation funnel model (using new drug development
as an example) 10
1.4 Holistic framework for corporation innovation management integration 11
3.1 Connotation meaning of innovation 28
3.2 Knowledge–capital interaction 33
3.3 What’s critical to innovation success – linking strategy and creativity, R&D,
production and marketing 33
3.4 Innovation matrix 37
3.5 Incremental innovation vs. radical innovation 44
3.6 Incremental innovation and radical innovation: technology trajectory 45
3.7 Continuous innovation and discontinuous innovation 48
3.8 Summary of innovation classifications 48
3.9 Theoretical framework of HI: an emerging innovation paradigm in open
environments 52
4.1 Knowledge micro processes 57
5.1 Principled outline of an integrated framework for innovation management 84
6.1 ‘Internet+’: connotation and action plan 95
6.2 Four-dimensional framework of responsible innovation 102
6.3 Research framework of responsible innovation 103
6.4 Theoretical framework of responsible innovation 103
7.1 “Big-I” innovation and “small-i” innovation 147
7.2 GEM conceptual model 149
8.1 The free innovation and the producer innovation paradigms 171
10.1 Open innovation as a process of search: two approaches 209
12.1 From left to right: Original design of the table; define constraint and
apply generative design algorithm; generative design model 240
12.2 Prototyping for X structure and integration into the design process 242
12.3 Classification of prototyping activities 244
12.4 Two-group simple randomized experimental design (in diagram form) 245
FIGURES
ix
Figures
12.5 Prototyping activity assessment form 247
12.6 Chosen experimental design 249
12.7 Extract of the pair plot of the collected data 254
12.8 Distribution plot of the data 254
12.9 Count plot of the given data 256
12.10 K-nearest neighbor classification 257
12.11 Artificial neural network 258
12.12 Process of importing and fitting the model and generating predictions 259
12.13 Visualization of the decision tree classifier 260
13.1 Frugal innovation – a simple definition 270
13.2 Overview of initiatives of frugal innovation – from survival
entrepreneurs to MNC 271
14.1 The generic innovation process for digital innovation 291
15.1 Process of convergence between Technology A and Technology B 300
16.1 Interactive mechanism of institutional levels from the perspective of
interactive framework theory 319
16.2 Assessment standards of innovative activities 320
16.3 Theoretical framework of responsible innovation 324
16.4 Responsible governance of nanotechnology product risk management
based on generation 326
17.1 Typology of exploration 350
17.2 Locus of serendipity 354
20.1 Management development as an agent of change 397
20.2 Increasing complexity of managing the innovation process 403
20.3 Entrepreneurial development of the offering draws on sources of
technology distributed inside and outside the firm 404
20.4 Firms engage with universities in many different ways 406
20.5 Steps in spinning off a technical start-up company 409
21.1 Key issues for determining the company’s innovation management role 417
21.2 Company innovation management in the light of open innovation 419
21.3 Characteristics of an innovation management organization 422
21.4 Innovation process stages and organizational meaning 425
21.5 IM from a service to a driver role 426
22.1 Basic structure of responsibility 438
22.2 Responsibility structure including authority 438
22.3 Components and dimensions of responsibility 440
22.4 Graphical representation of the HBP ethics map 449
23.1 Number of IP-related articles published in selected journals 460
23.2 Number of citations to the IP-related articles in selected journals 460
23.3 Number of publications in selected journals 461
23.4 Number of citations to publications in selected journals 462
25.1 The chain model of technological innovation 519
25.2 The new product performance triangle 519
25.3 Technological innovation measurement indicator system in the Oslo Manual 520
25.4 The stage-based technological innovation process measurement framework 521
25.5 The TIA theoretical model 522
25.6 The effect of technical and market maturity on technology innovation 526
27.1 A systematic planning process 562
x
Figures
27.2 The traditional Maslowian hierarchical model of human needs 562
27.3 Broad categorization of human needs based on the new model 564
27.4 Details of human needs based on the new model 565
27.5 Extension of the new model to the needs of an organization 566
27.6 Extension of the new model to the needs of a society 567
27.7 Application of the new model to a small Asian country 567
27.8 Scenario analysis process 572
27.9 Example of external forces 573
27.10 Axes of uncertainty 575
27.11 Graphical representation of factors 578
27.12 STRATEGY MAP: illustrative example 1 579
27.13 STRATEGY MAP: illustrative example 2 579
27.14 STRATEGY MAP: illustrative example 3 580
27.15 STRATEGY MAP: illustrative example 1 for qualitative portfolio evaluation 580
27.16 STRATEGY MAP: illustrative example 2 for qualitative portfolio evaluation 581
27.17 STRATEGY MAP: combined importance vs. combined risk 582
27.18 Modern portfolio theory 583
27.19 Portfolio revised for government investment 584
27.20 Implementation policy implications: government policy opportunities 585
27.21 Policy levers: risk reductions for high-risk clusters 586
27.22 Policy levers: commercialization of medium-risk clusters 587
27.23 Policy levers: observing and assisting low-importance clusters 588
xi
1.1 Nine strategic areas in the Strategy for American Innovation 4
1.2 Twelve disruptive technologies 5
1.3 Significant technological innovations in history 8
1.4 The 50 most innovative companies for 2018 8
2.1 Deliberate style and spontaneous style 21
2.2 Four large zones 22
3.1 Technology leadership does not mean successful innovation 29
3.2 Technological innovation vs. similar concepts 32
3.3 CoPS examples 36
3.4 Service industry vs. manufacturing 39
3.5 Incremental innovation vs. radical innovation 46
3.6 Paradigm shift of innovation by country or region 49
4.1 Micro- and macro-level research on functional constructs 58
5.1 Overview of selected system-related frameworks for innovation
management introduced between 1997 and 2018 83
5.2 Examples of system elements for each theme of the framework for
innovation management 83
6.1 Comparison between industrial thinking and Internet thinking 92
6.2 Innovative application of Internet+ to traditional industries 96
6.3 Environmental and eco-innovation assessment dashboard 99
6.4 Responsible innovation policies and activities conducted by developed countries 100
6.5 Lines of questioning on responsible innovation 101
7.1 Studies related to the impact of leadership styles on innovation 114
7.2 Entrepreneurial behavior and attitudes in developing countries (figures are
in percent) in 2007 151
7.3 Entrepreneurial behavior and attitudes in developed countries (figures are in
percent) in 2007 152
8.1 The extent of consumer innovation in six countries 170
8.2 Sources of scientific equipment innovations by nature of improvements effected 176
10.1 Differentiation of open innovation methods 210
11.1 Postulation of the abstracted R&D strategies 222
TABLES
xii
Tables
11.2 Application frequency of the four R&D strategies 226
11.3 Summary of cases and strategies in India and China 233
12.1 Experiment participant data 249
12.2 Arithmetic mean and standard deviation of 17 observations after
the experiment 251
12.3 Prototyping data correlation matrix 253
12.4 Performance of the four machine learning algorithms on the testing set 261
12.5 Made predictions using the K-nearest neighbors algorithm 262
16.1 Concept analysis of responsible innovation 311
16.2 Comparison and summary of attribution perspectives of responsible innovation 313
16.3 Reflection of construction elements of responsible innovation in levels of
institutional situations 322
16.4 Description of China’s science and technology policies based on the
responsible innovation perspective 331
16.5 Comparison and summary of nanotechnology innovation and governance
based on the responsible innovation perspective 333
17.1 Patterns of serendipitous discoveries 348
17.2 Comparison of exploration approaches 352
23.1 Source journals of IP and innovation studies 458
23.2 List of 48 most-cited articles between 2000 and March 2018 463
24.1 Identified problems associated with the lack of standards, models, and
methodologies for managing organizational innovation 486
24.2 Identified standards for managing innovation 488
24.3 Identified models for innovation management 499
24.4 Identified methodologies for innovation management 505
25.1 Technological innovation process audit metrics 529
25.2 Overall technological innovation performances audit for an enterprise 533
25.3 Innovation process performance assessment indicators 533
25.4 Performance indicators measuring competitiveness 534
27.1 Summary of major forecasting techniques 570
27.2 Example of plausible extreme futures of an axis 575
27.3 Another example of plausible extreme futures of an axis 575
27.4 Candidate scenarios 576
27.5 Final scenarios 576
27.6 Example of factor measures 577
xiii
Parisa Afshin is a Doctoral Fellow, Department of Education, University of Oslo.
Nivedita Agarwal is Assistant Professor at the Chair of Technology Management at the
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany.
Petra Ahrweiler is Professor at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
Emigdio Alfaro is Professor and Researcher of CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business
School of Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru.
Alexander Brem is Professor at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg at the
University of Southern Denmark.
Jin Chen is Professor in School of Economics and Management at Tsinghua University, Beijing,
China.
Yufen Chen is Professor at Zhejiang Gongshang University, China.
Michael Dowling is a Professor for Innovation and Technology Management in the Faculty of
Business and Economics at the University of Regensburg, Germany.
Bastian Enste is an MSc student of Innovation and Business at Mads Clausen Institute, Uni-
versity of Southern Denmark.
Xuesong Geng is Professor in the Lee Kong Chian School of Business at Singapore Manage-
ment University, Singapore.
Terje Grønning is Professor in Work Society and Learning, Department of Education, Uni-
versity of Oslo.
CONTRIBUTORS
Contributors
xiv
Chang-Chieh Hang is Executive Director at the Institute for Engineering Leadership, and
Professor at the Department of Industrial Systems Engineering & Management, National Uni-
versity of Singapore.
Georges Haour is Professor of Management at IMD, Switzerland, and advisor to numerous
organizations.
Tassilo Henike is Teaching Assistant and PhD Candidate at the Chair for Innovation Manage-
ment and Entrepreneurship, University of Potsdam, Germany.
Can Huang is Professor at the Institute for Intellectual Property Management, School of Man-
agement, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Eglantina Hysa is Associate Professor of Head of the Department of Economics at Epoka
University, Tirana, Albania.
Poh Kam Wong is Professor in Entrepreneurship and Innovation Strategy at the NUS Business
School, National University of Singapore.
Martin Kamprath is Senior Program Manager of Transfer and Innovation at the Helmholtz
Association of German Research Centres and Lecturer at the Chair for Innovation Manage-
ment and Entrepreneurship, University of Potsdam, Germany.
Patrice Kandolo Kabeya is Lecturer in Economics, Department of Banking and Finance at
Epoka University, Tirana, Albania.
Magnus Karlsson is Adjunct Professor in Innovation Management at KTH Royal Institute of
Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and formerly Director of Innovation Management at Group
Function Strategy, Ericsson.
Kong-rae Lee is Professor at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST).
Regina Lenart-Gansiniec is Assistant Professor at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Institute
of Public Affairs, Poland.
Mats Magnusson is Professor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and
Permanent Visiting Professor at LUISS School of Business and Management, Rome, Italy.
Liang Mei is Associate Research Fellow at the National School of Development, Peking Uni-
versity, Beijing, China.
Dirk Meissner is Professor at National Research University Higher School of Economics,
Laboratory for Economics of Innovation, Moscow, Russia.
Sumit Mitra is Professor of Strategic Management at Indian Institute of Management
Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
Contributors
xv
Susanna Ghosh Mitra is an Independent Researcher in India. She received her PhD from the
University of Manchester, UK.
Elisabeth Noll is a management consultant in the automotive industry in Germany.
Petra A. Nylund is a researcher at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU).
Frank Piller is Professor of Technology and Innovation Management, RWTH Aachen Uni-
versity, Germany.
Franc Ponti is Professor of Innovation at EADA Business School.
Stephen Rainey is Research Fellow in the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility of
De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
Naqeeb Ur Rehman is Lecturer in Economics at Epoka University, Tirana, Albania.
Eugenia Rosca is Lecturer in Supply Chain Management in the Department of Management,
School of Economics and Management, Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
Yi Ruan is Assistant Professor in the International Business Management Department at Uni-
versity of Nottingham Ningbo China.
Jakob Schlegel is a Masters Student at the School of Business and Economics, Friedrich-
Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany.
Mark Shaw is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility
of De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
Bernd Carsten Stahl is Professor of Critical Research in Technology and Director of the
Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility of De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
Jos Timmermans is Researcher in the Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management in Delft
University of Technology.
Wim Vanhaverbeke is Professor of Innovation Management and Strategy at Hasselt University,
Visiting Professor at ESADE Business School, and Visiting Professor at National University of
Singapore.
Eric Viardot is Director of the Global Innovation Management Centre and Permanent Profes-
sor of Strategy and Marketing at EADA Business School in Barcelona, Spain.
Eric von Hippel is Chair Professor of Woodrow Wilson Center, Sloan School of Management,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Ximing Yin is a PhD candidate at the School of Economics and Management at Tsinghua
University, Beijing, China.
Contributors
xvi
Fei Yu is Associate Professor in Prototyping at Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern
Denmark.
Fei Yu is Associate Researcher, Research Center for Technological Innovation, Tsinghua
University, China.
Oliver Yu is President and CEO, The STARS Group; Chairman of the Board, Global Alliance
of Innovators & Entrepreneurs; and Board Member, IEEE Technology & Engineering Manage-
ment Society.
Suli Zheng is Professor of School of Economics and Management, China Jiliang University,
Hangzhou, China.
Kristina Zisler is a management consultant in the financial services industry in Germany.
PART I
Introduction to innovation and
innovation management
3
Value of innovation
Innovation and human development
The history of mankind is one of innovation, especially our great economic leaps over the past
two centuries (Fu and Gong, 2011). The Renaissance in the 14th century shattered backward
thoughts by introducing new thinking. The navigation rush in the 15th century expanded the
bounds of human civilization. The scientific revolution, which began in the 16th century, laid
the foundation for the technological revolution. The capital market, which was born in the
beginning of the 17th century, made financial activities a widespread phenomenon in society.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, gave a great impetus to economies
around the world. Although current economic theories and other doctrines fail to explain all
these phenomena perfectly, many scholars have identified a common factor – innovation – in
the chain of historical events (Chen, 2017b).
Alec Foege, author of The Tinkerers: The Amateurs, DIYers, and Inventors Who Make America
Great, referred to innovators – amateurs, DIYers and inventors who enjoyed fiddling with small
devices and inventions – as “tinkerers” (meaning “工匠 when translated into Chinese), to
whom he attributed the miracle of America: “American tinkerers are a group of independent
people who make world-changing inventions and innovations with sheer willpower and tenac-
ity”. For example, Benjamin Franklin, Eli Whitney, Cyrus McCormick, Thomas Edison and
the Wright brothers were outstanding innovators in human history. Such inventors come these
days from emerging markets like India (“jugaad”) and Brazil (“gambiarra”) but also from China
(Agarwal, Grottke, Mishra, and Brem, 2017; Wimschneider, Agarwal, and Brem, 2018).
There, a new round of technological and industrial revolutions is forthcoming as a radical
change in the global industrial structure and competition pattern begins to arise (Chen, Zhao,
and Wang, 2014). Disruptive innovations that may make a breakthrough in the future are of great
importance to our “technology-economy-society” pattern (Christensen, Baumann, Ruggles,
and Sadtler, 2006).
The National Economic Council and the Office of Science and Technology Policy issued the
newest version of the Strategy for American Innovation at the end of October 2015, announc-
ing the commitment to the development of nine strategic areas (as shown in Table 1.1).
1
INNOVATION AND
INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
Jin Chen, Eric Viardot and Alexander Brem
Chen, Viardot and Brem
4
In May 2013, McKinsey Global Institute released Disruptive Technologies: Advances That Will
Transform Life, Business and the Global Economy by 2025,1 a report that estimated the direct impact
of these technologies on the global economy between $14 and $33 trillion. Table 1.2 provides
the details on the major technologies and areas.
Innovation and national/regional competitiveness
Currently scientific progress and innovation play a decisive role in economic and social devel-
opment in the world (Chen, Yin, and Mei, 2018). An entity, whether as big as a country or as
small as an enterprise, will miss the opportunity of proactive future development if it fails to grab
Table 1.1 Nine strategic areas in the Strategy for American Innovation
S. N o. Area Description
11 Advanced manufacturing A National Network for Manufacturing Innovation will be
launched to restore the nation’s lead at the cutting edge of
manufacturing innovation.
22 Precision medicine Precision medicine will boost developments in genomics, large
data sets and health information technology while protecting
privacy. It gives clinicians tools to better understand the complex
mechanisms underlying a patient’s health, disease or condition
and to better predict which treatments will be most effective.
33 Brain initiative A deepened knowledge of how brains work, based on genetics,
will help scientists and doctors diagnose and treat neurological
disorders.
44 Advanced vehicles Breakthrough developments in sensing, computing and data science
will bring vehicle-to-vehicle communication and cutting-
edge autonomous technology safety features into commercial
deployment.
55 Smart cities An emerging community of civic leaders, data scientists, technologists
and companies are joining forces to build “smart cities”.
66 Clean energy and energy-
efficient technologies
The administration will continue to deploy and develop clean
energy technologies, fund climate-change solutions and increase
new energy production while improving America’s energy
security.
77 Educational technology The president has proposed to give 99 percent of students access to
high-speed broadband by 2018. And the 2016 budget includes
$50 million for the creation of an Advanced Research Projects
Agency for Education.
88 Space America will make core investments in the development of
commercial crew space transportation capability by 2017.
America will also invest in research on the protection of
astronauts from space radiation, on advanced propulsion systems
and on technologies that allow humans to live in outer space.
99 New frontiers in computing In July 2015, the president created the National Strategic
Computing Initiative to spur the creation and deployment of
computing technology at the leading edge, helping advance
administration priorities for economic competitiveness, scientific
discovery and national security.
Table 1.2 Twelve disruptive technologies
S. N o. Area Description Potential economic impact on the world
by 2025
11 Mobile Internet Smaller, viewable, wearable and more powerful mobile computing devices with more sensors benefit
consumers with improved medical and educational services, and elevate employee productivity.
$373 mln-$10.8 tln
22 Automation of
knowledge work
This automation technology applies primarily to ordinary business operation (e.g. marketing,
customer service and administrative support), social services (e.g. education and medical care),
technology industries (e.g. science, engineering and IT) and professional services (law and finance).
$523 mln-$6.7 tln, equivalent to
120 mln-140 mln full-time jobs
33 IoT (Internet of
Things)
IoT has the biggest economic impact on medical care and manufacturing. It is also applied to smart
grids, urban infrastructure, resource exploitation, agriculture and automobiles.
$273 mln-$6.2 tln
44 Cloud Cloud technology means a simpler, faster, more powerful and more efficient digital world that creates
great value for consumers as well as enterprises, which can manage information more efficiently
and flexibly.
$173 mln-$6.2 tln
55 Advanced robotics Advanced robotics covers primarily industrial robotics, surgical robotics, exoskeleton robotics,
prosthetic robotics, service robotics and domestic robotics.
$173 mln-$4.5tln
66 Autonomous and near-
autonomous vehicles
Safer, less congestion, more time savings, less fuel consumption and less emissions. $23 mln-$1.9 tln; can save 30,000–
150,000 lives
77 Next-generation
genomics
Next-generation genomics quickens advances in biology and applies primarily to the diagnosis and
treatment of diseases, agriculture and biofuel production.
$70 mln-$1.6 tln
88 Energy storage The technology applies primarily to electrical/hybrid vehicles, distributed energy, utilities and energy
storage.
$90 bln-$635 bln
99 3D printing Major applications include consumers, direct product manufacturing, tool and die making and
bioprinting of tissue and organs.
$230 bln-$550 bln
110 Advanced
nanomaterials
Advanced nanomaterials have found extensive application in medical care, electronics, composite
materials, solar cells, desalination and catalyzers, but the cost is higher. Nanomedical materials have
very great potential to be used for targeted cancer therapy.
$150 bln-$500 bln
111 Advanced oil and gas
exploration and
recovery
Shale gas and light crude oil exploration and recovery, primarily in North America. $95 bln-$460 bln
112 Renewable energy By 2025 wind power and solar power may increase from 2% to 16% of global electricity generation. $165 bln-$275 bln; equivalent to 1
bln to 1.2 bln less tons of carbon
emissions
Source: Chunping (2016).
Chen, Viardot and Brem
6
self-developed core technology or intellectual property (IP) assets instrumental in innovation
activities. Economists have attributed the fast growth of the world economy following World
War II to a push for technological innovation.
Innovation has been widely recognized as the main driver and first impetus for a sustainable
regional or national economic growth, as well as global competency (Acs, Audretsch, Lehmann,
and Licht, 2017; Brem and Viardot, 2017). Especially for those emerging economies, it’s no longer
a useful tool for them to depend on international trade or labor-intensive work such as manu-
facturing. The marginal benefit from labor investment is decreasing, while the returns of invest-
ment in new technology are increasing, which becomes a new driving force for the emerging
economics to obtain a competitive advantage in the global market (Aguirre-Bastos and Weber,
2018). Both developed and developing countries are trying to build up their national innovation
system in order to cultivate creative talents, high-tech based start-ups and new technology that
could be translated into sustainable power for industrial upgrading and economic growth (Chen,
2017a). This is also the main reason why Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, China and
India continue to increase their domestic expenditure on research and development (R&D),
sharing the largest proportion of the worldwide R&D expenditure, about 42.9 percent in 2017,
according to the 2017 Annual Global R&D Funding Forecast.2 For example, South Korea ranks
number one in national innovation competitiveness among all the countries in 2018, according
to the 2018 Bloomberg Innovation Index.3 China moved up two spots to 19th, buoyed by its
high proportion of new science and engineering graduates in the labor force and an increasing
number of patents by innovators such as Huawei Technologies Co., and is the first-ever develop-
ing country who gets a position in the top 20 most innovative countries in history.
Innovation is a double-edged sword in terms of social impact (Martin, 2016). On the one
hand, many innovative products make our life better. For example, the plane and the high-speed
rail make travel faster, and Apple smart devices have changed our lifestyle fundamentally. A large
number of new products and services are delivered to every corner of the world. An increasing
share of the public can have access to more plentiful food, life necessities and better medical
services.
But innovation means possible negative effects as well. For example, industrial technolo-
gies may cause pollution, agricultural and fishing technologies may aggravate ecological prob-
lems and medical technologies may involve drug-resistance problems and bioethical issues (like
genetic engineering). However, technology is essentially a knowledge-based means of solving
problems and achieving goals. Overall, innovation, if effectively managed, will minimize its
negative effects to better serve mankind, in which case we call it an inclusive innovation or
responsible innovation (George, McGahan, and Prabhu, 2012; Stilgoe, Owen, and Macnaghten,
2013; Timmermans, Yaghmaei, Stahl, and Brem, 2017).
Innovation and corporate competitiveness
Innovation creates inexhaustible energy for corporate existence and
development
The global competition pattern is now reducing down to economic and technology competi-
tion, which is increasingly drawing momentum from technological innovation (Chen, Yin, and
Zhao, 2019; Kumpe and Bolwijn, 1994). More and more firms have found high production
efficiency, quality and even flexibility to be insufficient to maintain competitive advantages.
Instead, innovation is increasingly creating an inexhaustible energy for corporate existence and
development (see Figure 1.1).
Innovation and innovation management
7
Increasingly shorter technology life cycle
Whereas it took typically several decades to successfully commercialize a technological inven-
tion in the first half of the 20th century, the cycle shortened significantly beginning in the sec-
ond half. The telephone took as long as 60 years to enter 50 percent of American homes in the
first half of the 20th century, but the Internet took only 5 years to enter most American homes.
Corroborating the increasingly fast cycle, Moore’s law observes that the storage capacity per unit
area of a chip doubles every 18 months and that the bandwidth of a backbone network doubles
every 6 months (see Table 1.3).
The life cycle of software products, measured in terms of the duration from introduction to
exit or replacement by other products, has dropped to 4 to 12 months. Similarly, the time is 12
to 24 months for hardware and consumer electronics products, and 18 to 36 months for white
goods. The firm is therefore compelled to adopt an innovation strategy. Without fast innovation,
a firm would end up losing market share as its products become out of date.4
Towards an innovative firm
The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) issued The 50 Most Innovative Companies in Decem-
ber 2018, ranking Apple on top for one more year and including three Chinese companies5 (see
Table 1.4).
The companies on the list were generally believed to have four elements essential to suc-
cess: high speed of innovation, good and simple R&D procedure, employment of a technology
platform and systematic development of neighboring markets.
If we look back on the rankings over the past decade, we would find that many regular
winners are masters of innovation, the power that drives continually growing proceeds. These
include Apple, Google, Microsoft, Samsung, Tesla, BMW, Amazon, IBM, Hewlett-Packard,
SpaceX, General Electric, Cisco, Huawei, Alibaba and Tencent.
Time Market requirement Corporate management
focus
Firm type Management feature
 
1960s–1970s • Price • Production efficiency
(cost reduction)
Efficient firm Fordism
(standardization and
mass production)
1980s • Price + quality Efficiency + quality Quality firm Total quality
management
1990s • Price +
quality +
product line
Efficiency +
quality + flexibility
Flexible firm Flexible
manufacturing
system; JIT (just in
time)
Late 1990s–
present
Price +
quality +
product line +
uniqueness
Efficiency +
quality + flexibility +
innovativeness
Innovative firm • Total innovation
management
Figure 1.1 Evolution of corporate management
Source: Kumpe and Bolwijn (1994).
Chen, Viardot and Brem
8
According to the analysis of American scholars Kumpe and Piet, the mainstream model of
corporate development has evolved from the effective firm to the quality firm, and then to the
flexible firm; now the flexible firm is on the road to becoming the innovative firm (Kumpe and
Bolwijn, 1994) (as shown in Figure 1.2). It’s worth noting that Chinese firms are typically 10 to
20 years behind the international firms with regard to a development model due to historical
reasons and technological strength.
The facts have shown that beginning in the 1990s (especially the 21st century), the majority
of the most successful firms made it through cost reduction combined with quality and flex-
ibility improvement. However, increasing economic globalization and competition have driven
some firms to look beyond the relentless pursuit of quality and flexibility. They put a premium
Table 1.3 Significant technological innovations in history
Technology or product Year of invention Year of innovation Invention-innovation cycle (y)
Fluorescent lamp 1859 1938 79
Compass 1852 1908 56
Zipper 1891 1918 27
Television 1919 1941 22
Jet engine 1929 1943 14
Copy machine 1937 1950 13
Steam engine 1764 1775 11
Turbine engine 1934 1944 10
Radiogram 1889 1897 8
Triode 1907 1914 7
DDT 1939 1942 3
Freon 1930 1931 1
Source: Qingrui (2000)
Table 1.4 The 50 most innovative companies for 2018
1. Apple 18. General Electric 35. Adidas
2. Google 19. Orange 36. BMW
3. Microsoft 20. Marriott 37. Nissan
4. Amazon 21. Siemens 38. Pfizer
5. Samsung 22. Unilever 39. Time Warner
6. T
esla 23. BASF 40. Renault
7. Facebook 24. Expedia 41. 3M
8. IBM 25. Johnson & Johnson 42. SAP
9. Uber 26. JPMorgan Chase 43. DuPont
10. Alibaba 27. Bayer 44. InterContinental Hotels Group
11. Airbnb 28. Dow Chemical 45. Disney
12. SpaceX 29. AT&T 46. Huawei
13. Netflix 30. Allianz 47. Procter & Gamble
14. T
encent 31. Intel 48. Verizon
15. Hewlett-Packard 32. NTT Docomo 49. Philips
16. Cisco Systems 33. Daimler 50. Nestle
17. Toyota 34. AXA
Source: Michael Ringel and Hadi Zablit. Published online at January 17, 2018. www.bcg.com/en-us/
publications/2018/most-innovative-companies-2018-innovation.aspx
Innovation and innovation management
9
on innovation in order to compete with their rivals for market share as innovative organizations.
Fast innovation has gradually emerged as a key weapon of market competitiveness as the one-
time flexible firms find they are losing market share to more innovative firms. Of course, high
efficiency, quality and flexibility remain the pillars of innovative firms.
Typically, an innovative firm makes a consistent effort to seek new breakthroughs in the area
of its specialty to reduce cost, improve quality and flexibility and, finally, provide the market with
products of outstanding price, quality and performance. The firm encourages an innovation cul-
ture and is equipped with an organizational structure and a stimulation mechanism conducive
to effective communication and fast innovation (Greve, 2003).
The common belief of the innovative firms is that innovativeness has become the factor
most critical to business success. An innovative organization is a learning organization as
well. Innovation means not only the development of new products and technologies but also
of new markets, of new material sources and of new uses for the same products (Schumpeter,
1934).
At present, most of the Chinese firms run in a model of efficiency and quality; a number of
leading firms are characterized by flexibility; only a limited few of the leading firms have got on
the road to innovativeness (Chen, Tong, and Ngai, 2007).
Overall, the innovative firm is a new type of firm as opposed to its counterparts focused
on efficiency, quality and flexibility. Some prominent features of an innovative firm include
the focus on such core values as innovativeness; the integration of global innovative resources
(including the staff); a coordinated innovation model that covers tactics, strategy, culture, institu-
tions, markets, organization and processes in a ubiquitous range; and self-developed IP assets and
core technology needed to maintain a consistent competitive advantage.
The importance of innovation management
In The Innovator’s Solution (Christensen and Raynor, 2013), Christensen writes:
No matter how hard the gifted people are, many of the attempts to create new prod-
ucts have failed at last. 60% of the new products died before they are listed, and in the
Market Requirement
Performance Criteria
Time
Innovativeness
Flexibility
Quality
Efficiency
1970s 1980s 1990s 21st century
Price
Quality
Variety
Uniqueness
Figure 1.2 Evolution of the corporate development model
Source: Kumpe and Bolwijn (1994)
Chen, Viardot and Brem
10
rest 40% of products that can be seen in the market, 40% of them are unprofitable and
withdrawn from the market. In all, 75% of the investment in product development
ended in failure at last.
The Department of Trade and Industry in the United Kingdom once conducted a survey of
14,000 organizations that purchased computer software and found that 80 to 90 percent of pro-
jects did not achieve the expected performance goals, about 80 percent of projects exceed the
scheduled development time or budget, about 40 percent of projects end in failure and only 10
to 20 percent of projects achieved the expected goal successfully. In the process of innovation,
various unknown factors are usually unpredictable. The results of innovation investment efforts
are generally random, coupled with the uncertainty of the future market – thus, all of these make
innovation a very risky business (Stirling, 2008).
Many innovative ideas are not able to be translated into new products. Also, many projects
cannot become technically feasible products. And even if they are technically feasible, they may
not necessarily get market recognition. The success rate of innovation in some industries is very
low. Taking new drug development as an example, commonly, only 1 of 3,000 initial innovative
ideas is able to be commercially successful. And it often takes 12 years or even longer from the
discovery to listing of the new drug and costs hundreds of millions of dollars. Therefore, the
innovation process is often seen as a funnel, and there are many new ideas with potential for
development at the beginning, but only a few successes can be achieved in the end (see example
in Figure 1.3).
In order to achieve better market success for innovation, Brem and Viardot (2015) underline
the importance of the downstream activities of the innovation process, namely marketing and
commercialization; they suggest adopting innovation as a priority in the innovation strategy of
firms and governments, as the European Union has done in its Horizon 2020 innovation plan
(Salmelin, 2013). Similarly, the importance of the adoption of innovation by consumers has been
acknowledged with the emergence of the conceptual model of Quadruple Helix Innovation,
where citizens are adding a fourth element to the more traditional combination of partner-
ship for innovation between the industry, the government and the universities (Carayannis and
Campbell, 2009).
3000
iginal
Ideas
300
Discussed
Ideas
125
Minor
Projects
9 Major
Projects
4 Key
Development
Projects
1. 7 were
accepted by the
market
Figure 1.3 Sketch map of the innovation funnel model (using new drug development as an example)
Source: Jin (2002)
Innovation and innovation management
11
Strategy
Organization
Resource Culture
Ideas R&D
Marketing Production
Figure 1.4 Holistic framework for corporation innovation management integration
Source: Chen (2002)
Innovation management: an integration framework
In order to complete the transformation of idea to market value, innovation management needs
careful design in terms of strategy, organization, resource and culture (institution), which means
the “creative destruction” based on deconstruction and the “organizational reconstruction and
regularization” management activities based on construction are reasonably interacted to con-
tinuously promote the evolution of the company (Chen, Huang, and Xu, 2015). In general,
innovation requires “horizontal-vertical theory”, or in other words, a holistic innovation frame-
work (Chen, Yin, and Mei, 2018). Horizontal management is the combination of vision and
creativity, R&D, manufacturing and sales; vertical management requires the coordination of
strategy, organization, resources and culture (institution) (see Figure 1.4).
Innovation strategy
Innovation requires the overall strategic guidance of the company. From the perspective of the
logical structure and way of thinking of the discipline, innovation and strategy are almost the
same. Or, at least, innovation should be taken into consideration when designing the corporate-
level strategy. There is a strong correlation between the lack of indigenous innovation of Chinese
companies and the weakness of their own strategic management capabilities, whereby indig-
enous innovation is a specific Chinese innovation term (Brem, 2009). Many companies only
have profit and sales targets but no growth indicators based on indigenous intellectual property
rights and technological innovation. Therefore, Chinese companies have always been unbal-
anced between their investment in growth (such as innovation) and their investment in share-
holder or financial returns. There is no such strategic arrangement. A company that is eager to
innovate must go beyond its traditional development model and realize the transformation from
a business model based on introduction and simple manufacturing to the business model that
integrates external emerging, breakthrough science technology and commercial resources to
Chen, Viardot and Brem
12
create higher value-added, more environmentally friendly products or services. In other words,
companies that integrate innovation strategy, culture, resources and traditional strategic tools
could achieve superior economic rents than the ones who don’t (Chen, Huang, and Xu, 2015).
3M, the model of world-class innovation, has been strategically demanding that new prod-
ucts and services developed during the year should contribute 10 percent of the sales revenue
for the next year, which makes 3M develop 1,500 new products each year. Some leading Chi-
nese companies, such as China International Marine Containers (Group) Co., Ltd., have been
transforming from the early stage of simply copying foreign samples to the development of
high-quality products and strive to master the core patents, formulating or participating in
the formulation of international standards for containers more actively, reflecting some Chi-
nese enterprises’ new understanding and actions in terms of innovation competition. Therefore,
strengthening strategic management capabilities, enhancing strategic innovation capabilities and
strengthening the benign interaction between corporate strategy and technological innovation
are important conditions for the implementation of indigenous innovation. Without strategic
analysis of corporate strategy, product design and technology realization, it is nearly impossible
for Chinese companies to achieve indigenous innovation in a real sense.
Innovative organization
In order to realize indigenous innovation, a company should focus on optimizing the frame of
innovative organization. Traditional Chinese companies continue the bureaucratic and hierar-
chical organizational structure of industrial society, which makes the connection between R&D,
production and marketing very unstable. Even the high-intensity R&D is not enough to break
the barriers (Baldwin and von Hippel, 2011). Besides, since market demand and technology sup-
ply cannot be matched appropriately, technological achievements are difficult to translate into
new products and productivity. A modern innovative company must reform its organizational
structure fundamentally and rebuild a customer-oriented and process-oriented organizational
form, so as to translate ideas into products that are manufacturable and commercially valuable
more quickly and efficiently.
The Haier Group constantly adjusts its organizational structure and strives to achieve a har-
monious unity of business stream, product stream and logistics. This customer-oriented adaptive
structure matches business orders with employees’ work tasks, and even goes one step further
in terms of the organizational structure that is visible and nonexecutive, or what we call it “flat
organization” (Kanter and Dai, 2018; Lewin, Välikangas, and Chen, 2017). These actions played
an important role in starting innovation and realizing the final value or innovation. The BMW
Group is meticulous about its coordination of innovations. Every time BMW starts to develop
a new type of car, 200 to 300 project team members from the engineering, design, production,
marketing, procurement, and financing departments of the BMW Group will gather in the
research and innovation center and work together for three years. This kind of close relationship
can promote face-to-face communication, thus avoiding contradictions between marketing and
engineering departments later on.
Companies should continue to strengthen organizational transforming in terms of innovation
and build a superior process platform in order to turn new ideas into new values. The organi-
zational structure is further oriented toward customers, flattening and reducing the bureaucratic
control of the organization and enhancing the service function of the organization – it is a
good method for the promotion of indigenous innovation of Chinese companies (Baldwin and
von Hippel, 2011). In order to achieve this type of organizational transformation, future cor-
porate managers should be led by the chief operating officer, chief innovation officer and chief
Innovation and innovation management
13
resource officer. The main responsibility of the chief executive officer is to exert the enthusiasm
and creativity of these three managers. We believe that the value creation of a company will be
completed by operations-related and innovation-related activities. Operations (which mainly
includes current products, markets, manufacturing, logistics, etc.) are mainly responsible for
the creation of corporate cash flow and profits, while innovation (with an emphasis on strat-
egy, technology, future R&D and market development) focuses on gaining potential and more
options for future sustainable development. In order to achieve the value creation, a company
must build or acquire powerful resources and capabilities and conduct management and service
work appropriately. What’s more, the chief innovation officer needs to integrate the capabilities
of marketing expert, technical expert, strategist and industrialist.
Innovation of resources
Resource refers to the core assets for a company to obtain a competitive advantage (Barney,
2001), while at the same time, innovation is a creative recombination of resources (Schumpeter,
1934). The resources include a series of tangible and intangible ones, such as information, capi-
tal, talent, brand and intellectual property (Barney, 2001). Realizing indigenous innovation of
a company requires it to continuously enrich and expand its innovation resources, especially
information and knowledge sources. In order to speed up this process, a company needs to fully
mobilize the enthusiasm of employees to participate in innovation and gradually realize the full
participation of the company’s indigenous innovation (Xu et al., 2007). The Baosteel Group
Corporation’ requires four annual rationalization suggestions from each person, and more peo-
ple are engaged in competitive information development every year, which is a valuable attempt
among domestic companies in this regard. Toyota has become the most innovative company in
the world, with 35 suggestions per person every year and a total of 2,000,000 suggestions, which
helps Toyota generate continuous creative and valuable ideas that could be commercialized into
profitable products.
The market research ability of Chinese companies is still weak. Regarding the condition that
market demand is increasingly segmented, relying solely on operator intuition is not enough.
Most Chinese companies still don’t know how to apply the scenario analysis method yet. Tech-
nology foresight, competitive intelligence tools that should be used for the analysis of strategy
and market or overall information and intelligence resources of enterprises are still scarce. Com-
pared to all computer publications ordered by IBM and the knowledge library of Huawei, most
of the files and information bases of Chinese companies still need to be improved.
In the open innovation era, companies cannot just rely on internal limited resources to
achieve innovation (Chesbrough, Vanhaverbeke, and West, 2006). The ability of acquiring exter-
nal knowledge becomes more and more important. Interactive learning is an important condi-
tion for acquiring external resources to create innovation (Berchicci, 2013). Therefore, learning
and R&D will become two important aspects of innovation. At the same time, users, espe-
cially the leading users who are directly involved in innovation, will accelerate the process of
innovation and increase the success rate (Foxall and Johnston, 1987; Brem, Bilgram, and Guts-
tein, 2018). We believe that user-based democratized innovation will have a great influence
on China’s innovation practice. Similarly, suppliers are also major innovators. For companies
with strong capital capability, they can help small, technologically advanced companies develop
innovative projects via seed funding and venture capital. In this way, big companies could obtain
technological capabilities through the successful R&D of small companies, who are suppliers
for them. In order to avoid duplication of R&D or to offset for deficiencies in the company’s
technology, companies can also acquire advanced technologies and key technologies efficiently
Chen, Viardot and Brem
14
and economically through the purchase of external technologies or technology mergers to
accelerate technological innovation.
In short, the process of diversification and integration of corporate innovation resources
should also be part of the process of establishing a corporation innovation network. Innovation
resources and innovation networks complement each other and jointly promote corporation
innovation, in which efficient flow and recombination of resources through internal and exter-
nal networks could accelerate the innovation and commercialization process.
Innovation culture
An innovation culture plays an important role in the effective development of technologi-
cal innovation (Kratzer, Meissner, and Roud, 2017). Compared with information, capital and
organizational structure, innovation culture is called the other side of technological innovation.
The reason why the innovation of Haier succeeded is because it effectively integrates Confu-
cian culture (a suitable hierarchy), American entrepreneurial spirit, Japanese team culture and
German quality culture. Emphasis on innovation culture can have a greater significance. Zhang
Ruimin defined himself as a chief cultural officer, which gave him a higher vision than the gen-
eral CEO. Therefore, he further promoted Haier’s innovation via pushing and building a culture
that attracts full participation and encourages both exploitation and exploration.
Values, institutional systems, behavioral norms and physical carriers are the four aspects of
innovation culture and must be highly emphasized by the top management team. Values are the
basic characteristics of culture, and contemporary culture innovation should take entrepreneur-
ship as the core and pursue a culture of advancement, development, change and excellence.
Innovation culture determines the value orientation of technological innovation. The scale,
level, focus and method of technological innovation are often determined by its value orienta-
tion. Sony Corporation has always taken “technical leading” as the fundamental orientation of
its innovation culture, and its technological innovation is very active. 3M takes “proportion of
new products/new business income to sales revenue” as the main goal of business operations,
which made it one of the most successful innovation companies in the world.
In order to run the innovation culture, it must be based on a certain system. The commu-
nication system of technology and market and the management system of technical human
resources are two systems related to technological innovation. The human resource (HR) sys-
tems in Chinese companies need revising. The HR system that truly suits innovation is flex-
ible, whereas the hierarchical solidification makes people unwilling to change themselves. At
Microsoft, employees are divided into 15 levels that vary from year to year, and salaries are set
according to grade. Innovative companies often implement multihierarchy career systems, such
as the 15 levels of Microsoft and the 27 levels of Haier.
A behavioral norm is the basic characteristic and specific appearance of culture (Greve, 2003).
The innovation culture manifests itself in behavioral norms for entrepreneurs and corporate
employees, and the key is to embrace innovation, understand innovation, participate in innova-
tion, value innovation, tolerate failure and have respect for employees’ backgrounds (nationality,
regions, family, etc.).
The physical carrier is an objective symbol of innovation culture and has obvious guidance
and demonstration effects. For example, many innovative companies strongly encourage the
establishment of individualized offices, setting up clear signs for the most creative employees and
constructing exhibition venues for innovative products for companies. These venues should be
displayed to people inside and outside the company to establish the employees’ sense of honor
in the innovative products.
Innovation and innovation management
15
The best embodiment of a flexible culture of innovation is 3M, while the best embodiment
of innovation and cultural discipline is some of China’s outstanding companies. Companies such
as Huawei and Haier have strict disciplines and even some militarized management styles. Disci-
plinary culture ensures that all kinds of resources are unimpeded and decisions are implemented.
In general, the culture of innovation should be a unique dualistic culture. On the basis of
maintaining unity and coordination, appropriately increasing the connotation of individual-
ity and tolerance for failure is the cultural foundation for companies to achieve indigenous
innovation.
Notes
1 See also: www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/disruptive-technologies
2 See also: https://learn.rdmag.com/20180112_gff_2018_rd_lp
3 See also: www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-01-22/south-korea-tops-global-innovation-
ranking-again-as-u-s-falls
4 Schilling, Melissa A., Strategic Management of Technological Innovation. Translated by Xie Wei and Wang Yi.
Tsinghua University Press, 2005.
5 See also: www.bcg.com/en-us/publications/2018/most-innovative-companies-2018-innovation.aspx
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