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Role of Family, Neighbourhood and Peers in Development of Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents

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Role of Family, Neighbourhood and Peers in Development of Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents

Abstract

All over the globe juvenile delinquency is a major issue. Even after lots of efforts to minimize it, it is increasing. Therefore, the review paper aims on looking at the basic causes of development of delinquent behavior in adolescents. Objectives of this study are, finding out what role family plays in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior,what role neighborhood (local neighborhood or extra-local neighborhood) plays in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents, what role do peers play in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents and what role do economic factors and personalfactors play in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Researches from past 12 years (from 2004 till 2016), including 39 papers, relevant to the study have been selected on basis of the keywords of the study from different websites PubMed, WileyOnline Library and some other online sociology, criminology and community psychology journal websites. Type of studies included in this paper are quantitative, qualitative, case study, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Results indicated family, peers, neighborhood, economic factors and personal factors are the reasons of development of delinquent behavior of adolescents. Interventions in keeping consideration of these issues should be planned for the reduction of juvenile crimes. Keywords:adolescents, delinquent behavior, family, neighborhood, peers, economic status and personal factors
PESHAWAR JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY AND B EHAVIORAL SCIENCES, 20 18, VOL. 4, NO. 2, 171-192
Juvenile delinquency is a global issue (Carter & Stewin, 1999). It
has been observed by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) that more
than 1 million world’s children are in prison (Bochenek, M. G, 2016).
1
M.Phil Scholar, Department of Psychology, University of Karachi
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Karachi
ISSN 2415-6779 EISSN 2518-4474
https://doi.org/10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.171
www.pjpbsicp.com
Role of Family, Neighborhood and Peers in
Development of Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents
Shahana Masood1 and Saima Masoom Ali2
University of Karachi
All over the globe juvenile delinquency is a major issue. Even
after lots of efforts to minimize it, it is increasing. Therefore, the
review paper aims on looking at the basic causes of development
of delinquent behavior in adolescents. Objectives of this study are,
finding out what role family plays in development of adolescents’
delinquent behavior, what role neighborhood (local neighborhood
or extra-local neighborhood) plays in development of delinquent
behavior in adolescents, what role do peers play in development
of delinquent behavior in adolescents and what role do economic
factors and personal factors play in development of adolescents’
delinquent behavior. Researches from past 12 years (from 2004
till 2016), including 39 papers, relevant to the study have been
selected on basis of the keywords of the study from different
websites PubMed, Wiley Online Library and some other online
sociology, criminology and community psychology journal
websites. Type of studies included in this paper are quantitative,
qualitative, case study, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
Results indicated family, peers, neighborhood, economic factors
and personal factors are the reasons of development of delinquent
behavior of adolescents. Interventions in keeping consideration of
these issues should be planned for the reduction of juvenile crimes.
Keywords: adolescents, delinquent behavior, family,
neighborhood, peers, economic status and personal factors
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Juvenile delinquent is defined as, “an adolescent who breaks the law or
engages in behavior that is considered illegal” (John W. Santrock, 2011).
Children who come under the age of 18 are considered to be juvenile and
delinquent are the ones who show behavior which is illegal for adults. The
term of delinquent will not be used for the child who is below age of 7 years
and commits same kind of illegal act, this child would be called problem
child due to the fact that at this age a child does not have the ability to
differentiate maturely between right and wrong or legal and illegal act
(Vijayanath et al., 2010).
According to FBI arrest statistics of juvenile offenders in US was
76% in 2008, 78% in 2009 and 2010, 77% in 2011, 77% in 2012, 78% in
2013 and 2014 (Puzzanchera, 2017). The rate of juvenile delinquency cases
in US dropped from 52.3 per 1000 juveniles in 2005 to 28.1 in 2015
(Puzzanchera, S., 2018) . Juvenile rates for all offences in US has been
increased in the last two decades in year 1996 and later it is declined 70%
by year 2016 i.e. rate of crime in 1980 was 6,396 whereas it declined to
2,553.6 in 2016 (OJJDP, 2017). It shows that percentage of juvenile
offenders is decreasing by almost 1 percent or less year by year from 2006
to 2012 (OJJDP,2017) but in further research as per the National Report
2014, it was predicted that in 21st century juveniles will increase. According
to the estimation of Census Bureau 10% increase of juveniles will be shown
between 2010 and 2035. By year 2050, Juvenile population will be 16%
greater than in 2010 (MSaCP,2014).
US law enforcement agencies have arrested 1.6 million of juvenile
offenders (most of them were involved in assault, larceny-theft, drug abuse
violation and disorderly conduct offenses) in year 2010. Out of which 73%
are between age group of 16-17 years (MSaCP,2014).
According to Youthful Offender Industrial School (YOIS) Karachi
statistics 85 per month juvenile offenders have been arrested and overall
3592 had been arrested in year 2011 Karachi only. These children were
involved in various crimes such as, robbery, car lifting, pick pocketing,
murder and sodomy (Hasni, 2011). Number of juvenile offenders in
detention centers of Pakistan was 1,383 (1,246 are on trial and 137 have been
convicted) out of which 783 were of Punjab, 276 of Sindh, 217 of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa and 107 of Baluchistan (Mansoor Hasan, 2014)
ROLE OF FAMILY, NEIGHBORHOOD AND PEERS IN DEVELOPMENT OF DELINQUENT
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Theories on Development of Delinquent Behavior
As per Hirshi’s (1969), Social Bond Theory of Crime a person is
likely to develop delinquent behavior when his link with society is
weakened. As per Hirshi, concept of "social bond" consists of the four
elements: (1) attachment, (2) commitment, (3) involvement, and (4) beliefs.
Person who is strongly attached with his society will less likely deviate from
the social norms. Commitment is being tangled in social activities and
institutions, those who are committed to norms of their society will not
become deviant. Involvement includes how much time you are spending in
your community or neighborhood the more an individual is involved s/he
will not have time to move towards delinquent acts (in a case when
community itself is not involved in deviant acts). An individual’s belief on
social norms and moral values also becomes hurdle for moving towards
wrong path. Therefore, an individual is affected by the neighborhood they
reside.
Social learning theory by Bandura indicates that an individual does
observational learning which means that we try to model what others do by
watching them doing. This theory can be applied in any context. This theory
can also explain the phenomenon of learning through peers, which is an
adolescent learns from their friends because s/he spends most of her/his time
with friends. Therefore, if a friend is involved in bad criminal acts there are
chances of that child’s involvement in criminal acts as well (McLeod, 2016)
Another theory by a behaviorist B. F. Skinner (1953), within context of
delinquent behavior explains that, children’s behavior is shaped by
reinforcement and punishment. A child’s behavior is shaped by the
environment s/he lives in, those behaviors are increased which are rewarded
in the society or community or the family.
Media and Juvenile Delinquency
Media has negative impact on behavior. Watching violent content
on media causes youth to develop aggressive tendencies and anti-social
behavior (Anderson et al., 2002). Most of the time adolescents become
victim of cyber-bullying on social networking sites. It can negatively affect
mental health of youth who are being victimized (Slonje et al., 2013) and
bullying is a predictor of delinquent behavior (Bender and Losel, 2011).
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Rationale
Global crime rate is increasing year by year especially juvenile
crimes, which are hurdles for the growth of the society. A lot of researches
are conducted almost each year in most of the regions of the world for
finding out main reasons of juvenile delinquency despite of that it is
increasing. More juvenile offenders were arrested as compared to adults as
per the record of crime arrest in US by National Centre for Juvenile Justice
2014, which is the reason that more reaches are required in finding out the
reasons of increased juvenile crime.
Purpose of conducting review on role of family, neighborhood,
peers, economic factors and personal factors on adolescent’s delinquent
behavior is to understand what are the causes of these issues and which areas
need improvement so that those areas can be worked upon.
Another reason is greater number of researches are required in this field so
that adolescents can improve and those who are involved in crimes they can
be stopped by trying to reduce the causes that are aiding in development of
such delinquent behaviors. Work on adolescents is important because future
of society relies on them.
As this study also includes researches carried out in Pakistan
therefore it would be helpful to understand the ratio and reason of
adolescents’ crime causes and their solutions in Pakistan as well or it would
also highlight the difference between Pakistan and other countries.
Objectives
1. To identify effect of family on development of delinquent behavior
in adolescents.
2. To identify effect of neighborhood on development of delinquent
behavior in adolescents.
3. To identify effect of peers on development of delinquent behavior
in adolescents.
4. To identify effect of economic factors on development of delinquent
behavior in adolescents.
5. To identify effect of personal factors on development of delinquent
behavior in adolescents.
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Review
Family and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescent
Most of the researchers have found that one of the crucial cause of
delinquency is complications in family which leads to behavioral problems
in an adolescent. As findings of the study by Elite 2006, family environment
plays major role in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents.
Adolescents who live in non-traditional family (with single-parent)
are more prone towards developing delinquent behavior than those
adolescents who live in traditional (two-parent) family (Demuth & Brown,
2004). McCurley and Sydney 2004, informed that those adolescents (12-17
years old) who live with family which includes both biological parents had
lesser chance of having behavioral issues than those who live with other type
of families. Association between delinquent behavior of adolescents and
non-traditional family has been studied with context of age, socioeconomic
status, gender, race, family size and place of residence. Adolescents aged
between 12-17 years were selected in the study. It has been found that
association is influenced by family size and age. More vulnerable to juvenile
delinquency were older adolescents and those who lived in larger families.
(Kierkus & Hewitt, 2009). It was stated in study of Mullens Angela D. 2004,
that adolescents who lived with single parent were prone to development of
delinquent behavior but those who were with fathers only were more
involved in criminal acts. Elite 2006, also reported in a study that gender of
a parent matters adolescents who live with father have greater chance of
being delinquent.
It has been noted that children of divorced parents has some
common genetic qualities that makes them vulnerable towards becoming
delinquent (Guo, Roettger & Shih, 2006) but Barnes, McGue & Lacono
(2009) argue that delinquent behavior of a child is not a genetic factor, it is
because of going through the phase of divorce of parents. Therefore divorce
of a parent has relationship with adolescent delinquent behavior.
Delinquency rate is higher in children of divorced parents and it does not
depend on the age when divorce happened (Prestin-Latham, 2013).
As trend of cohabitation is increasing in US children who live with
single-parent (who cohabitates with non-biological parents) they are also at
risk of developing delinquent behavior (Apel & Kaukinen, 2008). Alisha
Parks (2013), did a research which also supported these findings and in
addition to that it has been observed that there is greater influence of parental
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monitoring, attachment and involvement on an adolescent’s violent behavior
than the type of family structure. Schroeder, Osgood &Oghia (2010), found
in their study that dissolution of families is not linked with greater offending
but family formation by marriage or cohabitation is linked with greater
offending in adolescents.
Attachment with parents and variation in family time effects on
offending behavior of adolescents. Attachment and detachment with parents
and peers has effect on delinquent behavior of adolescents (Wampler &
Downs, 2010).
Barnes-Walker & Mason (2004), studied the effect of parental
behavior on adolescent’s behavior. Four characteristics were discussed
psychological control, parental warm, behavior control and conflict between
youth and parents. Relationship was found of all the previous factors along
with structure of a family and income of family with criminal activities in
adolescents.
Research on supportive family environment has been conducted as
well which suggests that at times having a supportive parental protection
serves as obstacle for development of delinquent behavior in a child even in
worst conditions in family (Derzon, 2005).
A case study method was used with juvenile offenders of Adyala Jail, located
in Rawalpindi, to know the potential causes of Juvenile crimes in Pakistan.
Result indicated that main cause of delinquent acts of adolescents is facing
neglect from family and poverty (Khursheed &Urooj, 2012). Another study
conducted in juvenile jail and borstal institutions located at Bahawalpur and
Faisalabad in Punjab province specified that nagging attitude of father,
parental conflicts, media and environment of community has greater impact
on juvenile crimes (Mahmood & Cheema, 2004).
Nisar et al. (2015), conducted study on male delinquents who were
of age 16-18 were more involved in crime as compared to the younger one.
Those who lived in joined family system had low chance of involving in
juvenile crimes as compared to those who live in nuclear family system. The
main cause of the juvenile crimes was found to be lack of education and low
economic status. Negative personality is also affected by peer involvement
as adolescents spend more times with their peers.
Javed et al. (2012), researched on juveniles at Faisalabad and
Bahawalpur Borstal Jails of Punjab District. The results indicated that main
causes of juvenile delinquency are a family’s low income, conflict in a
family, negative influence of peer, low education, revenge, and no parental
supervision of a child.
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Neighborhood and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescent
Adolescents are mostly found in neighborhoods next to their locality
which are called extra-local neighborhoods. If an individual’s extra-local
neighborhood belongs to low socio-economic status it affects negatively on
adolescents (Vogel & South, 2016). If high-poverty locality adolescent is
given examples of a better locality (means elders want them to be like them)
around their neighborhood they develop delinquent behavior (Odgers et al.,
2015).
It does not mean that the neighborhood in the residence has no impact on
individual’s behavior. It has been reported in a study that youngsters who
are from disadvantaged neighborhood and have instable family are more
likely to be involved in violent delinquent behaviors (Thornberry & Hall,
2005).
Peers and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescent
Past researches explain the phenomenon of social learning theory,
which is an individual learns from his/her peers. Bernasco et al. (2013),
observed in research that adolescents who remains away from home with
their peers (not near to a place where there parents can keep a check) are
mostly involved in offending behaviors. According to Osgood & Anderson
(2004), unstructured socialization (socializing with people who do not
follow rules of society) is found to be associated with delinquency.
Link with risk-taking peers is related to delinquency and aggression
(Barnow, Lucht, &Freyberger, 2005) across different countries (Beyers et
al., 2004). Mostly adolescents who are involved in anti-social acts tends to
be friend with those who are delinquent (Kiesner, Kerr &Stattin, 2004).
According to Paternoster et al. (2013), did experiment of delinquency
exposure with adolescents and found out that 38% of adolescents showed
signs of intention to do a delinquent behavior, it was the evidence of the
effect of bad peers on adolescents’ delinquent acts.
At times it also happens when an adolescent face rejection from
peers they end up joining group which is involved in antisocial activities and
support bad activities (Light &Dishion, 2007) and then this behavior remains
in adolescent till adulthood (Moffitt, 2006). Children who have lived in bad
neighborhood and face conflicts of family make deviant friends in adulthood
(Ingoldsby et al., 2006). The reason of involvement in deviant peers can also
be ethnic or racial discrimination done with that adolescent (Gibbons et al.,
2007). Adolescent chronic offenders do not blame their peer group for their
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deviant acts but they are more involved in group offending (McGloin
&Stickle, 2011). It has also been noticed in a study that early puberty and
deviant friends are the reasons of girls to be deviant (Murg et al., 2014).
Economic Factors and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescent
Previous researchers have found relationship between economic
problems and delinquent behaviors. The research by Andrew et al. 2008,
stated that those who had experienced economic complications reported
greater amount of delinquency. It has also been reported that in year 2010,
22% juveniles who were imprisoned were from the family that lived below
poverty level (National Centre for Juvenile Justice, 2014).
In US 39% single-parents usually belongs to poor families, which
can also be a main factor of juvenile crimes (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). A
longitudinal study done with adolescents noted that delinquency is high
among those children who live in families and communities which are facing
poverty, it was noted that there is greater influence of poor communities than
poor families (Hay et al., 2007).
Wong (2011), found that poverty is the main factor that has effect
on single-parenthood, divorce, and marriage later on these issues become
cause of criminal acts in adolescents so in turn poverty indirectly has an
effect on delinquent behavior. Chesney-Lind & Shelden, 2014 described
that to deal with socioeconomic disadvantage more girls are getting involved
with gangs in Canada.
Nisar et al. (2015), found that low income is the one of the basic
cause of juvenile crimes in adolescents. Javed et al. (2015), also defined low
income of parents to be factor of juvenile delinquency. Study conducted in
Borstal jail Faisalabad with age group of 16-18 juvenile offenders, it was
observed that illiteracy and belonging to a low economic class supports the
juvenile crime rate (Shamim et al., 2009).
Personal Factors and Delinquent Behavior of Adolescent
Surrounding factors has a significant role in development of violent
delinquent acts but there is a role of personal factors as well such as personal
level of education and experiencing a trauma in past. Failure in school is
linked to development of delinquent behavior in children but this is the case
more with girls than boys (Chesney-Lind & Shelden, 2014). An adolescent
who is less educated is more likely to get involved in criminal acts in
adulthood (Meghir et al., 2012).
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Lansford et al. 2007, conducted a longitudinal study with children
of age 5 till age 21 to note the development of criminal acts in those who
had experienced physical abuse. It was observed that those who had
exposure to physical abuse in first 5 years of their life had higher of being
arrested for committing violent or non-violent crimes.
Method
Studies between 2004 till 2016, relevant to the topics of the study,
have been included in this paper. Types of researches that has been part of
data of the respective study are quantitative, qualitative, case study, cross-
sectional and longitudinal studies.
Search Criteria
Sample of the study has been selected from different search engines
for the systematic review. Search engines are; PubMed, Wiley Online
Library, Google Scholar and some other journals of sociology and
criminology. Terms used to search for the data included Juvenile
Delinquency, Delinquent Behavior, Criminal acts of a child, Juvenile
offenders and Adolescent’s Violent Behavior etc.
Inclusion Criteria
Only those researches were included in the study which were based
on the objective of this study. Most of the research abstracts were reviewed
as there was not complete excess of those articles few papers were fully
reviewed and from those papers studies have also been included in the paper.
All the studies included in the paper had were between years 2004 to 2016
only.
Exclusion Criteria
Those studies were excluded which were on delinquent behavior of
adolescents but it was not based on criminal acts only it also included other
delinquent acts. Studies before year 2004 were excluded as main aim was
to include recent 12 years record.
Procedure
After collection of the review it was analyzed by the reviewers of
the study per category of objective and results were obtained upon which
discussion is based.
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Discussion
The review paper aims at exploring basic causes of development of
delinquent behavior in adolescents. Objectives of the study were; (1) to
determine of family on development of delinquent behavior in adolescents,
(2) to determine effect of neighborhood on development of delinquent
behavior in adolescents, (3) to determine effect of peers on development of
delinquent behavior in adolescents, (4) to determine effect of economic
factors on development of delinquent behavior in adolescents and (5) to
determine effect of personal factors on development of delinquent behavior
in adolescents. Sample of the research is comprised of researches between
years 2004 to 2016, relevant to the study topic.
All research questions of the review paper have been supported by
the sample observed which means that there is a major role of family,
neighborhood, peers, economic and personal factors in development of
juvenile delinquent behavior among adolescents.
It has been observed that family environment plays crucial role in
development of delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that family type,
family size has greater effect on an adolescent’s behavior. It has been
identified who live in non-traditional families (single parent families) are at
risk of developing delinquent behavior. Those who live in nuclear family
were more prone towards developing delinquent behavior. Divorce of
parents, parents living in cohabitation, family’s neglect and low income
negatively effects on an adolescent which can lead him towards path of
delinquent acts.
Attachment and detachment with the parents also impacts on
behavior of an adolescent. When a supportive family environment is
provided to an adolescent it may act as an obstacle for developing delinquent
behavior.
Adolescents who live in disadvantaged neighborhood and low socio-
economic locality are prone towards developing delinquent behavior.
Exposure to extra local neighborhood also leads to delinquent behavior.
Delinquent behavior is the result of peer influence and socializing
un-structurally. Spending time with peers who are risk takers and who are
involved into anti-social activities can lead an adolescent to become
delinquent. A child who faces discrimination from peers becomes
delinquent. Belonging to low socio-economic family and community and
economic complications in family are the cause of delinquent acts among
adolescents. Low literacy rate, failure in school and facing abuse makes a
child delinquent.
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It has been predicted by the researches that there is a crucial role of
family environment and structure in development of an adolescent’s
delinquent acts. Those who live in a non-traditional family i.e. single-parent
family are likely to commit juvenile crimes. Rector Robert 2012, stated that
there are issues in children of single-parent, they are at greater risk of being
abused, facing academic problems and expressing weird behaviors which
can lead them to be delinquent. Adolescents who live with fathers only are
at high risk of involving in delinquent behavior, as a family is without
mother and a child need mother for his healthy development it has been
indicated in a study that even if a mother is separated for a week with a 3
years old or 5 years old child aggression and negativity is seen in those
children (Howard, 2011) therefore in a study by Mack 2007, it has been
specified that lack of maternal attachment can cause juvenile delinquency.
Those who live in huge family are also likely to develop criminal act
tendency. Having huge families can be problematic for a child as per their
gender, in girls academic problems (poor reading skills and poor
mathematics) arise whereas in boys behavioral difficulties are increased
(Jaeger, 2016).
Divorce of a parent can also result in harm to a child in a way that
s/he becomes criminal no matter how many years back the divorce of a
parent took place. Sturt 2008, also described in study that delinquency can
be caused by broken homes because an adolescent is negatively affected by
divorce of parent and problem behavior is shown in a child of divorced
family (Vander Valk et al 2005). After parent’s divorce a child has to move
into new situation as in economic situation of a family changes, parents give
less time to a child and move to a new place which is the main cause of
adverse effects on an adolescent as all of this is related to the personal
wellbeing of a child (Nelson, 2009) one other reason of an adolescent’s
delinquent acts after parent’s divorce is that parent-adolescent relationship
is disturbed and a child sees conflicts in between parents after divorce, all
these things prove to be lethal for an adolescent (Esmaeili & Yaaacob, 2011).
Greater offending in adolescents also results from cohabitation of
parents, which is more common in US, sometimes parents are living without
marriage or at times a mother or a father lives with a non-biological parent
of the child. More family disruption is shown in US and one of the factor of
a disturbed family is cohabitation (which is an instable relationship itself) as
well, it causes cognitive and behavioral problems in a child than the child of
married couples (Ray, 2013) it does not fulfill a child’s need in a proper
manner, as relationship between wellbeing of a child and family structure is
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based on quality of parental relationship, resources given by parents, Mental
health of a parent, involvement of father and level of parenting, if family is
instable the child is affected negatively (Waldfogel, 2010).
An adolescent’s attachment and detachment with parents is one of
the major factors of delinquent behavior in adolescents than family structure,
if there is strong attachment of parent and child there are lesser chances of a
child to move towards delinquent criminal acts. Attachment in parents has
relationship with delinquency in a child and to minimize juvenile
delinquency attachment can be catered (Hoeve et al., 2012). Secure
attachment with parent results in self-reliance, curiosity and independence
in a child on the other hand insecure attachment with parents results in
irritable, shy less confident child, they feel worthless and incompetent and
are rejected by parents (Hong and Park, 2012). Children of parents who
rejected and belonged to lower middle class showed aggressive behavior
than children of middle class family (Bhatti & Khoso, 2013). Behavior of a
parent with child is also responsible for the development or non-
development of delinquent tendency in a child, those who have supportive
parents will not be involved in juvenile delinquency. Supportive and warm
maternal behavior showed development of brain that is growth of reward
process in brain which is amygdala, development in area of emotions’
reaction and regulation (Whittle et al., 2013).
Researches on role of family on delinquent behavior of adolescents
of Pakistan stated that, Poverty in family, neglect from family, nagging
father attitude, no parental supervision and parental conflict aids expansion
of criminal behavior in a child. When a family goes through economic
problems conflict started between parent and adolescent and depressive
symptoms by mother warmth are shown (Delgado, Killoren & Updegraff,
2013).Santrock 2012, described that neglectful parenting lowers self-esteem
and make poor self-control of a child and will make a child delinquent.
Joined family system is found to lower the chance of an adolescent getting
involved in deviant acts. Destructive conflict between parents results in
negative emotion (such as greater emotions reaction that are destructive and
low level of emotional security) and behavior (such as inappropriate
strategies of problem solving and greater aggressive behavior) (Barthassat,
2014).
Matalka and Hussainat 2012, conducted a study in Jordan which
described that juvenile delinquency in adolescent is associated with family
size, parental deprivation, economic deprivation, inter parental relationship,
family discipline, parental acceptance-rejection and child-parent
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relationship, this research covers findings of most of the previous researches
and it also suggested to conduct family counseling in order to minimize
delinquent acts of adolescents.
After a family, role of neighborhood comes, that what role does a
neighborhood has on enhancing or reducing juvenile delinquent acts of a
child. Mostly there is greater impact of extra-local neighborhood than of the
locality a child lives. Extra-local neighborhood is the neighborhood in near
of the resident’s neighborhood. If an adolescent spend time in an extra-local
neighborhood where all are involved in bad acts s/he will likely be involved
in such act too. As it is said that the area where person is found most of the
time does same things as per norms of that region like when Pakistanis go to
a foreign country and when they come back their way of talking living
everything has changed. If a child live in poor neighborhood but along with
that a better society is there so it can also impact negatively on the child
because he is always given example for the good of the society. Whenever a
child is given examples of others he feels envious towards others and end up
being bad instead of good. A disadvantaged neighborhood also has an impact
on delinquent acts. If a neighborhood is criminal and violent type it mostly
affect males of the society and lead them towards delinquency (Damm &
Dustmann, 2012).Healthy Social and emotional development is seen among
those youngsters who have positive bond with adults of community
(Brennan, Barnett, and McGrath 2009).
Role of peers has also found to be significant in development of
delinquent behavior. Socializing in unstructured way, staying away from
homes for a longer times and spending time with bad peers are cause of
delinquent behavior among adolescents. Those who have family conflicts
and bad neighborhood they may be friends with delinquent individuals.
Those who have exposure to criminal environment and meets with friends
who provoke this behavior will likely develop juvenile delinquent behavior
(Bayer, Hjalmarsson, and Pozen, 2009). According to Deming 2011, crimes
can be reduced by being in better schools and with good peers. Peer pressure
is the main reason of adolescent’s variety behavior a as in a study it has been
stated that risk taking behaviors as well because when an adolescent is with
friends he does what is acceptable among the group because a reward system
is activated which force them to act in a way, reduce in peer
pressure/influence comes after teenage (Albert, Chein& Steinberg, 2013). It
also happens when a friend is kicked out of the group s/he joins antisocial
group and one may join antisocial group in situations when s/he is the victim
of experiencing racial or ethnic discrimination. This happens because this
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makes child feel socially incompetent and the child becomes delinquent
(Matalka, 2009).
Economic factor of an adolescent has an impact on delinquency of
an adolescent. Facing economic hardships and belonging to low economic
class are causes of an adolescent becoming delinquent. Living in poor
families and neighborhood are also causing one to be deviant especially
there is higher impact of poor neighborhood than poor families. There is a
relationship between poverty and behavioral and academic issues in
adolescents, poverty has an effect on development of an adolescent (Murry,
2011).
Some of the personal factor are also the cause of delinquency in an
adolescent. Lack of education or low education and going through abuse as
a child also results in one to become deviant. Failure in school has greater
chances for girls to become delinquent. Low academic achievement is linked
with weird behavior substance use, attention problem and delinquency
(McLeod et al., 2012). Disordered psychological development and
behavioral issues are shown in children who have faced child abuse
(Odhayani, Watson and Watson, L., 2013).
Conclusion
Findings of the respective study suggests that family, peers,
neighborhood, economic condition and personal history all of these factors
contribute to some extent in shaping behavior of an adolescent, which can
be delinquent when these factors affect negatively on a child in alternate
condition these factors also helps in healthy mental growth of an individual.
Such as having a supportive family environment would make a child a better
person but if a child lives with non-supportive family or lives in broken
families where parents are busy in dealing with their own issues and a child
is neglected than he end up choosing a deviant path and he has greater
chances of moving towards delinquency. In such scenarios kids goes to such
neighborhood which are involved in criminal activities instead of being in
their own areas and at this age being affected by peer influence is the basic
reward for an adolescent therefore they do what friends do or at times they
are left alone then they join group of criminals and become delinquent. Poor
economic condition of a family or neighborhood both are the source of stress
for the child and in turn child moves towards path of delinquency. At times
there are no such factors that are discussed previously, instead of that there
are some personal factors like someone is less educated and unemployed so
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he decides to join delinquent groups and at times an adolescent is abused as
a kid after which behavioral issues are developed in child that can lead him
towards delinquency. Therefore it has been suggested that a supportive and
co-operating family and neighborhood can reduce the chances of children
being involved in criminal activities. A secure-parent adolescent attachment,
positive bond with adult of community, studying in better schools and being
with good peers can prevent delinquent behavior of adolescents.
Limitations and Recommendation
Limitations of the respective review are that most of the studies on
juvenile delinquency are conducted with males, females are targeted less.
Cross cultural studies are not added in this review. Researches as per
category of specific offence and its main cause are a few.
Recommendation for future work are that studies with girls should
be conducted that can see causes of juvenile delinquency among them. More
cross cultural comparison of research data is required so that common causes
of juvenile crimes all over the world comes into consideration so that general
interventions can be planned to target these causes. Researches as per
category of offences should be added in the study so that more violent
offences can be stopped before they put more children behind bars.
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... It means those involved in criminal and unlawful activities have suffered from a weak bond with family members and cooperation from their family members, as was found in Pakistan. Drawing from qualitative and quantitative data from a sample of delinquents and criminals, it was revealed that they lacked cooperation and mutual understanding with their family members (Brown, 2005;Kauser, 2016;Ali & Masood, 2018). Some Pakistani researchers (e.g., Kauser, 2016) further discussed that many of the delinquents and some adult criminals (Ali & Masood, 2018) admitted that they were treated harshly and strictly in their family by their elder family members, and some of them were beaten by their fathers, which caused an increase in their aggression and hostile attitude later in their life that they became involved in criminal and violent acts against others. ...
... Drawing from qualitative and quantitative data from a sample of delinquents and criminals, it was revealed that they lacked cooperation and mutual understanding with their family members (Brown, 2005;Kauser, 2016;Ali & Masood, 2018). Some Pakistani researchers (e.g., Kauser, 2016) further discussed that many of the delinquents and some adult criminals (Ali & Masood, 2018) admitted that they were treated harshly and strictly in their family by their elder family members, and some of them were beaten by their fathers, which caused an increase in their aggression and hostile attitude later in their life that they became involved in criminal and violent acts against others. Equally, as an attachment with a parent or family members, attachment with the school has been found as important for the social behavior of young people. ...
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... It means those involved in criminal and unlawful activities have suffered from a weak bond with family members and cooperation from their family members, as was found in Pakistan. Drawing from qualitative and quantitative data from a sample of delinquents and criminals, it was revealed that they lacked cooperation and mutual understanding with their family members (Brown, 2005;Kauser, 2016;Ali & Masood, 2018). Some Pakistani researchers (e.g., Kauser, 2016) further discussed that many of the delinquents and some adult criminals (Ali & Masood, 2018) admitted that they were treated harshly and strictly in their family by their elder family members, and some of them were beaten by their fathers, which caused an increase in their aggression and hostile attitude later in their life that they became involved in criminal and violent acts against others. ...
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