Chapter

Writing and Rewriting: the Coloured Numerical Visualization of Keystroke Logging: Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting

Chapter

Writing and Rewriting: the Coloured Numerical Visualization of Keystroke Logging: Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting

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... Selon la théorie des graphes appliquée à l'écriture, les différentes activités scripturales telles que la succession des segments, la durée des pauses, par exemple, peuvent être visualisées à l'aide de jeux de couleurs, et de formes (Bécotte-Boutin et al., 2019;Leblay & Caporossi, 2015). Ainsi, dans la représentation graphique de ces derniers, la couleur rouge peut être associée à l'inscription, les couleurs jaune et bleue à la suppression, tandis que le vert peut donner à voir, avec précision, la succession et la durée des pauses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article traite des processus d’écriture d’apprenants universitaires de français langue étrangère (L2/L3). Ces écritures ont été recueillies à l’aide du programme GenoGraphiX-Log qui est construit sur les exigences de la génétique textuelle et de la théorie mathématique des graphes. Notre corpus consiste en 44 écritures produites en français par des locuteurs ayant comme L1 soit l’anglais, soit le mandarin soit le finnois. Le premier objectif est de mieux décrire, en fonction des L1 des participants, les opérations d’écriture mises en oeuvre en français lors de la réalisation d’une même tâche. Le second objectif est d’évaluer comment la visualisation, basée sur la théorie des graphes et sur des méthodes statistiques inductives, soutient cette analyse des processus d’écriture. Les résultats se basent sur deux analyses issues des graphes : une analyse en composantes principales (ACP) et la visualisation des écritures exemplaires (les plus proches des centres de gravité de chaque groupe). Ces deux analyses complémentaires nous permettent de mesurer les spécificités des trois groupes et d’approfondir qualitativement l’analyse de signatures scripturales. Notre corpus et nos analyses montrent l’intérêt de l’utilisation des méthodes mixtes dans l’analyse des processus complexes d’écriture à l’aide d’outils de visualisation.
... At the same time, writing process (WP) researchers have been using different types of visualization to analyze keystroke logging (and in some cases eye-tracking) data and report their findings, which is necessary because the huge data sets that these technologies produce make it impossible for unaided human faculties to identify patterns and regularities (Bécotte, Caporossi, Hertz, & Leblay, 2015). Despite their varied forms, WP visualizations typically convey information about the timing and location of writing behaviors of interest. ...
Article
Assessment for learning (AfL) seeks to support instruction by providing information about students’ current state of learning, the desired end state of learning, and ways to close the gap. AfL of second-language (L2) writing faces challenges insofar as feedback from instructors tends to focus on written products while neglecting most of the processes that gave rise to them, such as planning, formulation, and evaluation. Meanwhile, researchers studying writing processes have been using keystroke logging (KL) and eye-tracking (ET) to analyze and visualize process engagement. This study explores whether such technologies can support more meaningful AfL of L2 writing. Two Chinese L1 students studying at a U.S. university who served as case studies completed a series of argumentative writing tasks while a KL-ET system traced their processes and then produced visualizations that were used for individualized tutoring. Data sources included the visualizations, tutoring-session transcripts, the participants’ assessed final essays, and written reflections. Findings showed the technologies, in combination with the assessment dialogues they facilitated, made it possible to (1) position the participants in relation to developmental models of writing; (2) identify and address problems with planning, formulation, and revision; and (3) reveal deep-seated motivational issues that constrained the participants’ learning.
... At the same time, writing process (WP) researchers have been using different types of visualization to analyze keystroke logging (and in some cases eye-tracking) data and report their findings, which is necessary because the huge data sets that these technologies produce make it impossible for unaided human faculties to identify patterns and regularities (Bécotte et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessment for learning (AfL) seeks to support instruction by providing information about students' current state of learning, the desired end state of learning, and ways to close the gap. AfL of second-language (L2) writing faces challenges insofar as feedback from instructors tends to focus on written products while neglecting most of the processes that gave rise to them, such as planning, formulation, and evaluation. Meanwhile, researchers studying writing processes have been using keystroke logging (KL) and eye-tracking (ET) to analyze and visualize process engagement. This study explores whether such technologies can support more meaningful AfL of L2 writing. Two Chinese L1 students studying at a U.S. university who served as case studies completed a series of argumentative writing tasks while a KL-ET system traced their processes and then produced visualizations that were used for individualized tutoring. Data sources included the visualizations, tutoring-session transcripts, the participants' assessed final essays, and written reflections. Findings showed the technologies, in combination with the assessment dialogues they facilitated, made it possible to (1) position the participants in relation to developmental models of writing; (2) identify and address problems with planning, formulation, and revision; and (3) reveal deep-seated motivational issues that constrained the participants' learning.
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