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Himalayan (Himachal region) cedar wood (Cedrus deodara: Pinaceae) essential oil, its processing, ingredients and uses: A review

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EO's (Essential oils) are the complex mixtures of volatile compounds, synthesized as secondary metabolites from plant parts by steam/ Hydro distillation, solvent-less extraction and other physical means such as cold pressing. The demands of EO's are increasing drastically in food and beverage; fragrances; cosmetics; flavouring agents in air fresheners and deodorizers; household and aromatherapy. Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) EO is one of the important oil, which has great pharmacological activities and demand in the market. C. Deodara EO has wide applications, mainly in antimicrobial, insecticidal, molluscicidal, germicidal, anti-tubercular activities in Pharmacology. C. Deodara oil has high demand in fragrance industries because of its specific characteristics. Himalayan C. Deodara consists of α-Himachalene, β-Himachalene, γ-Himachalene, α and γ atlantone as its major constituents. This paper presents the details of Cedrus deodara of Himachal (India) region, its production in small scale industries using steam/Hydro distillation, ingredient and uses. This article will facilitate the science students and small scale EO's industries to improve their productivity with the latest techniques.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2019; 8(1): 2228-2238
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2019; 8(1): 2228-2238
Received: 19-11-2018
Accepted: 21-12-2018
Sandeep Kumar
Production Department, Shree
Khand Essential Oil Industry,
Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
Ashwani Kumar
Director, Manimahesh
Enterprises, Mandi, Himachal
Pradesh, India
Randhir Kumar
Project Manager, Civil
Department, Manimahesh
Enterprises, Mandi, Himachal
Pradesh, India
Correspondence
Sandeep Kumar
Production Department, Shree
Khand Essential Oil Industry,
Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
Himalayan (Himachal region) cedar wood (Cedrus
deodara: Pinaceae) essential oil, its processing,
ingredients and uses: A review
Sandeep Kumar, Ashwani Kumar and Randhir Kumar
Abstract
EO’s (Essential oils) are the complex mixtures of volatile compounds, synthesized as secondary
metabolites from plant parts by steam/ Hydro distillation, solvent-less extraction and other physical
means such as cold pressing. The demands of EO’s are increasing drastically in food and beverage;
fragrances; cosmetics; flavoring agents in air fresheners and deodorizers; household and aromatherapy.
Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) EO is one of the important oil, which has great pharmacological activities
and demand in the market. C. Deodara EO has wide applications, mainly in antimicrobial, insecticidal,
mollusicidal, germicidal, anti-tubercular activities in Pharmacology. C. Deodara oil has high demand in
fragrance industries because of its specific characteristics. Himalayan C. Deodara consists of α-
Himachalene, β-Himachalene, γ-Himachalene, α and γ atlantone as its major constituents. This paper
presents the details of Cedrus deodara of Himachal (India) region, its production in small scale industries
using steam/Hydro distillation, ingredient and uses. This article will facilitate the science students and
small scale EO’s industries to improve their productivity with latest techniques.
Keywords: Essential oils (EO’s); Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae), processing, chemical constituents, recent
extraction techniques.
Introduction
Essential Oils (Aromatic oils) are synthesized as secondary metabolites from various parts of
plants and employed for flavors, perfumes, disinfectants, medicines and stabilizers. EO’s are
also utilized for making undesirable odors and as raw materials for making other products.
[CM, Cook et al 2016] [16]. The secondary metabolites are classified into terpenoids,
shikimates, polyketides and alkaloids. EO’s are mainly concerned with terpenoids and
shikimates. EO’s are also called volatile oils because of their ease of solubility in alcohol to
form essence. EO’s evaporates when exposed to air at ordinary temperature. EO’s are made up
of isoprene units (empirical formula C6H8) and are usually mono-terpenes (C5H8), sesqui-
terpenes (C10H16) and diterpenes (C15H20; C20H32) respectively. EO’s are classified into four
major categories: (a) Pinene or terpenes; (b) Oxygenated oils; (c) Nitrogenerated oils and, (d)
Sulfurated oils. Pinene and terpenes (e.g. Turpentine oil) contains carbon and hydrogen and
Empirical formula C10H16. Oxygenated EO’s (e.g. Cassia oil) contains carbon, hydrogen and
nitrogen. Nitrogenerated EO’s (e.g. Almond oil) contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen. Sulphurated EO’s (e.g. Mustard oils) contains carbon, hydrogen and sulphur. [et al]
EO’s are isolated by traditional technique mainly hydro/steam distillation from the leaves,
buds, flower, roots, seeds and other part of the plant.
Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara, deodar) and Sandlewood EO’s are distilled from the stem
and roots of the plants. Himalayan Cedrus deodara grows in the slope of the Himalayas and at
the elevation of 1650m to 2400m above the sea level. Cedrus deodara common name in
English as Himalayan cedar, deodar cedar and deodar and in the Hindi local name is Diar,
deodar and debdar. In Himachal Pradesh, the total 68,872 hectare area is covered under under
Cedrus deodara forest. Cedrus deodara is found in Chamba, Manali, Kinnaur, Sirmour,
Shimla, Kangra (Bada Bhangal & Chota bhangal) and Mandi region of Himachal Pradesh. The
height of Cedrus deodars is approximately 65-85 m tall and 4 m diameter at breast height
(DBH). The leaves of Cedrus deodara are stiff, sharp pointed having length of 23-37 mm long
and the bark is grayish brown, dark in color [Orwa et al, 2009]. The extracted oil from Cedrus
deodara have been used as antiseptic, insecticides, herbal remedies against animal diseases,
anti-fungal activity, anti-inflammatory, molluscidal activity, pharmacological and biological
activities, etc. The sizable stumps and roots of the plant left after cutting of trees are utilized
for the Hydro/Strem distillation of EO’s.
In India, the production of Cedrus deodara EO’s begun in late 1950’s and estimated to be
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around 150 tonnes per annum of the world’s production.
[Coppen et al, 1995] [19]. The Cedrus deodara leaves are
utilized for flavoring foods, beverages and for the treatment of
diseases such as rheumatism, diabetes, cancer, stomach
disease, inflammation in tuberculous glands, etc. The wood
and bark extracts of Cedrus deodara are used for medicinal
purposes. The extracted root oil form Cedrus deodara is
utilized as an anti-ulcer drug. [Atwal et al, (1976); Zhang et
al, (2011); Krishnappa et al (1978); Mukherjee et al. (2011)]
[20, 21, 23, 24] The Himalayan Cedrus deodara plant species are
illustrated in Fig. 1. The taxonomical classification and
chemical composition of Cedrus deodar species is presented
in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. The botanical and
common names of Cedrus deodara are given in Table 3.
Fig. 1: Cedrus Deodara plant (Himalayan deodar, Mandi region)
Table 1: Taxanomical Classification of Cedrus Deodara (Gupta et al, 2011) [7]
Taxonomical Classification (Cedrus deodara)
Division
Pinophyta
Kingdom
Plantae
Class
Pinopsida
Order
Pinales
Family
Pinaceae
Genus
Cedrus
Species
C. Deodara
Table 2: Cedrus deodara Plant Chemical Composition (Tewart LN et al, 2011) [25]
Chemical Composition in %age (Cedrus deodara)
Organic Carbon (C)
1. 83.50
Nitrogen (N)
2. 0.28
Phosphorus (P)
3. 0.055
Potassium (K)
4. 0.06
Calcium (Ca)
5. 2.60
Magnesium (Mg)
6. 0.017
Table 3: Cedrus Deodara botanical and common name (Orwa et al, 2009)
Common Name
Trade Name
In English: Himalayan cedar, deodar cedar, deodar
Diar, Deodar
In Hindi: Diar, deodar, debdar
In French: cedar del’himalaya
In German: himalaja-Zeder
In Italian: cedro dell’Himalaia
In Spanish: Cedro del Himalaya, cedro de la India
The characteristics of Cedrus deodara are illustrated in Table 4.
Table 4: Margin specifications
Species
Ripe color
Length (cm)
Width (cm)
Cedrus Deodara
Cone Size
Reddish brown
7813
589
Seed Size
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
104815
587
Leaf Size
Length (cm)
No. of Whorls
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Fig. 2: Plant organs containing EO’s
Fig. 3: Chemical groups present in EO’s
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Fig. 4: Steam Distillation Plant arrangement and Instrumentation. [K. Tuley DE SILVA, 1995]
2. Processing of Cedrus deodara
The stumps and roots of the plants (left after cutting) are
collected from the forest areas. The wood is reduced into
small pieces and subjected to the continuous Hydro/Steam
distillation process in Industries. In small scale industries,
traditional Hydro/steam distillation process is employed for
the processing of Cedrus deodara. Before starting of hydro
distillation process, Cedrus deodara wood is chopped into
small pieces. These pieces are processed through a grinder to
convert chips into powder form. This powder material is filled
into the still or containers where the plant material rests on a
perforated tray for quick removal after extraction. The
schematic of the steam distillation process is illustrated in
Figure 5.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Fig. 5: Schematic of processing of Cedrus deodara using
Hydro/Steam distillation process
In the Steam distillation process, the steam is produced in a
steam boiler and the generated steam is blown through a pipe
into the bottom of the still. 70-75 psi pressure is maintained in
the boiler. High-pressure steam distillation is often applied
and the time of distillation the applied increased temperature
significantly reduces. The steam carries volatile oil
constituents along with it and passes through a condenser. The
condenser converts the vapors into liquid and the condensed
distillate consists a mixture of water and oil. The mixture of
oil and water is separated in a Florentine flask or receptacle
made of SS (stainless steel) whose one outlet near the base
and another at the top from which oil and water can be
separately withdrawn. Since the density of Cedrus deodara
EO’s is lighter than the water, therefore, the oil is collected
from the top end of the Florentine flask or receptacle.
For large scale production of Cedrus deodara EO’s, this
method is most widely preferred. For higher yield of EO’s,
the processing time approx. 8 to 9 hours is preferred. After
distillation, the crude oil is stored in plastic drums. The
Cedrus deodara EO sample obtained after Hydro/Steam
distillation is shown in Figure 6.
Fig. 6: Sample of Cedrus deodara Essential Oil
Table 5: Physical properties of Cedrus Deodara oil [Walker (1968);
Adams (1991)] [1]
Physical properties (Cedrus deodara oil)
Specific gravity at 15ᵒC (or 20ᵒC)
0.94-0.99
Optical rotation
-16ᵒ to -60ᵒ
Refractive Index at 20ᵒC
1.48-1.51
Solubility (at 20ᵒC)
90%-95% in ethanol
3. Various parameters affecting Yield & Quality of C.
Deodara
During steam distillation, the various factors such as steam
pressure and temperature, equipment’s materials etc. affects
the quality and yield of C. Deodara which may lead to change
the characteristics of distillation. To avoid these distillation
characteristic changes, the list of major factors should be
taken into consideration during steam/Hydro distillation are as
follows:
- Distillation mode (Steam pressure and temperature)
- Design of the equipments
a.) Design of still, condenser and separator
b.) Design of furnace and chimney
c.) Ratio of tank Height and diameter of cylinder
- Fabrication and Materials of equipments
- Raw material condition
- Distillation time
- Loading and unloading of raw material
- Condition of still and water tank
4. Purification of Cedrus deodara Crude oil
Cedrus deodara crude oil is obtained from the oil separator
after steam distillation. It contains moisture content and
impurities in it which degrades the characteristics of C.
Deodara. The impurities and moisture accelerate the
undesirable chemical reaction and polymerization.
The high speed centrifugation process is most commonly used
to remove the impurities and moisture contents. Another
method is the addition of anhydrous sodium sulphate in the oil
and standing it for overnight and filtered help to remove the
impurity and moisture.
EO’s are frequently rectified or re-distilled to remove
impurities. The steam distillation process is carried out under
vacuum condition by keeping the temperature within limits.
5. Chemical constituents of Cedrus deodara
Cedrus deodara EO is utilized as perfume fixative in essence,
cosmetic, soap and perfume Industries. Generally, the Cedrus
deodara is characterized by a high percentage of
himachalenes [Bhushan, et al, (2006)]. EO enriched in
atlantones is known as Perfumery Grade and the EO
enriched with himachalene is called as Super Rectified Oil”.
Sesquiterpenes are partially being ascribed from Cedrus
species.
Abha Chaudhary et al. (2011) [9] investigated and
characterized the constituents of Cedrus deodara for the use
of pest management. The authors identified the fractions of
forty components using GC and GS-MS analysis. In Cedrus
deodara, the major constituents includes α-Himachalene, β-
Himachalene, γ-Himachalene, (Z)-γ-atlantone, (E)-γ-
atlantone, (Z)-α-atlantone and (E)-α-atlantones. The identified
chemical constituents of Cedrus Deodara by Chaudhary Abha
et al, 2011 [9] are shown in Fig. 7 where A5 represents:
Pentane Fraction; A4: Himachalene enriched fraction; A3:
Atlantone enriched fraction; A6 : Acetonitrile Fraction and
A2 represents Crude Oil.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
The sesquiterpenes and their chemical structure available in
Cedrus deodara are presented in Figure 8 as himachalenes (α,
β and γ) (1-3), isocentdarol (4), Himachalol (5),
allohimachalol (6), aryl Himachalene (7), (E)-α-atlantone (8),
(E)-γ-atlantone (9), (Z)-α-atlantone (10), (Z)-γ-atlantone (11),
deodarone (12), oxidohmachalene (13), β-himachalene
monoepoxide (14), atlantolone (15), deodardione (16),
diosphenol (17), limonene carboxylic acid (18). (Nigam et al.
1990, Bhushan, et al 2006) [25, 26]
Fig. 7: Chemical constituents of fraction of Cedrus deodara EO [Chaudhary A. et al. (2011)] [9]
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Fig. 8: Structure of constituents of Cedrus deodara
The chemical constituents (through ethanolic extract) found in
needles of Cedrus deodara are taxifolin (19), quercetin (25),
myricetin (45) 2R, 3R-dihydromyricetin (46), cedrusone A
(47), β-sitosterol (48), 1-[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate]-
α-D-glucopyranoside (49),
10-nonacosanol (50), dibutyl phthalate (51), phthalic acid bis-
(2-ethylhexyl)ester (52), protocatechuic acid (53), Shikimic
acid (54) and 5p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (55). [Zhang et
al. (2011); Liu et al. (2011)] Srinivastava et al 2001 [21, 27, 30]
reported the Centdaroic acid (56) generally known as
diterpene in Cedrus deodara roots, presented in Figure 9.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Fig. 9: Structure of the constituents of Cedrus deodara root
diterpene Centdaroic acid (56)
4. Modern Extraction methods for EO’s
Now days, it becomes easier to extract the EO’s because of
the continuous improvement and innovation in technologies.
The green technologies have been invented which leads to:
- the decrease in extraction time;
- Reduction in solvent involvement;
- Reduction in the interaction of volatile liquid with
atmospheric conditions and
- Reduction in energy.
Some of the solvent-less extraction processes are carried out
in a vacuum under reduced pressure to improve the yield and
quality of EO’s. [Muhammad Shahzad Aslam et al, 2016] [10]
The lists of some solvent-less extraction methods suggested
by Aslam (2016) [10] are as follow;
a.) SFMS (Solvent-free microwave extraction)
b.) MHG (Microwave Hydro-diffusion and gravity)
c.) Improved solvent free microwane extraction.
The advantages of these extraction methods are as follows:
- Fast action
- Cleanliness
- Low energy output
- Green method
The schematic of these solvent-less extraction processes are
shown in Fig. 10-12.
Fig. 10: Schematic of SFME [Kusuma H. et al, 2016] [12]
Fig. 11: Schematic of MHG [Li Y, et al, 2013] [14]
Fig. 12: Schematic of Improved SFME [Wang T. et al, 2006] [11]
d.) CO2 Extraction method
Subcritical and supercritical liquid CO2 extraction is another
modern technique employed for extraction of essential EO’s.
The EO is extracted with liquid CO2 in an autoclave at
temperature range of 50-70ᵒC. After that the gas is distilled
and pure extract remains. The extracted product through this
method remains stable for long storage and more complete.
For medical and biological purposes, subcritical extraction is
preferred. The amount of pure extracts (Oil-soluble) from the
needles of Siberian cedar with the use of subcritical extraction
is about 2%. During sub-critical extraction, there is practically
no destruction of the chemical structure of the components.
The biological activity of such drugs is very high. The
schematic of liquid CO2 extraction is illustrated in Fig. 13.
Fig. 13: Schematic diagram of the supercritical CO2 extraction. A:
Pumping section; B:Extraction section; C1 and C2: Fractional
section; D: Flow measurement section [E. Reverchon et al, 1992] [6]
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
e.) Modern (Non-traditional) methods of extraction of
essential oils
Headspace trapping techniques
Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
Phytosol (phytol) extraction
Protoplast technique
Simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE)
Controlled instantaneous decomposition (CID)
Thermomicrodistillation
Micro distillation
Modular spinning band distillation
Membrane extraction
5. List of equipments required for Hydro/Steam
distillation Small-scale plant
The major machinery and equipments required for the
establishment of small-scale Hydro/Steam distillation EO’s
plant are as follows;
- Band saw (for wood cutting purposes)
- Chipper (to cut the wood into small chips)
- Grinder (to convert the chips into powder form)
- Steam Boiler (for stean generation)
- Still (to fill powder material)
- Condenser (to condense the mixture of water and volatile
oil)
- Florentine flask
For the testing and characterization of EO’s, the following
lists of equipments are required in the laboratory;
- Laboratory balance (to determine the weight of plant
samples)
- Clevenger apparatus (for essential oil extraction and
estimation of EO’s percentage)
- Freezer (to keep extracted volatile oils)
- Gas chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (for the
determination of essential oil components)
- Refractometer (to determine the refractive index of
essential oils).
6. Applications of C. Deodara Essential oil
Fragrance Compounding
Source of raw components for the production of
additional fragrance compounds.
Scented soaps
Room sprays
Disinfectants
Cleaning agent for microscope sections
Technical preparation
All branches of medicines such as in pharmacy,
balneology, massage and homeopathy
In the field of aromatherapy and aromachology
Biocides and insect repellents and many more.
7. Market for EO’s
In 2017, the worldwide production of EO’s was estimated as
1,50,000 tonnes i.e. triple in volume since 1990’s.[Cinzia
Barbieri et al, 2018] [8]. Therefore the demands of EO’s are
increasing drastically in fragrance industries (29%),
household (16%), food and breverage (35%), cosmetics,
aromatherapy and pharmaceuticals (15%) [Data as per
Federation of EO’s]. The demands of EO’s, major leading
importers and exporters are shown in Fig. 14, Fig. 15 and Fig.
16 respectively.
Fig. 14: World processing of EO’s, [Cinzia Barbieri et al, 2018] [8]
Fig. 15: Leading Importers of EO’s, (2016, % volume) [Cinzia
Barbieri et al, 2018] [8]
Fig. 16: Leading Exporters of EO’s, (2016, % volume) [Cinzia
Barbieri et al, 2018] [8]
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... Encapsulation is a technique widely utilized in pharmaceutical, chemical, food, and feed industries to render EOs more manageable in formulations (Kumar et al., 2019). EOs are not only appealing to humans but also to animals. ...
... Loud. belonging to the family Pinaceae is a species of Cedar, native to the Western Himalayas in Eastern Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan, North-Central India, South Western Tibet and Western Nepal, occurring at 1500-3200 m altitude (Kumar et al., 2019). C. deodara EO possesses antimicrobial, insecticidal, molluscicidal, germicidal, anti-tubercular activities. ...
... The height of deodars is approximately 65-85m tall and 4m diameter at breast height (DBH). The leaves of deodara are stiff, sharp pointed having length of 23-37 mm long and the bark is greyish brown, dark in color (Tiwari, 1994;Chaudhary and Prakarashi, 2011;Kumar et al., 2019). The extracted oil from deodara has been used as antiseptic, insecticides, ...
Thesis
Aromatic oils found in uncombined form in various parts of plants and employed for flavors, perfumes, disinfectants, medicines, and stabilizers. The essential oils are of four general classes: the pinenes or terpenes of coniferous plants, containing carbon and hydrogen of the empirical formula C10H16, such as oil of turpentine; oxygenated oils containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, such as oil of cassia; nitrogenate oils containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, such as oil of bitter almonds, sulfurated oils containing carbon, hydrogen and sulfur, such as oil of mustard. The demand of C. deodara plant material and its essential oil has been increasing in pharmaceutical, chemical, food and perfumery industries because of its favorable physico-chemical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy. This has created pressure on various industries to produce quality products of C. deodara material. It has been considered that C. deodara of Himalayan region represents good quality after lot of work done on C. deodara of different regions. Thus, Himalayan C. deodara is selected for the present investigations. C. deodara has been used as antiseptic, insecticides, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and anti-fungal. As the demand of C. deodara essential oil is increasing day by day, therefore following objectives are proposed to achieve the goal.  To determine the physical and chemical characteristics of plant oil.  To investigate the effect of different particle size on yield of essential oil.  To investigate the effect of processing time on C. deodara EO yield and their physico-chemical characteristics.  .Reprocessing of treated material with non-polar solvent and determining yields.  Analysis of essential oil of C. deodara using GC-MS.
... Plant Organs containing EOsSource:Kumar et al. (2019) ...
... Composition of Essential OilsSource:Kumar et al., (2019) ...
Article
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This review explores the impact that small and medium scale industrial production of essential oils (EOs), as a raw material for the production of fragrances and allied products, can have on employment and income generation for Nigerian youths. The statistics available projected the Nigerian population to be at approximately 201 million, of which over 60% are of youthful age. Out of these 120 million youths, 28.6% are underemployed and 34.9% of the youths are unemployed. The implication of this is that more than 44 million productive youths are currently unemployed or underemployed. This review therefore surveyed recent publications and abstracts in Google Scholar and Scopus databases for information on EOs related issues, their production, and entrepreneurial opportunities around them. The demand for EOs is huge and this is met currently through imports. The global demand is valued to be around $10-billion, while Nigeria was reported to have imported $322.72 million worth of essential oils, perfumes, cosmetics, and toiletries in 2017. There are lots of EO yielding plants, like ginger, citrus, garlic, eucalyptus and lemongrass that have been identified by researchers and can be easily cultivated in Nigeria. The quality of most of these plants have been investigated and confirmed. Local farmers and processors can improve their economy by growing and processing EO yielding plants. We identified the following gaps that must be addressed to promote agropreneurial value chain creation around EOs: investigation into the most cost effective process for small and medium scale extraction of essential oils from locally available plant materials; mass cultivation of essential oil yielding plants; development of local designs that can be optimized and fabricated into prototype pilot plants; and development of quality assurance/quality control (QC) mechanisms and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for extraction of quality essential oils with desirable physicochemical, functional, and medicinal properties from locally sources plant materials, among others. Therefore, designing, fabrication and optimization of small and medium scale distilleries for the extraction of EOs are extant, and indigenous technologies must be promoted to ensure this value chain addition. The planting of the EO plants, the development of their extraction technology, essential oil production and the assurance/control of quality must be leveraged on to meet the local demands for EOs. This will create jobs, value chain development and economic prosperity for the nation.
... With a CL 50 of 15.9 mg/mL and CL 90 of 28.5 mg/mL the EO of V. arborea further showed very high larvicidal activity [58]. The bark of C. deodara is dark grayish-brown or reddish-brown in color and has diagonal and vertical cracks [33,59]. The EO of the wood, as well as of the bark is used in medicine. ...
... It is also said to be applied against various animal diseases and as a molluscicide. Commercially, the EO is an important ingredient for the perfume industry and cosmetics, as well as in soap making [59]. Especially EOs of the Pinaceae family are known for their antibacterial, larvicidal and antioxidant activities [60,61]. ...
Article
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Essential oils hbirthdayave been used by indigenous peoples for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Their easy availability played an important role. Even today, essential oils are used in various fields—be it as aromatic substances in the food industry, as an aid in antibiotic therapy, in aromatherapy, in various household products or in cosmetics. The benefits they bring to the body and health are proven by many sources. Due to their complex composition, they offer properties that will be used more and more in the future. Synergistic effects of various components in an essential oil are also part of the reason for their effectiveness. Infectious diseases will always recur, so it is important to find active ingredients for different therapies or new research approaches. Essential oils extracted from the bark of trees have not been researched as extensively as from other plant components. Therefore, this review will focus on bringing together previous research on selected bark oils to provide an overview of barks that are economically, medicinally, and ethnopharmaceutically relevant. The bark oils described are Cinnamomum verum, Cedrelopsis grevei, Drypetes gossweileri, Cryptocarya massoy, Vanillosmopsis arborea and Cedrus deodara. Literature from various databases, such as Scifinder, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed, among others, were used.
... In Himachal Pradesh, the total 68,872-hectare area is covered under Cedrus deodara forest and it is found in Mandi, Chamba, Manali, Kinnaur, Sirmour, Shimla and kangra region. [15] The scientific classification and chemical composition of Cedrus deodara is depicted in table 1 and 2 respectively. [16,17] ...
... Leaves are used for flavouring foods, beverages and in treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, cancer, stomach disease, inflammation in tuberculous glands, etc. Root extracted oil is utilized as an antiulcer drug. [15] The wood and bark extracts are used for various properties such as insecticidal, spasmolytic, anti-oxidative, hepatoprotective, etc. [19] ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant and plant derived material plays a very crucial role in synthesizing many organic compounds. From ancient times, cedarwood oil, extracted from Cedrus deodara, has been used for various medicinal purposes externally. Naturally occurring himachalenes are alpha-cis-himachalene, beta-himachalene and gamma-cis-himachalene which have been extracted from cedarwood oil. These isomers have been used in synthesis of benzocycloheptene derivatives which further showed anti-depressant and anti-microbial properties. Numerous other therapeutic aspects also have been found in cedarwood oil. This review describes the general introduction, properties, synthesis of himachalenes, pharmacological activities and medicinal importance of Cedrus deodara along with recent advancements in research related to this species. Currently, there are ongoing researches being carried out for vast exploration of medicinal benefits of naturally occurring himachalenes.
... Transatlantone and allo-himachalol, isolated from the oil did not possess any antifungal activity, while himachalol at the concentration of 150 μg/disc showed zone of inhibition against A. Fumigates. [17,18] Insecticidal activity Himalayan Cedar wood oil showed insecticidal property against adult Indian mosquitoes. [19][20][21][22] Chromatographic fractions bio assayed against the Pulse beetle (Callosobruchus) and housefly (Musca domestica) showed insecticidal activity against both the test species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aromatic oils are called Essential Oils (EO) because of there ease of solubility in alcohol to form essence. These oils are found in the uncombined form in various parts of plants and employed for flavours, perfumes, cosmetics, beverages, disinfectants, medicines, and stabilizers. EO possess various constituents mainly sesquiterpenoids, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids etc. The demand for C. deodara plant material and its essential oil has been increasing in pharmaceutical, chemical, food and perfumery industries because of its favourable physico-chemical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy. C. deodara has been used as antiseptic, insecticides, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and anti-fungal. Therefore, the main objective of this experimental work is to investigate the effect of different particle sizes of plant material on the yield of essential oil; to investigate the effect of processing time on C. deodara EO yield and there physicochemical characteristics and analysis of essential oil constituents using GC-MS. Different size of C. deodara material namely, grade A (large size), grade B (medium size) and grade C (small size) material has been extracted using Clevenger’s apparatus to measure its physicochemical properties. The processed grade B material was extracted with n-hexane by the maceration process to analyse variation in physicochemical properties. From the results, it has been observed that medium-size material of C. deodara has a higher percentage of yield because it has an optimum surface area to release its constituents. Temperature variations have a direct impact on physical as well as chemical properties. Higher temperatures and pressures result in a ‚harsh‘ aroma that changes the aromatic properties and decrease the oil‘s therapeutic values. Distillation time has also an impact on the yield as well as on the physical and chemical properties of the material. Thin-layer chromatography showed 10 spots of different colours in essential oil. The major constituent‘s percentage obtained after GC-MS analysis as α-himachlene (13.83%), γ-himachlene (12.00%), β-himachlene (37.34%), Deodaron (0.43%), α-atlantone (4.53%), Z, γ-atlantone (2.77%), E, γ-atlantone (3.34%) and E, α-atlantone (10.63%).
... Herbal essential oils (EOs) and extracts have been used for various purposes for thousands of years (1). These aims vary from the use of rosewood and Cedar in perfumes to avoring drinks with lime fennel or juniper berry oil, and the use of lemongrass oil in food preservation (2,3). The basis of food storage, herbal medicines, and natural treatments is the antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and extracts (4,5). ...
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Background: Today, due to the increasing use of chemical drugs and the spread of microbial resistance to synthetic antibiotics, as well as side effects of drugs, the identification and introduction of plant species with medicinal and antimicrobial properties is very important. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and extracts of 6 medicinal plants from Ahvaz region, Iran against 12 Gram-positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria were evaluated. Methods: The EOs and extracts were extracted using water distillation with Clevenger apparatus. The antimicrobial properties and determination of the minimum concentration of growth inhibition of herbals were investigated by the modified E-test method. Results: All analyzed extracts and EOs showed antibacterial effects. The antimicrobial activity of Oliveria decumbens was strongest herbals with the least MIC ranges (0.008-0.1 mg/ml for EO, 0.9-20 mg/ml for extract), while the antibacterial effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract and Glycyrrhiza glabra EO with the highest MIC were weaker than the others. According to the effectiveness of plant extracts on bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all extracts except Oliveria decumbens. In contrast, Bacillus cereus was more sensitive than other strains against analyzed EOs and extracts. Conclusions: It seems that due to the antimicrobial properties of the extracts and essential oils observed in this study, they can be used as an alternative to antimicrobial drugs after more extensive studies.
Article
This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. From the beginning of the human civilization, the main natural resource for the primary health care system is medicinal plants. Uttarakhand an 'Herbal state' is a rich source of traditional medicine knowledge of medicinal plants. A lot of information about medicinal plants of Uttarakhand is carried out in different forms and different spaces. From ancient times, humans have been handed over their knowledge on the use of several plant species to their next generation. The natives of Uttarakhand have good knowledge of the medicinal plants and traditional therapy. The natives of this state use plants for their primary health care system and depend on traditional knowledge of medical practices of medicinal herbs. The Medicinal and Ayurvedic plant assortment of Uttarakhand hills has been provided and conducted by natives to view for different species of medicinal plants. Many researchers have done studies to investigate the role of various medicinal plants of Uttarakhand in treatment of various diseases. Till date various studies reported the medicinal and clinical use of numerous plant varieties of uttarakhand and still various plant species are yet to be explored in terms of its medicinal properties. The present study is a review on some previously reported medicinally important plant varieties of Uttarakhand and the aim is to record the information about the use of these plants for medicine. These species of plants are found in different forms e.g. trees, shrub and herbaceous. Studies reported that different parts of plant like root, leaf, shoots, bark, bulb, flowers, fruits, tuber as well as rhizome are important for preparing herbal medicine for curing various ailments. The information about these ABSTRACT REVIEW ARTICLE 2 reported plants will be helpful in further research and explore various other plant varieties of Uttarakhand and their potential use as therapeutic medicines.
Article
ObjectConsidering the development of bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics and their adverse effects on the environment and public health, there is a growing demand to replace them with plant-based derivatives or combine these green agents with antibiotics to give synergistic effects. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and extracts of six medicinal plants from Ahvaz region, Iran, against 12 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were evaluated.Methods The EOs and extracts were extracted using water distillation with Clevenger apparatus. We analyzed the chemical composition of essential oils obtained. The antimicrobial properties and determination of the minimum concentration of growth inhibition of herbals were investigated by the broth dilution technique.ResultsAll analyzed extracts and EOs showed antibacterial effects. The antimicrobial activity of Oliveria decumbens was strongest herbals with the least MIC ranges (0.008–0.1 mg/ml for EO, 0.9–20 mg/ml for extract), while the antibacterial effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract and Glycyrrhiza glabra EO with the highest MIC were weaker than the others. According to the effectiveness of plant extracts on bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all extracts except Oliveria decumbens. In contrast, Bacillus cereus was more sensitive than other strains against analyzed EOs and extracts. In Oliveria decumbens, EO detected 18 components by GC/MS with accessible genuine standards, accounting for 98% of the oil content.Conclusion It seems that due to the antimicrobial properties of the extracts and essential oils observed in this study, they can be used as an alternative to antimicrobial drugs after more extensive studies.
Book
Plants are a fascinating group of plants that have been dominating the earth for 400 million years. During evolution, they have undergone series of evolutionary changes to suit themselves with the surrounding environment. These evolutionary changes not only included morphological changes to suit varied climatic conditions but also armed with intricate physiological changes to synchronize with the former and fortify better adaptability. These physiological changes of the plant later proved to be of immense help to the humans who evolved much later somewhere between 6 million to 2 million years ago. The physiological and biochemical evolution of the plants with the synchronous origin of various taxa resulted in the formation of numerous biochemical pathways producing a large number of secondary metabolites whose one primary aim is to protect the plants from herbivores and insect which in the due course of evolution became an integral part of the food chain. However, the secondary metabolites also proved to be of immense use to humans since antiquity who unknowingly since prehistoric times used plants for their food and medicine. It is only in the past hundred years or so, people became aware of the chemical constituent of the plants and started exploring their various beneficial properties. The agricultural activities also coevolved with human civilization and with the increase in population, higher yield along with protection of crops from pathogen attack became a necessity. This lead to the formulation of fertilizers which consequently paved the way for biofertilizers with a fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. With the advent of industrialization the menace of pollution cropped up and presently this pollution is encroaching soil water and air. This is having a deleterious effect on the ecosystem concerning human and animal health and also agricultural productivity. Thus keeping this in mind the scientific community was determined to remediate the polluted sites with the help of biological agents in which the plants and microbes played an important role. This provided major protection to agriculture from contamination thereby sustaining productivity. Thus, an attempt is made to highlight the progress and advances in the field of agriculture and plant science. Thus A handbook of Agricultural and Plant Sciences is an attempt to compile information related to the field of agriculture and plant science. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into three sections namely agriculture and sustainable development, plants and microbes as nutraceutical agents, and medicinal potential of plants. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with various aspects through which crops can be fortified through bio fertilization and also decontamination of polluted lands. The world population is presently stressing upon consumption of foods from natural sources as consumption of fast food with artificial agents is leading to the onset of several diseases. This has led to a group of foods that confers nutrition as well as a medicinal benefit at the same time. They are presently termed and considered nutraceuticals. The second section of the book deals with the nutraceutical potential of plants and microbes which are symbiotically associated with plants. The third section is also related to the second one concerning the medicinal importance. This section encompasses the medicinal importance of plants. Plants as antiviral agents have been accommodated because of the current pandemic situation. The section also contains a chapter on the ant diabetic potential of plants and also the medicinal importance of gymnosperms and bioactive potentials of bryophytes which adds up to the variation in chapters focusing on the medicinal aspect. The book is also accompanied by several tables within each chapter which gives a clear and systematic description of the theme that is discussed upon. The book is an academic venture and would benefit the scientific community and readers who are interested in the field of plant sciences.
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Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is proposed as a method for " green " extraction of edible essential oils extensively used in the fragrance, flavour, and pharmaceutical industries and also in aromatherapy. It is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was extracted with SFME at atmospheric pressure and 373 K for 30 min. The extracted compounds were removed from the aqueous extract by simple decantation, identified by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation (HD) of basil was performed with 400 ml of water for 4.5 h for comparison of the results with those provided by the proposed method. SFME method offers important advantages over HD, viz. shorter extraction times (30 min vs. 4.5 h); better yields (0.13 % vs. 0.11 %); environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing HD than that required for rapid SFME), cleaner features (as no residue generation and no water or solvent used); and provides a more valuable essential oil. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of edible essential oils from aromatic plants used in aromatherapy and food industry.
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Many plants are essential in human health care, both in self-medication and in national services. India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. A number of medicinal plants are used as rejuvenators as well as for treating various disease conditions. Cedrus deodara, the common cedar is an important plant belonging to the family pinaceae. C. deodara has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. This review summarized the plant characteristics with chemical composition and their pharmacological activities. This is the first article reported in this review form about C. Deodar which is benefits for science students who involved in modern health concept. INTRODUCTION: Nature always stands as a golden mark to exemplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. The plants are indispensible to man for his life. Nature has provided a complete store-house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. Major part of our world population utilized plant medicines either in part or entirely. Growing numbers of health care consumers are turning to plant medicines for many reasons-low cost and seeking natural alternatives with fewer side effects are commonly cited.
Chapter
Different methods of essential oil extraction are briefly described and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Trends in essential oil publications show that interest in essential oil research has risen markedly over the last twenty years. Publications on essential oil extraction methods show that environmentally friendly methods such as 'green technologies' developed recently such as supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and solid-phase microextraction are gaining in use. However, the simple and cost-effective method of hydrodistillation remains the primary, most used isolation method. Standards for essential oil production and quality control are briefly addressed. Some recent uses of essential oils in food preservation, as feed supplements, and as potential anticancer agents are described.
Article
It was found that the less intense Ion peaks of the mass spectra of lower terpenes can play an important role in distinguishing compounds that have similar mass spectra. Two computer programs were developed that generate, from combined gas chromatographic-mass spectra data, F-1 weights (ANOVA) of mass ion peaks between 41 and 300. The library program FIXLIB contains mass spectral and retention data from known mono-and sesquiterpenes, as well as some phenyl propanoid ethers, which are then used for identification of unknowns. The identification program GETID allows rapid comparison of mass spectra and retentions of compounds that fall within specified retention windows. Weighted similarity ratios are calculated which establish the relative similarities of an unknown with the reference compounds falling into a given retention window. An absolute similarity is then calculated for the unknown and that reference compound which has the closest fit, which provides the measure of confidence for the identification. The method was applied to the identification of lower terpenes and phenylpro-panoid ethers found in the volatile leaf oils of three true fir and three juniper species, as well as two Douglas-fir varieties. All compounds of previously known identity were correctly identified by the GETID program.
Article
Chromatographic fractions of Himalayan cedarwood oil (Cedrus deodara) were bioassayed against the pulse beetle (Callosobruchus analis F.) and the housefly (Musca domestica L.). Almost all fractions showed insecticidal activity against both test species. Fractions I and V led to the highest mortality and also produced a quick knockdown effect. Fractions I and V, after rechromatography and purification, yielded himachalol (3%) and β-himachalene (31%), based on essential oil weight, respectively. Further evaluation of these two naturally occurring sesquiterpenes indicated 97.5% mortality at 0.56 μmol/insect against the pulse beetle. These biologically active natural products of plant origin may serve as a suitable prototypes for development of commercial insecticides.