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Employees are the major assets of any organization. Every organizations needs well trained employees to perform the activities effectively and efficiently. It is the continuous process of the organizations that helps to develop skills, knowledge, and abilities. Training and development leads the better performance of employees. The success of the organizations depends on employee performance. In this globalization era training is crucial for the competent and challenging business. It is the nerve that needs to help enhancing the quality of work life of employees and development the organization. Training and development is the crucial factors of enlightening the employee performance in most organizations. The purpose of the study is to find out the impact of training and development on employee performance. The study found out that employees are aware about training; employees are motivated through training; and training and development results into higher performance. The study suggested that training and development of all staff should be dynamically followed and made obligatory and the employer should give compulsory training programs for all employees in order to improve performance. The study decided that there is need for continuous training and development taking into deliberation the opposition, market dynamics, customer satisfaction, and net promoter score among others.
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Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
ISSN(e): 2520-4521 ISSN(p): 2522-6606
Vol. 03, No. 02, pp: 25-33, 2019
Published by Noble Academic Publisher
URL: www.napublisher.org
Open Access
25
THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON
EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF
QUANTITATIVE DATA
Md. Mobarak Karim1, Musfiq M. Choudhury2, Wasib Bin Latif3
1*,3Department of Business Administration, World University of Bangladesh
2Department of Management, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT: Employees are the major assets of any organization. Every organizations needs well trained
employees to perform the activities effectively and efficiently. It is the continuous process of the organizations that
helps to develop skills, knowledge, and abilities. Training and development leads the better performance of
employees. The success of the organizations depends on employee performance. In this globalization era training is
crucial for the competent and challenging business. It is the nerve that needs to help enhancing the quality of work
life of employees and development the organization. Training and development is the crucial factors of enlightening
the employee performance in most organizations. The purpose of the study is to find out the impact of training and
development on employee performance. The study found out that employees are aware about training; employees are
motivated through training; and training and development results into higher performance. The study suggested that
training and development of all staff should be dynamically followed and made obligatory and the employer should
give compulsory training programs for all employees in order to improve performance. The study decided that there
is need for continuous training and development taking into deliberation the opposition, market dynamics, customer
satisfaction, and net promoter score among others.
Keywords: Training, Development, Job Satisfaction, Employee, Performance.
1. INTRODUCTION
We are living in a global village. The world is becoming smaller and our business is becoming
larger as the result of globalization. In this regard the companies must be competitive to face the
challenges of the globalization. The competitive advantages of the firm depend on the knowledge and
skills possessed by the employees (Drucker, 1999).Training and development have become one of the
necessary functions in most organizations, because they lead to high performance in the same field and
are important part of human resource department, it has a significant effect on the success of an
organization through improving employee performance (Mozael, 2015).There is significant positive
relationship exists between employee training and development and the employee performance (Naveed,
2014).
Current organizations are facing extensive competition, continuously changing technological and
business environment. Globalization and ever changing customer needs have added up more challenges
on business organizations. In order to meet these challenges, the industries are seeking to reach its
targeted profit level by ensuring proper training and development of employees. Employees are most
precious asset for any company as they can build up or destroy reputation of company and they can effect
profitability (Elnaga and Imran, 2013).Training is more present-  
current jobs, specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their jobs while development enhances
behaviors, attitudes and improves employee performance in an organization. It is the process of increasing
the knowledge and skills of an employee, for doing a particular job. Training is of much significance in
achieving the objectives of the organization by keeping in view the interest of employees and organization
(Stone, 2002). Development is a long term education process utilizing a systematic and organized
procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general
Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
26
purpose. Training and development proves to be a parameter for enhancing the ability of the workforce
for achieving the organizational objectives. Training is seen as a useful means of coping with changes
fostered by technological innovation; market competition, organizational structuring and most importantly
it plays a key role to enhance employee performance. Thus the objective of this study is to show the

Training and development have become one of the necessary functions in most organizations,
because they lead to high performance in the same field and are important part of human resource
department, it has a significant effect on the success of an organization through improving employee
performance (Mozael, 2015).
The existing organizations should deal with training necessitates linked up with altering and
growing internationalization of industry, diverse national point of view and a varied workforce (Abdus,
2011). Training is of much significance in achieving the objectives of the organization by keeping in view
the interest of employees and organization (Stone, 2002). Training includes but not limited to software
training, management training whereas development focuses primarily on the activities that improve
employee skills for future endeavors. Firms are now facing new changes due to the rapid pace of
technological and global development. Technological advancements have brought about the need of
competencies and capabilities needed to perform a specific task. In order to manage these challenges,
more enhanced and efficient training programs are needed by all corporations.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Training and development is essential for all organizations to achieve their objectives. Many
researches have been done in this area for understanding the importance of training and development.
According to Abbas Q. and Yaqoob (2009) this fact is of no question that the most domineering
apprehension for organizations is performance. The study found that training and development had
positively correlated and claimed statistically significant relationship with employee performance and
effectiveness.
There have been many studies conducted on this subject. HRM activities are considered as a gift in
the eyes of employees and training is one of them (Mahbuba, 2013). According to Iftikhar and Sirajud
(2009) training and development is an important activity to increase the performance of the employees.
            
effectiveness. On the other hand, Miller and Osinski (2002); Rajasekar and Khan (2013) focused and
analyzed that employee training & development is one of the essential parts of human resources
management with the identification of organizational need, technique and procedure at different industrial
perspectives.
2.1. Employee Training
Training is the learning process that is the indispensable part of human resource development.
According to Abbas Z. (2014) training as an essential element to an employee for the development of the
companies because some of the employees have lack of knowledge skills and competencies and failed to
accomplish task on timely basis. Besides, Training is a learning activity directed towards the acquisition
of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task. The focus of training is the job
or task for example, the need to have efficiency and safety in the operation of particular machines or
equipment, or the need for an effective sales force to mention but a few (Cole, 2002).
According to Saleem et al. (2011) training is an organized increase from the know-how skills and
sensations needed for staff members to execute efficiently in the offered process, as well as, to operate in
underling situation. Furthermore, training also very effective way by
motivating them and converting them in to well organize and well-mannered, that ultimately affects the
performance of organization.
However, Laing (2009) training is defined as an indicator to enhance superior skills, knowledge,
capabilities and outlook of the employees that results in effective performance of the workers. Moreover,
he adds one more thing, that is, training extends the production of the organization. In line with this is the
believe that training is important mean to improve the e  
the organization performance and effectiveness (Singh and Mohanty, 2012).
According to Nunvi (2006), training programs are directed towards maintaining and improving
current job performance while development seeks to improve skills for future jobs. Besides Armstrong
(1996), emphasized that training should be developed and practiced within the organization by
appreciating learning of theories and approaches, if training is to be well understood. Training is a type of
Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
27
activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competency
that are necessary to perform work effectively Gordon (1992). On the other hand, development is a broad
ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) aimed at bringing someone or an
organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or a new role in the future
(McNamara, 2008).
While Singh and Mohanty (2012) explained in their research that training is an important tool for
              
organization but organization ought to be balance amongst training worth and training disbursement.
Besides, Chris (2011) employee training is essential for the organization to develop the performance of
the employees and the organization should evaluate the training program as per the objectives and
missions.
In the same way, training enhancement of skills pertaining to a particular job while development has
its scope stretched across the growth and personal development of the employees Obisi (2011). Moreover,
Cambell (1971) has given his views as training improves the skill level of technical staff during a short
period of time for a specific objective while development allows the managers to learn and grow during a
long term learning period having wide-ranging objective. Also, Armstrong M. (2009) has differentiated
training from development by putting his concept into words that development is meant to acquire new
knowledge and skills that help to progress into some future job requirements while training helps in
gaining those competencies that enable the employees to better perform in their present jobs.
Further researchers added that technological developments, atomization, mechanization, changing
environment and organizational change have gradually led some employers to the realization that success
relies on the skills and abilities of their employees, and this means considerable and continuous
investment in training and development Khan et al. (2011).Training the act of increasing the knowledge,
skills, abilities of an employee for doing a specific job .It an is an organized increase from the know-how
skills and sensations needed for staff members to execute efficiently in the offered process, as well as, to
operate in underling situation Saleem et al. (2011). Moreover, Laing (2009) assumed that training as an
indicator to enhance superior skills, knowledge, capabilities and outlook of the employees that results in
effective performance of the workers.
However, Singh and Mohanty (2012) believe that training is important mean to improve the
employees productivity which ultimately affects the organization performance and effectiveness. On the
-development
needs and is in accordance with their job descriptions. In addition to the previous arguments, McConnell
(2004) supports a partnership approach between the employees and their companies in determining
training needs, as well as the involvement of the employees in setting up training goals. Besides Mehrdad
et al. (2009) also said that training techniques are classified into behavioral or On-the-job (orientations,
job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching) and
cognitive or off-the-job (Lectures, computer-based training, games and simulations etc.
According to Mahbuba (2013) 
skills to active communicator, who makes an effort in achieving training as well as organizational
objectives. The main objective of the training is to improve the knowledge and skills, change attitude and
behavior of the employees so that they can easily adapt the new technology in the organization for
production. As result the turnover and absenteeism rate will be less. Well trained employees show both
quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are
properly trained James et al. (2014).
2.2. Employee Development
Employees are always regarded with development in career-enhancing skills which leads to
employee motivation and retention. There is no doubt that a well-trained and developed staff will be a
valuable asset to the company and thereby will increase the chances of their efficiency and effectiveness
in discharging their duties. On the other hand development means those learning opportunities designed to
help employees to grow. Development is not primarily skills oriented. Instead it provides the general
knowledge and attitudes, which will be helpful to employers in higher positions. Development programs
are regarded as specific framework for helping employees to develop their personal and professional
skills, knowledge, attitudes, behavior and consequently improve their abilities to perform specific task in
the organization. It provides knowledge about business environment, management principles and
techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of
company. Manpower development focused on turning out human resource that is needed for effective
Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
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performance in the organization (Drucker, 1999). Moreover Lawal (2006) said that it is updating system
of new techniques or skills associated with the performance of their jobs .On the other hand,
According to Adeniyi (1995) manpower development methods includes under study, job rotation,
self-development and self-assessment. Despite, Aswathappa (2000) also suggested that if the training and
development function is to be effective in the future and yields all expected returns, it will need to move
beyond its concern with techniques and traditional roles. On the other hand, development focuses on
building the knowledge and skills of organizational members so that they will be prepared to take on new
responsibilities and challenges.
(McKenna and Beech, 2002) On the other hand Employee Training and Development strikes a
balance between research and real company practices which provide background in the fundamentals of
training and development such as needs assessment transfer of training, learning environment design,
methods, and evaluation (Noe, 2010).Basically employee development includes training, education, and
career development. It also includes exchange of knowledge and experience.
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study investigated the impact of training and development on employee performance. This
research work looks at training and development as an HRM practices and its effect on employee
performance in the organization. Definitely, the aim of the study is to find out:




4. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
4.1. Sample and Data Collection
10 questionnaires were distributed among the different employees in the organization.10
questionnaires were completed information required. The response rate was agreeable. Convenience
sampling technique was used for this study. The data was gathered by using self-administered
questionnaire and the participation was voluntary.
4.2. Measures and Scales
Two variables were used in this study i.e. Training and development, employee performance and
job satisfaction. Equally 10 questions of training and development and employee performance were used.
Job satisfaction had 2 questions which were adopted from the study of (Cook and Heptworth, 1981). All
variables were measured using a 5-point liker scale in which 5 represented strongly agree to 1 which is
strongly disagreeing.
5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of training and development on employee
performance in the organization. Here data have been gathered on the sampled respondents on the impact

The findings of this research study and the subsequent evaluation carried out on the responses reflect the
key areas of training and development and its challenges on employee performance, motivation, retention
and morale. Findings from Employees a total number of thirty (30) employees were selected to provide
answers to the structured questionnaire .Analysis of survey data is given bellow-
Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
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Figure 1: 
objectives?
Source: Questionnaire Survey
From this chart it can be said that, 67 percent employees are strongly believed that they can improve
their performance after getting training where 23 percent are agreed with this training content and 10
percent are remain neutral to vote for the training provided by the organization.
Figure 2: Do you think the training and development program has positive impact to develop organization?
Source: Questionnaire Survey
This chart is telling that 50 percent employees are strongly agreed with this statement. 17 percent
are disagreed with this content. On the other hand 23 percent are agreed with this statement, but 10
percent are not expressing their opinion.
Figure 3: Do you think the training improves your skills, knowledge, and attitude?
Source: Questionnaire Survey
From this chart it is clear that among 30 respondents 15 respondents are strongly agreed with the
statement while 7 respondents are just agreed but 5 respondents are not agree with this. On the other hand
Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research
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3repondents are remaining neutral. So it can be said that training has high influential impact on employee
performance.
Figure 4: Does the training lead you to be satisfied with your job?
Source: Questionnaire Survey
From the above figure it is said that50 percent employees are strongly agree with this training
content , 23 percent are agreed with this statement .On the other hand 17 percent employees are disagree
with the content and 10 percent are neutral with this content. Though majority is supporting the content,
here the organization should change the training content in such ways where employees feel interest to
attend the training for better performance.
Figure 5: Training enhance productivity and performance
Source: Questionnaire Survey
Table 1. Training program is compulsory for the employees for better performance and productivity
Responses
Frequency
Percentage
YES
20
66.6
NO
10
33.3

/
/
TOTAL
30
%
Source: Questionnaire Survey
From the analysis, 66.7 % of the employees beliefs that training program is compulsory for better
performance and 33.33% employees are not agree with this statement.
Table 2. Frequency of Training and Development has positive impact on performance.
Responses
Percentage
Yes
66.6
No
16.6

16.6
Total
100 %
Source: Questionnaire Survey
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From table two it shows that among 30 employees 66.6% believed training has positive impact on
organization while 16.67% employees are not believed with this statement and also 16.67% employees are
cannot say anything about this statement.
Table 3. What type of training have you received from your organization that is directly effect on performance?
Responses
Percentage
On- The Job
66.67
Off- The Job Training
33.3
External Training
/
Refresher
/
Mentoring
/
Total
100 %
Source: Questionnaire Survey
The table is telling that 66.67% employees are expressed that on-the-job training directly effect on
performance .On the other hand 33.33% employees are believed that off-the-job training directly effect on

Table 4. How often you receive training from your organization to improve performance and productivity?
Responses
Percentage
Quarterly
50
Twice In A Year
33.3
Once In A Year
16.67
Rarely
/
None
/
Total
100 %
Source: Questionnaire Survey
From the above table we can say that among 30 employees 50 %employees believed that quarterly
training program improve the performance and 33.33% employees are expressed that twice in year
training improve performance. On the other hand 16.67 % once in year training can improve performance
and productivity. Here majority percent are believed with this statement.
Table 5. Training program helps to create job satisfaction in quality of work life.
Responses
Frequency
Percentage
True
10
33.33
False
20
66.67
TOTAL
30
100 %
Source: Questionnaire Survey
The above table telling that among 30 respondents 33.33% respondents believed training program
             
respondents are not agree with this content.
6. DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
Training is one of the most potential motivators which can lead to many possible benefits for both
individuals and the organization that helps to achieve objectives of the organization. This study examined
              
analyze the 
sample of 10 respondents were selected. The study revealed some findings like average employee strongly
belief that training improves skills, knowledge, and abilities and it helps to create their job satisfaction of
employees. This statement is similar with the view of Ewuim and Ubochi (2007). Basically better
productivity depends on proper training to the employees.
7. RECOMMENDATION
Many organizations have come to the realization of the importance of the role of training and

to achieve the benefits of training initiative. The research shows that there is strong impact of training and
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32
development on employee performance. All Employees of the organizations find their training and
development beneficial for their performance. Employers should be provided with more training programs
in order to reduce the cost of recruiting and training new staff members. On the other hand the provision
of feedback to employees after training is recommended in order for employees to become aware of areas
where they can improve their performance.
8. CONCLUSION
Training and Development is an important aspect of human resource management. It is important
for organization to get skilled and capable employees for better performance, and employees will be than
competent when they have the knowledge and skill of doing the task. Training and Development would
provide opportunities to the employees to make a better career life and get better position in organization.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of training and development on employee
performance. HR Department is continuously hiring skilled people from wide market and thus provides
trainings to cope with global challenges. Through various HR activities and training programs they retain
talents in the organization, ensure career path for performers to perform more efficiently and effectively to
contribute more and more.
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The training and development of public sector employees is vital to any country as it affects its bureaucracy and policy making. Using a case study approach, this study investigates the state of the training function and its effectiveness in eleven Omani government organizations as they aim to build and develop a competent workforce with the localization of the workforce. The study finds that there is a strong need to draw up an integrated HRD and training framework which would be capable of building a training & development architecture in Omani government organizations and fostering flexibility, creativity, team learning and collaboration among their employees at the workplace.
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