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Multicultural Perspectives through Music & Sustainability Education

Sustainability Education
Roger Coss is a K-12 educator
and a doctoral student
in currciulum and instruction
at the Benerd School of Education
briefly summarize Reimer’s synergistic
philosophy of music education—specifical-
ly his discussion of the feeling dimension
of music—and demonstrate how the field
of multicultural environmental education
is increasingly recognizing the role of emo-
tions in teaching and learning. Utilizing
Reimer’s philosophy, I will conclude with a
discussion of music education in education
for sustainability through a multicultural
Environmental Education
The ecological crisis is being framed as
a “cultural crisis” in which people are encul-
tured to think and live in relationship to the
world and the people that surround them
(Martusewicz, Edmundson, & Lupinacci,
2011, p. 8). Driving this cultural crisis is
Humanity has recently steered itself
into an era of environmental instability
where the earth is ravaged of its natural
resources, where the biodiversity of living
organisms is decreasing everyday, and
where a rapidly growing human popula-
tion has become a driving factor in an
impending ecological crisis (Rockström et
al., 2009; Steffen et al., 2011). Research
is increasingly focusing on the roles and
responsibilities of public schooling in
addressing this crisis (Cassell & Nelson,
2012; Nelson, 2010; Orr, 2004; Stone &
Barlow, 2005). However, explicit discussion
on the role of music education is being
largely neglected. What are the roles and
responsibilities of music educators in ad-
dressing the impending ecological crisis?
The purpose of this article is to discuss
implications for the relationship of music
education to education for sustainability
within the framework of multicultural
education.1 Bennett Reimer’s (2003) syn-
ergistic philosophy of music education
provides a conceptual lens through which
to make this connection in a way that not
only keeps to the integrity of music edu-
cation as a discipline, but also addresses
issues in multicultural education.
I will first discuss how the field of mul-
ticultural environmental education is mak-
ing space to address multicultural issues
in education for sustainability. I will then
Multicultural Perspectives
through Music & Sustainability Education
Roger Coss
FALL 2013
A Multicultural Interdisciplinary Inquiry
a conflict of values—values of economic
and technological salvation rather than
ecological responsibility (Callenbach, 2005).
Within this is a technology-dependent hope
that requires a new way of thinking, what
Cassell and Nelson (2010) argue is “a fun-
damental transformation in support of the
development of a new paradigm, a new lens
through which the Western mind can adjust
its view of society, education and learning,
citizenship, and the nature of human habi-
tation on Earth” (p. 183).
Public schools can help our current
“value structure evolve toward a more
viable long-term approach to systemic
global problems” (Edwards, 2005, p. 23).
Superficial reforms such as adding an
environmental unit or having a once-a-
year field trip outdoors are not part of the
solution to the problem. Rather, as Nolet
(2009) argues, we need a “fundamental
change in the educational culture” (p.
418). Educators are now being challenged
to think afresh their own roles and re-
sponsibilities in preparing students to
live in an era of increasing environmental
decay (Nelson, 2010).
Stevenson et al. (2013, p. 2) identifies
five general characteristics of education
for sustainability:
U It questions ideological norms and as-
sumptions on the nature and purpose(s) of
education—in particular the relationship
between education and ethics—and views
these as fundamental to environmental
education (Jickling & Wals, 2013).
U It embraces a complex, interdisciplin-
ary understanding of the relationships
between people, society, and the environ-
ment (Edwards, 2005).
UIt is concerned with not only knowledge
and values, but also with fostering the
means and opportunities for taking ac-
tion on environmental and sustainability
issues (Coss, 2013).
UTeaching and learning occurs not only
in formal institutional settings such as
schools and classrooms, but also in infor-
mal and public contexts (Sobel, 2004).
UIt embraces both local and global per-
spectives (Gough, 2013).
A significant focus in education for
sustainability is on the recognition of the
socio-cultural dimension for addressing
the impending ecological crisis. There al-
ready exists an empirical (Gaughan, 1996),
theoretical (Grass, 1995), and pedagogical
(Liao, Larke, & Hill-Jackson, 2011) tradi-
tion for addressing these socio-cultural
issues through the lens of multicultural
education. As defined by Marouli (2002),
multicultural environmental education
“highlights the importance of reaching
out to culturally diverse populations and
of understanding, respecting, and utilizing
their perspectives in environmental edu-
cation” (p. 28; see also Cole, 2007; Grass,
1994, 1995; Peter, 1998).
In her exploratory study of both
non-profit and university multicultural
environmental education programs in the
U.S., Marouli (2002) found in this field the
emergence of two theoretical traditions:
(1) the environmental justice movement
with its recognition and representation
of the worldviews of marginalized people
(e.g., Lewis & James, 1995); and (2) mul-
ticultural education that values “cultural
pluralism and aims for cross-cultural un-
derstanding” (Marouli, 2002, p. 32).
Reimer’s Feeling Dimension
of Music
Bennett Reimer’s (2003) synergistic
philosophy of music education provides a
philosophical base upon which to discuss
how music education addresses multicul-
tural issues in a way that stays true to
its uniqueness as an art form. He argues
that “every experience of art, whether
creating it or sharing it, ‘makes special’ in
the way only art can accomplish” (p. 69).
The uniqueness of the musical experience,
then, lies in its focused engagement with
the world of sounds, as opposed to strictly
visual, textual, or movement-based expe-
riences. This philosophy is “synergistic”
in how it applies a pluralistic stance on
historically contended concerns in the
philosophy of music—including music as
formed sounds, music as practice, music
as a means for social change, the bound-
aries of music and music education, and
the relationship between music and utili-
tarian values. “The central task of music
education,” he proposes, “is to make mu-
sical experience in all its manifestations
as widely available to all people, and as
richly cultivated for each individual, as
possible” (p. 69).
Reimer’s (2003) philosophy is ground-
ed in five fundamental aspects of musical
experience: feeling (or emotion)2; creating;
making meaning; cultural and historical
context(s); and multiple intelligences.
Particularly significant in the intent of this
article is a focus on the feeling dimension.
He argues for the “emotional dimension
of music as being a defining characteris-
tic of it” and is the “basis for its power to
heighten, sustain, refine, and extend hu-
man emotional life” (p. 73). Music reaches
its fullest potential through immersion
into this emotional world.
It is because of the traditional West-
ern idea of reason, not emotion, being the
epitome of human functioning that music
has been relegated to extra-curricular
status in educational frameworks. How-
ever, understandings of the relationship
between intellect, intelligence, and emo-
tion have begun to shift (Reimer, 2003, p.
75). We have too long thought of emotion
as an unnecessary dimension of concep-
tualizing intelligence. Rather, “emotions
work hand-in-hand with our rational
mind,” creating a sort of co-dependent
and reciprocal relationship between the
two (Robinson, 2011, p. 186). If, then, one
dimension of the musical experience is for
the enhancement, extension, and deepen-
ing of humanity’s felt emotional experi-
ences, music education serves to enhance
the effectiveness—as well as expand the
opportunity—for musical involvement to
all individuals.
Emotions in Multicultural
Environmental Education
Emotions are of paramount impor-
tance in students’ reflections on beliefs,
norms, values, and assumptions of their
own culture, though they have been
traditionally omitted from education for
sustainability frameworks (Boiger & Mes-
quita, 2012; Harré, Armon-Jones, Lutz, &
Averill, 1986; Martusewicz, 2001; Zeyer
& Kelsey, 2013). Sinha (2010) notes that
drawing out discomforting emotions from
students, such as guilt, anger, resentment,
fear, or ambivalence flowing from social,
A significant focus in education for sustainability
is on the recognition of the socio-cultural dimension
for addressing the impending ecological crisis.
There already exists an empirical, theoretical,
and pedagogical tradition for addressing these socio-cultural issues
through the lens of multicultural education.
Sustainability Education
end result, but rather a means for more
fully engaging in the feeling dimension.
It is through actual engagement with the
sounds of music itself that awareness of
feelings is most authentically felt.
Reimer’s second principle is that mu-
sic does not serve a “mediating function,”
as words, numbers, or musical notation
symbols do (2003, p. 95). Musical sound is
primarily meant to be felt, not to symbolize
and portray some idea, message, or belief.
Reimer (2003) explains that:
The way music accomplishes its affective
presence to us is not, at root, by pointing
us to something outside its inherent na-
ture as ‘sounds-in-meaningful-configura-
tions,’ but by taking us into these sounds
directly and thereby into the cultural
meanings they have embodied. (p. 95)
Reimer’s third principle emphasizes
the cultural-sharing aspect of the feeling
dimension—the reciprocal relationship
between maker and hearer. He empha-
sizes the importance of not only making
musical sounds by composers, performers,
or improvisors, but also sharing them.
“Music,” argues Reimer, “is a culture-
creating and individual-creating act, and
those who witness are key players in its
full functioning” (p. 97).
His use of the term “witness” refers
to the “inner construction of feeling” that
must necessarily occur between the music
maker and receiver. Both players have a
role. Music educators are to “help reveal
to both musicians and listeners more and
more of the inherent workings of music so
that the possibilities of feeling they contain
become more available” (p. 98).
Challenging Binaries
through Music Education
As discussed above, the field of
multicultural environmental education
legitimizes and recognizes emotions as
crucial for engaging and questioning stu-
dents’ own culture as well as essential for
building cross-cultural understandings.
The very inclusion of music education in
educational contexts directly challenges
the traditionally-held emotion/reason di-
chotomy. This duality is being challenged,
as Wang (2008) argues:
The dynamics of emotions in multicultural
education is an important issue. Such
attention, however, does not isolate the
role of emotion in pedagogy, but calls for
the unity of intellect and feeling in the
cultural, racial, political, or religious divi-
sions within society, serve as a conduit for
students’ ability to interpret the world
around them and respond to others in more
socially aware ways (p. 112). Engagement
of emotions in learning contexts not only
facilitates student reflection, but is also
viewed as a transformative act. “Educa-
tion of emotions,” argues Wang (2008), “is
crucial to destabilizing social hierarchies
which privilege rationality, logic, control,
and, thus, dominance” (p. 11).
Education for sustainability is chal-
lenging educators to rethink thinking
and learning with a wider conception of
intelligence in mind (Cassell & Nelson,
2010; Goleman, 2009; Goleman, Bennett,
& Barlow, 2012). It is on this legitimiza-
tion of emotion that Daniel Goleman
builds his idea of ecological intelligence.
He states that “just as social and emo-
tional intelligence build on the abilities to
take other people’s perspective, feel with
them, and show our concern, ecological
intelligence extends this capacity to all
natural systems” (Goleman, 2009, p. 44).3
Emotional intelligence is beginning to be
seen as necessary to cultivate the ways of
thinking necessary to promote sustainable
values and behaviors (Goleman, Barlow, &
Bennett, 2010; Michael, 2005).
Addressing Multicultural Issues
through the Feeling Dimension
of Music
In what ways are multicultural issues
addressed through Reimer’s feeling di-
mension of musical experience? How does
addressing these issues fit in an education
for sustainability framework? It is first
necessary to ring a note of caution against
articulating the role of music education in
utilitarian terms. Reimer (2003) so timely
reminds music educators fighting to keep
their practice in schools that:
Advocacy arguments, intended to per-
suade the larger community to support
music programs as part of schooling
rather than as an out-of-school activity
for those who choose it, have tended to
focus on whatever values happen to be
important to people at various times, at-
tempting to convince people that music
can serve those values and therefore
should be allowed a place at the education
table. (p. 63)
He mentions several of these utilitarian
values: raising test scores, improving spa-
tial-temporal reasoning, making people
“smarter, supporting pedagogy in other
disciplines, and improving self-discipline
and social skills (p. 63). Justifying music
education as such requires valuing it as
a means rather than an end. Rather, as
Reimer argues, it is for the enhanced en-
gagement in the emotional world of musi-
cal sound that music education should be
Turner and Freedman (2004) discuss
music as a “tool,” that is “builds empathy,”
and that it serves to inspire environmental
action and advocacy” (p. 45). Allen (2012)
argues that ecomusicology contributes to
an interdisciplinary approach of “learning
about the natural world” and will poten-
tially “bridge disciplines in creative ways
to improve students’ analytical reasoning
and environmental problem-solving skills”
(p. 193). Ramsey (2002) discusses a role
of music in environmental education as
“a tool that can make both teaching and
learning more interesting” (p. 195). Though
these authors begin to scratch the surface
on the role of music education in education
for sustainability, the conversation needs
to be shifted towards the role of music in
the world of emotional experience.
Furthermore, if music education fo-
cuses on multicultural issues in education
for sustainability, then it needs to do so
through the actual emotional experiences
of the students. Any discussion on the
role(s) of music education should keep the
uniqueness of the musical experience at
the forefront of teaching and learning. For
these reasons I again implore educators
to seriously consider the importance of a
philosophical base upon which to ground
their pedagogy. I agree with Reimer’s
argument that the engagement into the
feeling dimension of music is what com-
promises that uniqueness of the musical
Framework for the Education
of Feelings
Building on the work of cultural
anthropologist Robert Plant Armstrong
(1975), Reimer presents a tripartite
framework for teaching for the education
of feelings:
Direct Representation
Reimer’s (2003) first principle of
teaching for the education of feelings is
that the feeling dimension is most fully
experienced through “direct engagement
with the sounds of music themselves”
(p. 95). Aspects of music education such
as knowledge of music theory, historical
facts, philosophy, and cultural background
information are not themselves the desired
FALL 2013
A Multicultural Interdisciplinary Inquiry
classroom to open up a creative dwelling
space in which both teachers and students
can risk personal and cultural transforma-
tion. Such is a vision of sustainable and
creative multicultural education. (p.16)
Inclusion and legitimization of emotions
through music education challenges the
hegemonic epistemology of reason over
that of emotion.
Cross-Cultural Understanding
through Music Education
Music affords students the opportu-
nities to place themselves into the lived
experiences of cultures distant from their
own. Joseph (2012) demonstrates how
music serves to “address cultural diver-
sity and build intercultural relations and
understandings” when he teaches his
Australian students to sing, dance, and
play African music (p. 9). He argues that
“the teaching and learning of African music
allows students to develop and increase
their knowledge, skills, and understanding
towards each other” (p. 1).
River of Words (ROW) is an interna-
tional K-12 program that invites students
to practice place-based learning through
an environmental poetry and art contest
on the theme of watersheds. “Children,”
explains Pamela Michael, cofounder and
executive director, “engage the world with
their whole selves—conscious and uncon-
scious, emotional and cognitive” (Michael,
2005, p. 111). She further explains:
Our strategy was to create rich sensory
experiences for students, encouraging
them to explore their communities and
imaginations—weaving in natural and
cultural history— and to synthesize what
they had learned and observed into line
and verse…. We tried to add elements of
wonder, discovery, interpretation, dexter-
ity, and surprise to learning, and to pro-
mote our belief that while not everyone
can be an artist, everyone can be artistic.
(pp. 113–114)
This program demonstrates Reimer’s de-
scription of the purpose of the arts noted
earlier—to “make special.” Students can
experience through composing, perform-
ing, improvising, listening, and many
other activities. When we experience a
place through rhythm, melody, harmony,
and tone colors, we embody that place and
the feelings attached to it through music.
Music filters our emotional experiencing of
a place. This does not have to happen thor-
ough an international competition, either.
As Pamela Michael notes in the statement
above, “everyone can be artistic.”
Reiterating Reimer’s philosophy of
music education, the central task is to
make the experience of music available
to “all people” (2003, p. 69). This can be
through composing music about the place
in which students’ daily lives are situated
in, through performing music that reflects
the imbedded values and cultural ways of
thinking within a particular community,
or through developing an appreciation for
the variety of musical styles present in
a place through listening to music. It is
through these activities that students have
a meaningful experience of place, or as
Reimer (2003) states, “what music means,
then, is everything a person experiences
when involved in it” (p. 165).
In addition, music is increasingly
being examined as a “generative force in
human development and social bonding”
(Shelemay, 2011, p. 381; see also Anshel
& Kipper, 1988; Cross, 1999; Hannon &
Trehub, 2005; Kreutz, Bongard, Rohmann,
Hodapp, & Grebe, 2004; Patel, 2010). For
example, the activities of Public Art Workz
(Detroit, Michigan) use visual art to chal-
lenge the “deep cultural assumptions about
why Detroit suffers from poverty, racism,
and blight, and the role of violence in the
city’s problems” (Martusewicz, Edmund-
son, & Lupinacci, 2011, p. 293).
In this article, I have argued for a
multicultural environmental education
perspective on the role of music educa-
tion in addressing an expanding local and
global ecological crisis. In using Reimer’s
synergistic philosophy of music education
as a foundation, curriculum development
in education for sustainability can incorpo-
rate music education to address the multi-
cultural issues of the ecological crisis. Emo-
tions are being increasingly recognized as
a critical component of multicultural en-
vironmental education. It is in the context
of emotional experience that music most
authentically exists, so relying solely upon
auxiliary utilitarian justifications of music
education does not keep to the integrity
of music education as a discipline. I agree
with Reimer (2003) when he states that
“music education attempts to enhance the
effectiveness by which people are able to
extend their musical involvements” (p. 89).
Thus the inclusion and emphasis of music
education in the school curriculum chal-
lenges the false reason/emotion dichotomy.
I have also provided empirical evidence on
how the musical experience can and does
build cross-cultural understanding.
The most essential problems facing
humanity—including the maintaining
of a habitable planet for future genera-
tions—requires an interdisciplinary way
of thinking (Sternberg, 2008). Capra
(1999) has already hit the mark in stat-
ing that “the arts can be a powerful tool
for…enhancing the emotional dimension
that is increasingly being recognized as
an essential component of the learning
process” (p. 5). In doing so, however, edu-
cators must be careful not to capitalize
(pun intended) on music for purposes that
music is not most authentically suited for.
Music education could easily slip right
back into the role of the Cinderelian
stepchild of schools that music educators
have always fought against.
1 Education for sustainability is by no
means a universally understood and un-con-
tended term. Similar terms along this topic
include “schooling for sustainability” (Stone,
2010), “sustainability education” (Nolet, 2009),
“ecological literacy” (Goleman, Bennett, & Bar-
low, 2012; Orr, 1992), “environmental education”
(Stevenson, Wals, Dillon, & Brody, 2013; Turner
& Freedman, 2004), and even the provocative
“pedagogy for survival” (Cassell & Nelson, 2012).
While I am in no way attempting to argue that
these terms are synonymous, for the purpose
of this article I am choosing to use the term
education for sustainability.
2 Reimer (2003) makes a distinction be-
tween the terms emotions and feelings. Emo-
tions are a “broad level of awareness,” whereas
feelings are “the actual, specific awareness of
what is transpiring and its connection with the
details of whatever is triggering it” (p. 77). “Feel-
ing carries the generality of an emotional state
to the level at which particulars are noticed,
processed in awareness, and therefore made
conscious” (p. 211). The feeling dimension is the
subjective part of emotions—where language
ceases to adequately articulate our experiences.
It is the role of music to “refine and extend”
these emotional experiences into a more felt
awareness of our experience” (p. 81).
3 However, Reimer questions Goleman’s
(2009) treatment of emotion as a distinct intel-
Music affords students the opportunities
to place themselves into the lived experiences
of cultures distant from their own.
Sustainability Education
ligence in stating that “what is dealt with in
that book [Emotional Intelligence] is, essentially,
emotion rather than feeling. Music and the arts
are not mentioned” (Reimer, 2003, p. 212). For
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... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Thomas, 1992) later stressed that education was critical to both "promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address environment and development issues" and "achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behaviour consistent with sustainable development" (UNCED, 1992, Chapter 36). According to Coss (2013), the term "education for sustainability" is "by no means a universally understood and un-contended term" (p. 23). ...
... However, synonyms such as "schooling for sustainability" (Stone, 2010), "sustainability education" (Nolet, 2009), "ecological literacy" (Goleman et al., 2012;Orr, 1992), "environmental education" (Stevenson et al., 2013;Turner & Freedman, 2004), and "pedagogy for survival" (Cassell & Nelson, 2012) reflect the global concerns surrounding this topic. Coss (2013) proposed that a key concern in education for sustainability was to address the immediate ecological crisis from the socio-cultural dimension. Empirical theories and pedagogical traditions have been established to solve these socio-cultural issues from the perspective of multicultural education. ...
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Sustainability has been incorporating multiculturalism in music education (MME) for decades, but the dialogs of MME in China has always focused on school education, neglecting community-based music education. The cultural-political context of this study is in Xijiang, southwest China, where is a Miao-dominated community integrating Miao, Han and other ethnic cultures. This study employed a mixed-method approach with a convergent parallel design that combined a survey with qualitative methods including casual conversation, semi-structured interview, and documentary analysis. Findings revealed that despite the promotion and inheritance of Miao’s music are highly valued, and the interest of minority ethnic communities in engaging in music learning and performance remains considerable, the sustainability of multicultural music education in Xijiang is in question. Problems are attributed to inadequate and unequal educational resources, devaluation of state institutes, shortage of teachers, and high illiterate rate. This article contributes to theorizing on sustainability in multicultural music education within a multicultural background in southwest China, by identifying the stakeholders in the education system and drawing on the empirical evidence on the truly needs of communities. The implications of the study include improvements in the development of multicultural music education.
... Similarly, a study on the use of music in environmental education focuses on musical lyrics to inform students about environmental issues as "the educational niche of music is one of helping students to develop a sensitive attitude to environmental and related issues" (Turner & Freedman, 2004, p. 50). Coss (2013) discusses the multicultural perspectives of music and sustainability education and maintains that the specific character of musical experience "lies in its focused engagement with the world of sounds, as opposed to strictly visual, textual, or movement-based experiences" (p. 21). ...
... 45). Further, Coss (2013) maintains that music education can be incorporated in curriculum development in sustainability education "to address the multi-cultural issues of the ecological crisis" (p. 23). ...
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Sustainability education is an interdisciplinary endeavor and should thus in-clude music as well. In this paper, I explore the under-researched field of music and sustainability education. My central thesis is that music and attentive listening have a potential of strengthening students’ aesthetic experience and world bonding, two essential elements of their sustainability engagement. The paper consists of a review of research on art, music and sustainability education, an elaboration on eco-acoustics and efforts to apply music to the sonic world, and a discussion of the training of music-sustainability competencies. In the existing research on music and sustainability education, I find a latent tension between those who regard music as a means for teaching for sustainability, and those who view music as genuine knowledge that there is need of in sustainability education. Perhaps the greatest fallacy is to reduce music to a mere tool to reach sustainability goals. Then music’s aesthetic and creative potential is lost. We need fresh and unconventional ideas to cope with the present situation in a desirable future direction. Listening as world engagement, I discuss in relation to the skills of doing music: listening to music, performing music, and making music. I argue that there is much to learn from soundscape artists when it comes to refining students’ ears for the environment’s sonic expressions. Such a refinement presupposes, however, an interdisciplinary commitment in school of practicing the skill of listening, also in other subjects than music. Keywords: music, aesthetic experience, attentive listening, sustainability education Musikk og utdanning for bærekraft – en motsetning? Sammendrag Utdanning for bærekraftig utvikling forutsetter tverrfaglig samarbeid og skal derfor også inkludere musikkfaget. I artikkelen diskuterer jeg musikkens potensielle rolle i utdanning for bærekraftig utvikling, et til nå lite utforsket tema. Min antakelse er at musikk og oppmerksom lytting har potensial til å styrke elevers estetiske erfaring og forbundethet med verden, to forutsetninger for deres engasjement for en bærekraftig fremtid. Artikkelen består av en gjennomgang av eksisterende forskning på kunst, musikk og bærekraft i undervisningen, en drøfting av øko-akustikk, musikk og oppmerksom lytting, og en diskusjon av oppøving av kompetanser som er felles for musikk og utdanning for bærekraft. Min utforsking av eksisterende forskning viser en latent spenning mellom dem som anser musikk som et middel i undervisning for bærekraft og dem som oppfatter musikk som genuin kunnskap for en bærekraftig utvikling. Dersom musikk gjøres til et rent redskapsfag for å nå bærekraftmålene, går dens estetisk-kreative egenart tapt. For å bevege oss mot en bærekraftig fremtid trengs ukonvensjonelle ideer og djerv handling. Lytting som estetisk erfaring diskuterer jeg i forhold til musikkfagets tre kompetanser: å lytte til musikk, å fremføre musikk og å lage musikk. Jeg argumenterer for at det er mye å lære av soundscape-kunstnere når det gjelder å oppøve elevers evne til å bli var omgivelsenes lydlige uttrykk. Oppøving av en oppmerksom lytting forutsetter en tverrfaglig vilje i skolen til å øve lytteevnen, også i andre fag enn musikkfaget. Nøkkelord: musikk, estetisk erfaring, oppmerksom lytting, utdanning for bærekraftig utvikling
... If less attention is given to employing multicultural music education, vocal pedagogy may be endangered. Scholars such as (Coss, 2013;Kigozi, 2008) agree that neglecting multicultural music education can result in overlooking cultural diversity in the classroom. It could be ascertained that ignoring arts education can have a negative impact on cultural diversity in the classroom. ...
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In recent years, there has been a close relationship between vocal art pedagogy and multicultural music education in South African rural schools. It is clear that the pedagogy module offered by Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), vocal art has positioned TUT vocal art graduates to succeed in the labour market. This article discusses and raises awareness about the significance of the vocal art pedagogy module offered by the TUT. A qualitative research technique was engaged, employing methods such as interviews with vocal art pedagogy practitioners and vocal art lecturers. Scholarly writings were reviewed to derive trustworthy findings. The preliminary finding demonstrates that the vocal art pedagogy module offered at TUT has equipped pedagogy graduates with the relevant teaching skills for the labour market. It has further proved that vocal art pedagogy does afford graduates with employment opportunities. In conclusion, this study argues that vocal art should promote the pedagogy module as the study finds the module to be relevant to industry requirements.
This research paper explores the transformative impact of digital innovations on Indian classical music education. The rapid advancement of technology has revolutionized the way students learn and engage with this traditional art form. The paper examines various digital tools and platforms that have reshaped pedagogy, curriculum development, accessibility, and the overall learning experience. By analyzing existing research, case studies, and expert opinions, this paper provides insights into the benefits, challenges, and future directions of digital innovations in Indian classical music education.
A largely unmet need exists for school-based mental health services by students who are of an ethnic minority and who may not have insurance, access, and/or the knowledge of mental health services. These same students may not receive effective, culturally sensitive counseling services, interventions, or valid/accurate measures of psychological testing. In order to resonate and connect with these students who need the most help and support despite these barriers to accessing quality treatment, what is the school-based mental health provider to do? This chapter will initially discuss a comprehensive review of culturally competent interventions for school-based mental health providers as well as recommendations for culturally competent training for mental health providers and school staff to ensure that culturally competent collaboration and appropriate support exists for all students.
Overcoming the current spiritual and ecological crisis plaguing the globe is impossible without changing the paradigm of aesthetic music education. Music should play an important role in achieving the goals of sustainable development, rather than be a utilitarian product of consumer society. Therefore, attention should be drawn to the music teacher education and to a new paradigm of education that is ecology-focused, aesthetic, and enables sustainable development at the urban, suburban, and rural levels. The study examines issues around the ecology-focused aesthetic music education in the context of sustainable development culture. This study aimed to substantiate an integration framework for ecological rationality, aesthetic education, and musical ecology in order to build a new educational paradigm from international experience. This is a review of the survey findings reported by the Country Music Association Foundation. The survey involved 468 music teachers from 392 primary, secondary and high schools in the United States. The weighting procedure used ensured that the sample of responding schools was nationally representative along the two dimensions of school locale/urbanicity (e.g. urban, suburban, town/exurbun, rural) and the grade levels (e.g. primary, middle, high, or some combination). The contemporary approach to education should be improved to extend ecological and integrated methods and ideas of thinking and hence bring the art of music to a new horizon with a higher goal of creating a sustainable community of ecologically responsible individuals. This study offered an integration model for ecological rationality, aesthetic education, and musical ecology in order to build a new educational paradigm. The proposal represents a framework that is built around five components of society, ecological rationality, teachers, sustainable development, and musical ecology.
A largely unmet need exists for school-based mental health services by students who are of an ethnic minority and who may not have insurance, access, and/or the knowledge of mental health services. These same students may not receive effective, culturally sensitive counseling services, interventions, or valid/accurate measures of psychological testing. In order to resonate and connect with these students who need the most help and support despite these barriers to accessing quality treatment, what is the school-based mental health provider to do? This chapter will initially discuss a comprehensive review of culturally competent interventions for school-based mental health providers as well as recommendations for culturally competent training for mental health providers and school staff to ensure that culturally competent collaboration and appropriate support exists for all students.
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[English abstract; see Spanish original language abstract below] This research project has studied the publications related to the educational process of the teaching of Dance Sport, a sport with a broad reach due to its competitive, artistic, and social character. In this exploration there were found various articles and monographs, in which there were analized various aspects of the work of instructors, choreographers, and sport practitioners in this area. For this purpose, it was analized a vast amount of publications in four languages: Spanish, English, Russian, and Bulgarian. The main objective of this thesis was: to analyze to what extent it might be improved the teaching of Dance Sport at a competitive level through the merging of the Vaganova Method and the technique of Character Dances through the bibliometric and hermeneutic analysis of documents. The specific objectives were: 1. To analyze the impact of Vaganova Method and Character Dances in the teaching of Dance Sport. 2. To evaluate the effectivity of the bibliometric method as a foundation for this analysis. 3. To contrast the bibliometric method with the hermeneutic analysis of documents to support such analysis of such theoretical foundation. 4. To evaluate the possible implications of such analysis for the creation of a specific methodology to improve the body formation and competitive repertoire in Dance Sport. The variables employed in this project as thesauri descriptors were: 1. Dance sport. 2. Character dance. 3. Vaganova method, and 4. Teaching. There were made searches of documents in the Google Scholar Citation Scientific Index, and analyzed bibliometrically and hermeneutically. The analyzed data did not show a clear evidence of the participation of the Vaganova method and the technique of Character dance in the formation process in the teaching of Character dances, or of any other methodology, used according with the different modes, or according with the ages and physical-body and cognitive conditions of sport practitioners. [Spanish original abstract] La presente investigación se ha centrado sobre estudio de publicaciones, relacionadas con el tema del proceso formativo en la enseñanza de las Danzas deportivas, un deporte con gran alcance por su carácter competitivo, artístico y social. En esta exploración se encontraron diferentes artículos y monografías en las cuales se analizaron diferentes aspectos del trabajo de los instructores, coreógrafos y deportistas en esta área. Este estudio se propuso como finalidad el conocimiento pormenorizado sobre la enseñanza especifica de las Danzas deportivas, el rol del Método Vaganova y la técnica de ejercicios de las Danzas de carácter mediante un análisis hermenéutico y documental. Para ello se analizó una enorme cantidad de publicaciones en cuatro idiomas: español, inglés, ruso y búlgaro. El objetivo general de esta tesis fue: analizar en qué medida se podría mejorar la enseñanza de las Danzas Deportivas a nivel competitivo mediante la fusión del Método Vaganova y la técnica de Danzas de Carácter a través de un estudio bibliométrico, hermenéutico y documental. Los objetivos específicos fueron: 1. Analizar el impacto del Método Vaganova y Danzas de Carácter en la enseñanza de Danzas Deportivas. 2. Indagar la efectividad del método bibliométrico como fundamento para dicho análisis. 3. Contrastar el método bibliométrico con el análisis hermenéutico y documental para complementar el análisis de la dicha fundamentación teórica. 4. Evaluar las posibles implicaciones de dicho análisis para la creación de una metodología específica para mejorar la formación corporal y el repertorio competitivo en las danzas deportivas. Las variables utilizadas en esta investigación como descriptores de tesauros fueron: 1. Danza deportiva. 2. Danza de carácter. 3. Método Vaganova y 4. Enseñanza. Se efectuaron búsquedas de documentos en el Índice Científico de Citas Google Scholar, mismas que fueron analizadas e interpretadas bibliométrica y hermenéuticamente. Los descriptores de las búsquedas se estaban adecuando y sustituyendo con términos del mismo valor semántico o definidos según la terminología, utilizada en los diferentes idiomas. Los análisis fueron llevados en distintos niveles: bibliométrico, documental, hermenéutico y crítico del discurso. Los resultados del tipo cuantitativo se contabilizaban en Excel y fueron interpretados en SPSS Statistics 21. Entre todas las publicaciones consideradas, 60 correspondieron al procedimiento de inclusión, establecido para este estudio. Estas fueron sometidas a segundo análisis bibliométrico, hermenéutico y documental y arrojaron un numero de 2979 en segunda y 49 358 en la tercera generación de citas con un total de 52363 citas de los Artículos Raíz. Se puede destacar la riqueza temática y argumentativa, encontrada en las publicaciones. Sin embargo, mediante el análisis hermenéutico fueron encontrados un buen número de trabajos, cuyos textos sonaban en harmonía con la moda o con lo ya establecido políticamente en el ámbito gremial, con acuerdo conformista o locución sometida bajo los requisitos de la estrategia editorial. Paralelamente a esta investigación se lograron resultados descriptivos de mucha importancia para futuras exploraciones con el tema de la enseñanza de las Danzas deportivas. Los datos analizados no proporcionaron una clara evidencia de la participación del Método Vaganova y la técnica de las Danzas de carácter en el proceso formativo en la enseñanza de las Danzas de carácter o de otra metodología, usada según las diferentes modalidades o de acuerdo con las edades y las condiciones físico – corporales y cognitivas de los deportistas.
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This ‘history’ of environmental education traces the emergence of the field in formal education and educational research. The word ‘a’ is intentionally employed in the chapter title because this is my story of my understanding of where the movement has come from and what has informed it. This chapter is also historical research: a curriculum history (Hamilton, 1990) in the form of a genealogy following Foucault (1980).
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The environment and contested notions of sustainability are increasingly topics of public interest, political debate, and legislation across the world. Environmental education journals now publish research from a wide variety of methodological traditions that show linkages between the environment, health, development, and education. The growth in scholarship makes this an opportune time to review and synthesize the knowledge base of the environmental education (EE) field. The purpose of this 51-chapter handbook is not only to illuminate the most important concepts, findings and theories that have been developed by EE research, but also to critically examine the historical progression of the field, its current debates and controversies, what is still missing from the EE research agenda, and where that agenda might be headed. Published for the American Educational Research Association (AERA).
Many educators are wary of tarrying with or arousing in students, through curriculum content and pedagogy, discomforting emotions such as guilt, anger, resentment, fear or ambivalence, flowing from social, cultural, racial, political or religious divisions within society. It is thought that such emotions contribute to nihilistic ways of being, undermining mutual respect, understanding, civic virtue, and personal responsibility. In this article, I explore how tarrying with and providing a space for "living through" and examining uncomfortable emotions within the classroom is pedagogically valuable for facilitating students' movement from parochial responses and interpretations to more socially conscious and aware ones. Educational theorists Sandra Stotsky, Mark Dressman, and Robert Fullinwider, provide the framework for understanding the idea that eliciting and exploring discomforting emotions in the classroom serves a miseducative function. Educational theorist Ann C. Berlak and philosopher Catherine Elgin provide the framework through which the above perspective will be rebutted. I argue that without the arousal and expression of discomforting emotions, non minority students may not be able to undergo transformation in their mode of consciousness that would allow them to develop the ears with which to truly "hear" minority students. Correlatively, when marginalized students' lived experiences are white-washed, unacknowledged, or left unexplored, their resistance to learning may not only increase, but the very possibility of their "naming" and recognizing their own experience as unjust, and not merely as a figment of their imagination or their "hyper-sensitivity," remains untapped.
“Authentic hope is the gift Rebecca Martusewicz, Jeff Edmundson, and John Lupinacci offer readers of EcoJustice Education …. We learn what it means to recover the ancient arts and skills of cultivating commons, common sense, and community collaborations in our hard times.” STRONG Madhu Suri Prakash, Pennsylvania State University/STRONG EcoJustice Education/EM> should become a core part of teacher education programs across the country as it provides both the theory and examples of classroom practices essential for making the transition to a sustainable future. STRONG C. A. Bowers, author, international speaker, and retired professor/STRONG> Designed for introductory social foundations or multicultural education courses, this text offers a powerful model for cultural ecological analysis and pedagogy of responsibility, providing teachers and teacher educators with the information and classroom practices they need to help develop citizens who are prepared to support and achieve diverse, democratic, and sustainable societies in an increasingly globalized world. The Companion Website for this book (STRONG <>) offers a wealth of resources linked to each chapter.
With globalization, people are frequently called to work together for solutions to environmental problems much beyond our local realities. Thus, cross-cultural communication gains a special significance in the comprehension of environmental degradation and the identification of environmental solutions. Is Multicultural Environmental Education an answer to the challenges of our times? Link: