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Medical Unmanned Aerial System for Organ Transplant Delivery

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Abstract and Figures

A medical unmanned aerial system is designed to deliver medical supply and payloads to and from different points in controlled airspace. This investigation into service development focused on a two-stage model of research and development. The service consists of two stages of inquiry: medical supplies and lab sample delivery, and then transplant organ and bulk tissue delivery. Constraints for safe use, privacy and data security figure heavily in the constraints used to define the service. The system adds value to other autonomous transportation systems and saves lives. The findings suggest that the resource is underutilized and requires further research and development.
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Organ Delivery Drone
Medical Unmanned Aerial System for
Organ Transplant Delivery
Joseph Phillips
California University of Pennsylvania
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Organ Delivery Drone
Abstract
A medical unmanned aerial system is designed to deliver medical supply and payloads to and from
different points in controlled airspace. This investigation into service development focused on a two-stage
model of research and development. The service consists of two stages of inquiry: medical supplies and
lab sample delivery, and then transplant organ and bulk tissue delivery. Constraints for safe use, privacy
and data security figure heavily in the constraints used to define the service. The system adds value to
other autonomous transportation systems and saves lives. The findings suggest that the resource is
underutilized and requires further research and development.
Keywords: Drone, transportation, autonomous, organ transplant, medical, multimodal, logistics
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Organ Delivery Drone
Body
Introduction
This began as an exploration of a learning tool called an unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly referred to as a
drone, and usually refers to a rotorcraft with anywhere between three and eight motors arranged in a circle around a flight
controller. However, an unmanned aerial vehicle can also be a fixed wing craft that looks like an airplane, or one with a
horizontal and a vertical propeller and like a helicopter, or a hybrid design of various shapes using propellers and/or
turbojets to create thrust and lift. An unmanned aerial system (UAS) captures the aircraft and peripheral equipment used
to control and command the aircraft, interact with its internal and external sensors, and communicate with other things in
the environment which can retrieve, use, and transmit useful data. The drone is part of an industrial automation system
much as a LIDAR sensor is part of a self-driving car, or a piezoelectric actuator is part of a quality control system used in
a manufacturing process (Ihn & Chang, 2004).
Because of the ubiquity of telepresence to be found in cell phones, smart devices and infrastructure
equipment, the drone has attractive connectivity options in a 3D space which is regulated to preserve the safe
flight in environments inundated with a mix of data transfer technology (Cooley, Wolf, & Borowczak, 2018)
(Piggin, 2013) (Jha, Chandy, Rathore, & Srivastava, 2012).
The National Airspace Structure has provided UAS pilots and clients with a general-purpose flying space
called “G space”. For recreational and commercial pilots it is recommended that one registers the drone under 55
lbs., fly within visual line-of-sight, don’t fly around people or other aircraft, do not fly close to airports, and only
fly between the hours of daybreak and civil twilight at or below 400 foot (FAA, 2018) to minimize risk to craft
and persons. A hobbyist can obtain a commercial certification called a part 107 knowledge test and is no more
difficult than obtaining an amateur radio operator license.
Description of autonomous system standard
Autonomous systems work when people do not want to, where the environment is too harsh for humans
to endure, and with a degree of expected precision (Perritt & Plawinski, 2016) (Perritt & Plawinski, 2016) that
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Organ Delivery Drone
allows for the sustainable production of more complex systems, with each accurate measurement building on
others. Not only can these systems be simulated using stress analysis for heat transfer, shear forces and
weathering, but the use of artificial intelligence algorithms and feedback structures evolve designs towards
outcomes which align with the intended function, but with an efficiency which requires less material production.
Ruggedized equipment used in remote sensing for avionics keep airplanes in the air even in the event of engine
failure, and although their redundancy might add to the weight of the craft and its volume of energy consumption,
it is this use of electromechanical fail safes which allow the pilot to maintain adequate control of a craft in an
emergency.
In the case of drones and automobiles, semi-autonomous function is an effort between the driver, the
vehicle, and the infrastructure to optimize safe, sustainable traffic flow. Just like Falcon 9s landing on Of Course I
Still Love You operates like a five-axis CNC miller, but in the water (Clark S. , n.d.). Simulation models allow
students and professionals to see this profound application of error optimization that is difficult or impossible to
achieve with human senses and human brains alone. Likewise, a drone can call an autonomous vehicle can call a
passing airplane far overhead, a satellite, an antenna array or a fleet of delivery vehicles to share and maintain
optimal positioning and egress in different environments. The Unmanned Aerial System Integration Pilot Program
is one organization which wanted to mature the tech in the air, just like VOLPE brings together companies able to
overcome challenges in terrestrial traffic management. It can be said that an advanced robotic system is capable of
unsupervised learning, and self-repair, which is one of the highest functions of artificial intelligence. The drone,
as a learning tool, can contribute to this milieu of autonomy that holds promise for more distributed forms of
commerce, resource management and development. Error correction, like a 737-autopilot system that uses Pitot
probes, ailerons and a rudder to maintain a flight line despite turbulence, is optimized through use of artificial
intelligence to aid, but not remove total control from, an operator’s decisions. Geofencing is a term which applies
to the use of parameters in drone routing, so the drone, despite wind, passing birds or balloons, can break routine,
assess and alert a PIC for verification, and continue operating as expected. There many strategies for achieving
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repeatable optimized flight lines, such as Kalmar filters, SLAM, MCMC feedback and routing systems such as
those featured in automobile navigation systems. AI is an error correction system.
Description of problem
Lab samples and human organ transportation are non-billable healthcare costs. If it I not directly
interacting with a patient or a caregiver, it is not billable, and the cost must be absorbed by the facility or the
business that runs it, just like any other environmental or transportation support system used to get the data
needed to make palliative care decisions. Cleaning, maintenance of equipment and structure, and transportation
are costs that limit healthcare options. Drones grow places to transport samples and pilots. They grow business,
but without the costs associated with the carbon cycle created to maintain vehicles, production and warehousing
(Stolaroff,et al, 2015), especially for short BVLOS operations. Because these route histories are built and kept in
databases, they inform training and reuse of the technology. They are retrievable, and, as a form of intellectual
property, useful for commercial applications, such as partnerships with labs, cleaning supplies, investment groups,
or manufacturers. A sixth grader with a flying AED could save someone on the other side of a canyon or a
flooded river, but why not teach responders with medical or disaster training to do it? One way to reverse the
steady diminishing of our rescue/response networks is to put the tool into the system where it works best: in
firehouses, police departments and ambulance dispatch centers. As such, it can be considered a utility to draw
small biomedical business and generate tax revenue while it takes the burden off road maintenance.
According to market analysis presented later in this paper, the biggest market for organ transplant is the
kidney. It is robust, redundant, easy to transplant, and easy to procure. Despite our best efforts, almost two dozen
people a day die because they lack a life-saving organ transplant. The source of most of our organs come from
automobile accidents. While collision-avoidance technology reduces the supply line, it is doing what it is intended
to do., which is to save lives and associated infrastructure costs. Drones can help organ procurement while
terrestrial transportation becomes safer. They can cover distances faster than cars and, because they do not freeze
in the belly of aircraft, arrive intact more often, and lower the cost of environmental controls in airports and
people-operated vehicles. Closing the distance and removing the contamination risk from airports and aircraft is a
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Organ Delivery Drone
bonus. The service is designed to exist until lab-grown organs and tissues become more feasible. As such,
partnering with military groups that use bioglass and issue transport to help disaster and casualty areas produce
better outcomes for the reattachment and growth of human limbs, and for procuring and transporting human
organs to recipients. One person can save many lives with this service.
Security vulnerability in SCADA and ICS
The drone is carrying the payload but avoiding hackers and vulnerable systems. It uses strategically
encrypted aggregate networks, such as when it strays too close to a power plant and a scrambler geofences the
drone with a wall of signal noise or an explicit command to retreat to a safer distance. That keeps the drone out of
the RTUs that alter and record sensor response, communication or machine controls (Jamali & Fotohi, 2016)
(Jamali & Fotohi, 2016). Ad-hoc networks, mesh, IoT, VPN, V2V, V2X are some terms that describe the
connection that high functioning GUIs, control mechanisms and assembly language share in a system, but because
of the wild proliferation of open-source software and floods of cheap electronics into the market, a quality control
system must arrive before the risk of failure for the entire industry. Drones can communicate by satellite, by
Bluetooth, Z-wave and Zigbee, through radio, sound, or feature extraction using visual odometry. Data can be
broadcasted to unlimited viewership and streamed to social media platforms. While the drone is flying empty, its
cameras and sensors could be used by entertainment groups, sporting events, construction and infrastructure
groups to extract mapped and atmospheric data from the drone, at exactly the time and place it needs to happen,
repeatedly.
The problem with a distributive communication, intelligence, or control system is that it tends to prize its
own cleverness because it worked twenty years ago when the idea that someone could hack into a washing
machine and use it to control a feed assembly in another building was unthinkable, that is, until the Internet of
Things, aided by new advances in wireless communication, mesh and edge computing systems, and
interoperability available through software designed to use native language applications within nested programs.
A control loop could be placed more easily within a system that simply uses its logical layer of bistables. It can be
put on timers and given counters, so PLCS, as recently demonstrated by Siemens, can suddenly become a vector
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Organ Delivery Drone
for malicious hacking, for espionage, or for mischief and unproductive outcomes. Some of the ways one could
block unwanted communication from unauthorized drones within a “nearby” state of auctioned signaling is to
identify all connections to a SCADA, disconnect unnecessary ones, perform an audit or hire a white hat group for
a penetration test, use and evaluate the security measures recommended by the manufacturers, establish strong
backdoors, clearly define the roles and expectations of a security officer and regularly educate and drill staff on
vuls, document the process, review it, improve it, and create management policy which will capture emergent
technological challenges. The easiest way to do this is through is through disaster planning. People can be
observed under maximal threat and recovery scenarios. From performance, communication, creativity, reliance
and focus, a recovery team can be honed to handle challenges it has never faced. The essential OODA loop
becomes a form of distributed intelligence, for example, when it becomes essential that large and complex
industrial plants have semi-autonomous staff in control of departments or teams and can be trusted to OODA
(Observe, Orient to the threat, decide what to do about, and Act) their way through a problem. Then make the
lesson part of the security of the business.
Network options, like redundant power cabinets on warships, or extra ECSs and motors wired onto a
drone are redundancies that act like rated fire doors and can provide enough time to hot swap a component before
it is overtaken by Trojans and DDOS attacks. Check ethernet, optic, telephony, radio, z-wave, ZigBee, infrared,
radio, passive acoustic surface, cellular, WIFI, microwave, ELF and other forms of communication that might be
shifting the bit registers or building a signal over time, slowly winding its way through a decision tree, and so, it is
important to anticipate post-quantum systems by leveraging security today using tests of awareness and response
(Teixeira, et al., 2018).
Using AI to build or destroy a manufacturing process
A Markov chain can be used in an evolutionary circuit design to optimize repair efforts in an electronics plant.
This influences resource allocation and economics within the market (Jónás, Kalló, & Tóth, 2014). The math is someone
easy to understand even if the equations appear difficult because decisions are usually binary, and seldom are there
maybes in process control, but with angstrom-level measurement systems, fuzzy logic operating at femtosecond laser
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Organ Delivery Drone
pulses, 5G wireless speeds, older systems will simply be enveloped and processed as part of global within a
programming structure that can process more types than the authors originally thought possible, possibly through
modeling its parametric, deterministic queuing or buffering systems presented in its literature, expressed in its slowing
and speeding of lines, and changes in expected arrival times can be understood, and then exploited using stochastic
processes that can change the FIFO sequences of deterministic systems, like transposition inversions of genetic code,
the results arrive, but not in the order which can be readily perceived by standard measure (Alfaro, Vargas, Fuertes, &
Sepúlveda-Rojas, 2018). These time structures, which can be likened to floquet crystals, take time to evolve to engage
perceptrons in a system of sensors and functional measurement techniques limited by hardware, operating capacity,
and tolerance to error. Much of it comes down to timing and physical limits within the hardware, or, in the case of
complex human workflow, the strategies of hospital design and performance evaluation (Fanti, Mangini, Dotoli, &
Ukovich, 2013) or when designing computational models based on biomimetics of the brain (Srivastava, Tripathi, &
Pathak, 2015). As humans move into smaller and smaller measurable spaces, and faster measurable speeds of
predictable motion, the complexity of the issue can become a bit noisy (Srivastava, Tripathi, & Pathak, 2015). It is
important to realize that most unfeasible attacks will not happen more often than feasible attacks will happen often,
but it is when systems used by different countries using different rules of bandwidth broadcasting interact that weird
effects can occur. Countries should work together on international standards of broadcasting and communication
fidelity. Cybernetics moves industry towards global cooperation. That is why using a learning tool to save lives works for
everyone.
Cheap supply from unverified sources
Because drones are cheap to build and easy to repair, they are ideal candidates for modeling autonomous
behavior, and they avoid costs associated with carbon-heavy industry such as automobile and ship building, but all
vehicles need to be tested to achieve standards that can allow companies to grow market share and enrichment. At the
same time, a flood of cheap electronics and open-source software creates a need to shut the door on unverified craft in an
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area, and it is not always easy to get the certifications for performance of all parts on a drone (Afman, et al., 2018)
(Apvrille, Li, & Roudier, 2016) (Pajic, et al., 2017) from someone building something nice in a garage. There is a risk to
infrastructure and access that is the price drone companies must face to maintain standards that allow for innovative
advances that can reach wider markets and applications to occur apace with advances in other forms of autonomous
transportation advances in the age of AI.
Description of patchwork
The medical unmanned aerial system operates in a set delivery area, to handle capacity, and to limit its growth in
other geographic areas with challenges unique to its population, resources, and regulatory histories. The service area is
optimized so that the company can generate a profit if it is not a utility, in which case it provides revenue instead, and
cashflow maintains infrastructure. One can design a system of LZs in parks across the country for emergency launch and
landings from a designated area, but municipalities have rules as to how a drone is classified, and to what local groups it
needs to report, and how permits are acquired. These groups have different levels of understanding and perceptions of
what drones are and what they can and cannot do. This requires different levels of training and marketability of local
groups to acquire the drone.
Rather than a top-down management system integration, the growth of the local drone market must compete with
other funding projects and histories. People matter, especially when they learn to use the drones to deliver life-saving
supplies in areas inaccessible by any other means. The idea of a park ranger, or a ‘drone ranger’ has a wholesome appeal
which cannot be overlooked. Within a community, a drone park gives people back to the outdoors, where people can meet
and engage in recreation, arts, and cultural exchanges. Drones, for example, are excellent tools for tracking long-distance
mountain bike and ultrarunning events and cut costs of maintaining aid stations and lessen the impact on wilderness areas.
As an extension of our visual system, a drone can bring perspective to our environments and their varied biological,
geographical and cultural signatures.
Description of constraints
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Organ Delivery Drone
As described earlier, the drone needs credentialing in order to operate in the NAS. A certified pilot can handle a
drone with under 55 lbs. aloft. This includes the craft itself, its fuel source, its payload of control surfaces, electronics,
wiring, parachutes, crush zones, motors, estimable speed controllers, propellers, sensors, chassis, fasteners, gimbals,
landing gear, data transfer units, antenna, signaling equipment, scouting tokens or other contingency devices, and its
package.
The business structure will grow from a small team assembled to design and test drones, build routes, and market
the services within the service area. It aims to achieve ISO:9001 small business certification and will work with NASA to
seek consultants who can help delivery occur with both rapidity and accuracy. The step-up from small and local too large
and regional deployment poses a challenge that are currently being pursued by groups such as ANSI, UASS IPP, UASSC
and others. The reporting from the research project will inform other companies who make the jump and help develop
SOP for the next generation of UAS businesses (Hayhurst, Maddalon, Neogi, & Vertstynen, 2016) that carry live organs
overseas and across national borders (Baker, et al., 2013)
All parts of the drone should be certified from the manufacturer to operate as expected. The drone should fly
within its prescribed route with a low tolerance for error in positioning. It should be able to interact with PICs, local
enforcement groups, medical and pilot staff, and clients with cell phones, controllers, ATC, radio another beacons, and
clients using infrastructure such as traffic lights, antenna, transponders, visual guides like LEDs or QR codes using feature
extraction or histogram intensities, and navigational equipment of higher-risk vehicles if needed. Drones should be able to
be recruited for efficient rescue/response when needed, and be neutralized if they pose a risk by flying where they should
not be.
The software should interact with RTOS at a ground station so monitoring happens at useful intervals. While the
data acquired may be sparse and lightweight, it is possible to use it for interpolation for known values, or extrapolated for
unknown data given to GIS systems that can quickly parse the data for building blobs, object classes and features, and
create a permanent record of flight in a dynamic environment. A ground station connected to a NASA Remote Sensor
Launch Kit will allow the drone operator to access a trove of data coming from LOE satellite arrays and sensors on the
ground such as portable weather stations. The way forward is interoperability, just as a SLAM algorithm can fuse sensor
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data for a desired behavioral response (ROSAP, 2014), the flight control is distributable into a vast, active intelligent
network of users and devices, something that VOLPE considers a significant challenge (VOLPE, n.d.)
Communication should happen at certain bandwidths and not interfere with other broadcast channels. Auctioned
signals should not cause damage to the craft, its package, or to other nodes in an area. The drone should quickly respond
to an unplanned geofence and either land immediately or move to a best option, but also maintain a beacon for tracking.
At any time, the FAA should know where the drone is and why it is there. This requires for a clearly defined system of
communication and signaling to occur between drones, users, and passive systems like lights, sounds, images or other
sensor inputs that have predictable effect on a drone.
Staff should follow a code of conduct which reflects the need to operate professionally. Staff should not operate
equipment while intoxicated, nor should they deviate from schedules and routes for personal reasons or from unauthorized
subcontracting. If classified as a medical transport utility, the drone should carry the signaling system used by the
municipal authority. If privately operated, the drone should follow rules concerning OSHA, HIPAA, and FERPA laws just
like subsidized operators. While proprietary in nature, the system that a private company uses to maintain these regulatory
standards demonstrated in inspection and audit of credentialing, performance, operation and infrastructure support.
A drone should be powered down when not in use, inspected before every flight, and data logged redundantly. Its
body should be checked for structural and fire damage. Its electronics should be run through a bench test at start up to
test control surfaces, payload, command and control, motors and other components. If it is operating beyond the line of
sight (BVLOS), then additional checks and accompanying waivers should be filed in advance for approval. These
additional costs are a burden on the subcontracted pilot and his/her company, but not the area in which it operates. When
disposing of batteries, electronics or toxic materials, effective hazard communication should be available for instruction.
Personal protective equipment should be worn when packing and unpacking living biological tissues. All chemicals and
volatile materials used in operations should have safety data sheets organized, updated and accessible to operators and
clients. Inspection of production and operational facilities should be prepared for inspection from fire marshals,
department of health inspection and both internal and external auditing procedures. A continuous improvement plan
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should reflect a quality management system which can be prioritized to minimize risk, grow clients, cut costs and save
lives.
Pilots and nurses should be certified to handle risks in their area, and efforts maintained to only share information
on a need-to-know basis. The nurse does not need to know the stator count on a low kV motor any more than a
subcontracted pilot needs to know the name of the organ donor who made his or her job possible. The line between
medical and pilot data is communicated so that the staff have the information they need to do their own job, and
administration of services should reflect this privacy policy in recordkeeping, in servicing and communication.
Violations such as divulging protected information on social media is grounds for termination, and possibly criminal
charges if used for espionage, defamation or blackmail. Passwords and security measures should be audited by
cybersecurity white hat penetration tests for quality control when feasible. This reduces risk.
A medical supply transport should be clean, and any cooling, pressurization, heating or other circulatory systems
checked for both performance standards, and for sanitation. A cracked transport tube like one used in a bank’s pneumatic
tube could contain tiny cracks that could easily contain or allow contamination from MRSA or giardia. This is a hazard
not only to the staff in medical and airport facilities, but also to the technicians and clients who will routinely handle the
packages. The device should be routinely disassembled for inspection and cleaning. With the growing need for frangible
drones that operate close to airplanes at mid-sized and large airports, it is important to have drones that can come apart for
inspection, shock absorption, and repair. Cars can deform around a driver and deploy airbags in an accident. Drones
should be able to do that, too. The medical drone model will have plenty of opportunity to crash while it carries medical
supplies. This lowers risk associated with lab samples, and then human organs. Crashes inform design and testing, which
in turn has a real effect on client usage and supply chain. The key word is testing. Without analysis, without seeing what
numbers shake out of a misbehaving drone, it is impossible to create a useful contingency plan.
In urban settings, it might even be useful if a hospital or medical network using pneumatic tubing to move blood
across town between hospitals and clinics occasionally opt in for drones if their system is compromised by construction
projects, accidental damage, earthquakes, floods, or other natural events which could cause BBPS and airborne pathogens
to enter medical, civilian, industrial, or military facilities and create a decontamination cost. The cleaning techniques used
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to clean tunes cannot carry over to decontamination of all avionics, but biomedical equipment used in hospital operating
rooms use germicidal materials, sheaths, heat, UV rays, and cleaning regiments designed to reach optimal sterile
conditions, but they cannot always get everything. The drone is a contingency plan for a sick building. It keeps the stuff
out of the building and away from infrastructure buried underground.
To connect the service areas, the second stage of production will include a larger risk class carrier that can deploy
an entire drone with its package in a service area. The design of the second stage for interstate travel is a research project
within this drone service. The fixed wing hybrid uses a propeller and turbo engines to navigate under the weather and has
an airtight, pressurized, temperature-controlled cargo with a plug and a pressure valve that act as a sleep timer switch for
the drone when connected. It maintains the batteries of the cargo drone. When the package drone is released, the plug
detaches, and this sleep switch is disconnected. This quickly allows for a barometric pressure check, velocity sensor check
and gyroscopic check to arm and power the motors while the rototrcraft descends to 400 foot, where it can establish a
reference point upon a map and accept coordinates for landing. This route can also be automated with testing which
occurs once throughput allows for stage two production and another round of marketing.
The 27’ wide, 15’ft long craft has a primary wing, canards and twin rudders and is built to emulate
already successful drone designs such as the Raptor or Predator surveillance drones, but uses updated mathematical
models for state estimation and simulation modeling (Light, Clark, Elliott, Fisher, & Galanti, 1972) (Light, Clark, Elliott,
Fisher, & Galanti, 1972). Air intake travels an impeller through and underside intake and is jettisoned behind it into the
prop wash or from two small cylindrical jets affixed to the forward part of the wings to the central spar in the body. It
flies at low altitude and drops an organ drone with its package inside. The drone then completes the delivery, establishes
contact with local ATC, and with the larger, heavier fixed-wing drone that is en-route to a landing zone. The smaller
drone can navigate the short distance to the ground with a standard payload one it has entered a VPN or other secure
network for rapid communication and positioning. When the drone finishes, it is recovered and shipped back to its
service area without a power supply. The power supply ships separately or is used on the standard smaller risk class
drone. The fixed-wing UAV returns to a towerless airstrip where it can land significantly lighter than its takeoff weight
and require less runway to brake and stop. The rear-facing propeller does not interfere with a nose down landing if the
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landing gear breaks away and it must belly down in a field or on an airstrip because of high winds. Research into
dielectric barrier discharge actuators to reduce crosswind is part of the research involved in this system and by rights
could become a standalone business. Boundary recovery is applicable for fusion generators, the building of giant
skyscrapers that stand in high steady winds and oscillate, or other systems which suffer from catastrophic vortex
shedding.
Recovery of the drone in the event of a catastrophic failure to power and control the craft is an emerging field and
research will go into more effective landing gear, crush zones, thrusters using entropic or combustible gas, or mechanical
alterations that compensate for dead spins and solid drops. include a barometric pressure sensor which deploys a
parachute and/or an explosive .22 charge from hollow arm which extends a failed motor arm and rotates it. This switches
the control of the motor from a low kV ESC to a higher one, which will cause the motor to rotate against the general
rotation of a drone with failed motors and give it thrust to power the drone forward as it descends with a stunt parachute
and eventually lands within a quarter mile of the initial drop point. Routes planned accordingly.
Description of Method of investigation
The model is a learning tool using a learning tool. The drone is an interzone of different technologies in a small
package and sits in the aesthetic design space occupied by terms such as robotics or mechatronics, but with propellers and
hovering capabilities. It is a useful tool for engineering students and grade school children who want something exciting
to pique their interest in the physics of flight, aerospace and aeronautics, and some of the top scientists and educators in
aerospace (Reed, Kimmel, Schneider, & Arnal, 1997) (Reed, Kimmel, Schneider, & Arnal, 1997)engage children in
design/build/fly projects aimed in the field, such as Dr. Helen Reed and her work designing the DragonSat and AggieSat
series that show that even children can operate space satellites
The backbone of the documentation and management of the business will come from direct implementation of
some standard approaches to ISO:9001 certification and experience from running directly from ISO 9001:2015 Small
Business Certification guide that consultation firms use to help companies achieve success and grow networks(Dawson
2015). It involves routine documentation, tests, analysis, and accurate reporting to gauge the success or failure of the
different components of the business. Deadlines and schedules, like large errors, occur in the beginning of the project,
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but after a few fits and starts, the business will reach a steady state of flow towards achieving objectives, and this puts
some of the onus of achievement upon marketing and will involve efforts at collaboration, partnerships, vertical and
horizontal market dynamics (Martin, 2012) which will help the industry mature and create standards in credentialing,
performance, operations, and infrastructure management. The medical drone market is meant to accelerate industry
integration and achieve standards with agile, iterative approaches to engineering and scientific inquiry (Martin, 2012)
(Martin, 2012) which appeals to .millennials and integrated approaches to tech savvy education (Mustafa, Ismail, Tasir,
& Said, 2016) will get kids interested in toys that make them curious about scientific discovery.
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Use Case
As mentioned before, the proposed start of the business is a service area that covers an urban, suburban and rural
area outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh is known for its high-tech enclaves, diverse demographics and small-
town feel despite being an industrial hub. Two dozen miles away from downtown it is essentially rural, and there, in
towns like Uniontown and Waynesburg, capable hospitals struggle for funding. Research into social media perception
through ultramarathon running stories and photography was used on social media platforms to expose outsiders to the
unique problems plaguing this part of the Rust Belt, especially around Brownsville, PA, once the gateway to the West and
industrial heart of the western frontier of America. It is here, among the hills and patchworks of old communities who
once forged the steel that built our nation, that the project should unfold in the form of a drone company that has the mass
appeal of being used to save money, and save lives.
Figure 1 Medical Drone Service area, map courtesy of Google Earth
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Location of service area
The service area stretches from Uniontown in the south, to the Chestnut Ridge of the Allegheny Plateau to the
northeast, and to Pittsburgh to the Northwest as seen in Figure 1. It has over two dozen airfields, and dozens more fire
departments, police departments, and parks from which training can begin. It has state prison for a dedicated no-fly zone,
rivers, canyons, and sensitive infrastructure. The area in Figure 1 is 1,686 square miles. Later, during a look into
PennDOT’s 2017 Highway Safety Data report on road fatalities, it can be shown that a more heterogeneous zoning
procedure can be created from dangerous roadways where people die often, usually from a combination of leaving the
lane and distracted driving. It was an investigation of road fatalities which uncovered the source of organ procurement
which can be grown from reaching troubled areas in rural communities (Pulver & Wei, 2018) where emergency medical
infrastructure and organ donation is not feasible by other means (Kristensen, Ahsan, Mehmood, & Ahmed, 2017),
(Anderson, 2015), (Roy, 2017) (Zipline's Ambitious Medical Drone Delivery in Africa, n.d.), (BhattKunj, PourmandAli,
& SikkaNeal, 2018), but no one is moving towards organ transport services, so it needs to be developed, just like the
adoption of weighted Voronois need to be adopted to map dispatch logistics to improve delivery productivity (Nan, 2017).
.
Future of local service area
Bioglass can be used to not only help patients who need a limb reattached, but it also can be used to regrow
skeletal structures from scaffolding. Bioglass turns into bone. In warring countries where IEDs cause injury and
permanent disfigurement, it is possible to use bioglass, bioprinting and advanced scanning technologies to map and
replace bone structure (Krishnan & Lakshmi, 2013), (Souza, et al., 2018), and it would be an asset to this project if
bioglass was also used as a structure to help drones absorb shock and survive impact with the ground, and cause less
damage to aircraft (Hafid, 2017). Hydrogels and bio composites have many attractive features for aerospace design that
would make UAS systems safer and cheaper while they saved lives and money (Yan, et al., 2018), possibly more useful
than fly ash-based geopolymers (Singh, 2018) for fireproofing the drone because of their lightweight and flexible
nanostructure. With the outstanding trauma centers and Pennsylvania’s history of medical innovation, there is
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infrastructure already prepared to utilize sustainable biomedical research and robotics infrastructure here in the
Monongahela Valley, and drones can help subsidize the sky-high costs of air ambulances, the cost of which has doubled
since 2010, and data for actual repayment are sketchy (Air Ambulance: Data Collection and Transparency Needed to
Enhance DOT Oversight , 2017),(Christensen, J. 2018).
Aerospace and Materials Engineering Research
After a successful development for organ transportation is implemented during stage two of the production cycle,
the development of a medical drone has significant advantages for testing cybernetic systems which could be used to
explore other worlds and moons . By cutting the distance between donors and recipients, and bypassing carbon-heavy
brick and mortar infrastructure such as airplanes, airports, and fleets of cars used to transport, the drone acts as an
extension of the pneumatic tube systems favored by labs and hospitals (Astles, D, B, Sedor, & Toffaletti, 1996), (Phelan,
et al., 2016) (Mullins & Bruns, 2017),(Stolaroff et al., 2015) to move lab supplies and tissue samples more safely, both in
terms of quality of specimens upon arrival, and by reducing costs of airborne exposure incidents and infection control
infrastructure. The drones take the cost out of those facilities that absorb the cost of facility engineering, education,
maintenance and planning that goes into keeping the place in which medical and commercial air travel work much safer,
and therefore, it translates into quality of life improvements for the general public.
Rescue and Response
The resources are already in place. The challenge comes in getting fire, police, and EMS involved in repairing
drones, because repairing technology fell out of vogue until self-repair laws have recently begun to take back from
monopolistic supply chains what small business and innovators gave to the world when soldiers returned from wars and,
unlike Romans returning to the field, they returned to the factories and shops and helped create the cultural explosion of
the latter part of the 20th century that the world embraced. People wanted American cars, they watched our movies, they
saw us go to the moon, they embraced the mythos of flight and exploration (Hersch, 2015) that holds us as a people today,
enthralled and committed to frontiers of experience and reinvention, and to change, perhaps, the negative perception that
military drones gave to 21st century technology (Horowitz & Fuhrmann, 2017).
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It starts with fixing what is broken, and the Monongahela Valley is a tech savvy community ready to take on
challenges, regardless of the perception of complexity of a tractor (Abbas, Mohammed, & Omer, 2011) or a smart phone
(EFF, 2018), people who know their tools want to fix them, and make them work better. Drones are a way to rebrand a
21st century technology that the military gave a bad rap because of difficult policy decisions in the Aughts. People need to
rethink drones as something other than a surveillance tool (Brunstetter & Jimenez-Bacardi, 2015).
Local Integration
Community-based testing of self-driving vehicles and telecommunication networks revive local economies
(Hendrickson, Biehler, & Mashayekh, 2014), and the work continues (Clark, Larco, & Mann, 2017) (Zhang,
Guhathakurta, & Khalil, 2018). In Figure 2, the map shows the high number of firehouses, hospitals and police
stations in the greater SE Pittsburgh area uncounted yet. Any of these can become a drone academy.
Figure 2 Dots are firehouses use case route spotlighted, map courtesy of Google Earth
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Description of the use case route: Local Airport to Hospital
The use case described in this paper is a delivery route established between Allegheny Airfield and
UPMC Children’s Hospital in Pittsburgh. It is approximately a 9.32-mile, or 8.099 nautical mile trip that can be
flown quickly without obstructed views (using a telescope) or a PIC. The elevation profile is pink area below the
profile as seen in Figure 3. Waypoints used to build the routes are in purple, to the right. The green line is the
straight path waived for all obstacles. This depiction is a crude rendition of what is available on the market.
Figure 3 Route and elevation profile, courtesy Google Earth
In addition to a good flight line, the route is tested for emergency landing spots, as mapped by green pins seen in
Figure 4 . These are LZs in parks, fields, and vacant lots close to roads for easy retrieval.
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Figure 4 Green pin LZs for emergencies, courtesy Google Earth
During a pre-processing route construction, the ground station builds a feature map of these items of interest to
the pilot. The graphic user interface shows the pilot places where a features or radio antenna can be placed for
multihop connectivity within a secure, ad-hoc network for real-time operating system command and control of the
drone as seen in Figure 5. This map is now ready to be used by the drone’s autonomous functions.
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Figure 5 Complete single route from airport to hospital, courtesy of Google Earth
Documentation of the flight is recorded in real-time and shared to an app used by the client. The Pittsburgh
downtown area and the airport to the west of town are too busy for safe drone traffic and would require waivers
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for safe operating procedures by an experienced pilot. Risks avoided are decisions with value.
Figure 6 Greater Pittsburgh area, courtesy Google Earth
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Just like commercial and hobby pilots, preparing for flight requires knowledge of the weather, flight conditions, and any
restrictions. There are many resources available through the FAA or commercial software products, and here, an
aeronautical chart is shown in Figure 7 to illustrate the features a drone pilot should understand before flying a route.
The blue line indicates an approaching area of turbulence. The map is interactive and an essential tool for flight planning
and navigation. In contact with local ATC, this map can be used to plot headings, velocity, and altitude for flying in very
busy around airports serving dense flight traffic patterns.
Figure 7 Pittsburgh (PIT) TAC, courtesy of Skyvector.com
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These maps provide real-time weather filters, represented crudely here in Figure 8.Notice to
Airmen (NOTAMs) are built from filters such as theses and active flight routes in progress, not shown.
Figure 8 Weather front, courtesy of Skyvector.com
.
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Figure 9 Graphic decoded METAR with wind vane, courtesy Aviationweather.gov
And the other tool featured here in a decoded graphical form in Figure 9 is a METAR (Lui, 2014), the routine
aviation weather report, which can be automatically sent to a ground station for populating a user interface and assist in
planning algorithms (NOAA) (About TAF (Terminal Area Forecast), n.d.) but there are many tools which can be used to
both read and decode aviation weather maps and reports , for all aircraft. A drone pilot is expected to not only be able to
understand these tools, but use them on a routine basis. Drones are a flight risk for large craft. They can interfere with
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navigational systems and cause collisions and structural damage. Not only illegal, but very dangerous flights are
geofenced from sensitive sites. All commercial drones need be registered, or they will be dropped from the sky and their
owners tracked down and prosecuted. The FAA safety record has, for 60 years, made flying the safest form of travel in the
US.
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Organ Statistics
To look at what cargo the medical drone will carry, one goes to current statistics provided by the compliance
organization for organ transplants, the Organ Procurement Transportation Network. OPTN is the government’s go-to
authority on safe transport, and local OPO compliance officer Julian Alexander not only helped the scope of this project,
he was also able to pinpoint concerns for containment constraints and general packaging, communication, and provide
graphic material which can quickly convey how fatalities are translating into different organ classes, as seen in figures
Figure 10 Current waiting list for transplant, courtesy of https://OPTN.gov/data
Organ donor type
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That’s over 34,000 organs per year as shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11 Organ donor type, courtesy UNOS.org
Figure 12 Transplant Stats from UNOS, courtesy of Unos.org
UNOS is a network of support specialists who find donors, recipients, resources, and help support groups share
stories and help others. Their people split the country into large multistate regions. Their focus is on finding ways for
people to get the transplants they need to survive from donors (Figure 12) and these figures support the fact a single
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donor can be a source for many transplant operations. In Figure 13, the breakdown of recipients by age bracket shows
an error. The kidney section is listed twice for some reason, so data checked at the National Kidney Foundation revealed
a possible clarification in illustrating that kidneys comprise the bulk of transplant work, with a little more than half of the
people who die every day for lack of a transplant organ do so while they wait for a viable kidney transplant, with 3,000
people added monthly in 2014, and 4,761 people dying, and another 3,668 becoming too sick to help (National Kidney
Foundation, n.d.), so kidneys are the best candidate for delivery based on both need and quality of transplant supply.
Kidneys last a long time in perfusion liquids, the hospital “slush” that keeps kidneys viable despite the slow degradation
from hypoxia which eventually renders organs unusable.
Finding pilots
Organ procurement groups could use a supply boost by about a factor of ten. In order to do that, drones need to
grow pilot networks and displace ground couriers who operate in small areas around hospitals and, because of operational
costs such as depreciation of vehicles, labor, and insurance, cannot afford to be in many rural areas lie a small electric
drone can. The savings on maintaining a vehicle and drivers would average out, especially since the price of fuel will
never go down, and subsidies for carbon-removal are incentivized by nearly every developed country in the word.
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Please note that the graphic has duplicated information. That is why the tally seems low for the variable
quantities listed above in Figure 13.
Figure 13 Transplant by age, courtesy of Transplant Pro
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Pilot and couriers
Following the strategy of metropolitan taxi token authorization, the FAA sees a virtual cap on the density of
drone traffic in the forecast. There will eventually be too many drones to fly safely in mixed airspace. It remains a
challenge to extend this timeline in Figure 14 and continue to use drones to help raise the number of pilots. Drones
serve as a good learning tool for people training or studying to become pilots.
According to the FAA, the growth in drone markets will increase by 2.4% annually over the next
twenty years, which is exceeding the national economic growth rate of 1.6%. The rise of business class fleets
account for the growth in jets. 32570 x 8230 x .10 = 26,80,5110. That is an enormous amount of money. It will
allow biomedical companies to capitalize on larger deliveries.
Figure 14 Pilot forecast, courtesy of FAA.gov
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Courier distribution
For couriers, data shows a high degree of displacement and savings by moving to a drone platform. The drone
has the advantage of growing networks in West Virginia. That alone pays for itself, as shown in Figure 15.
Figure 15 Courier stats in five major stats, courtesy of US Census Bureau
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Pilot distribution
But when we look at the pilot distribution, you see a different story in Figure 16 because this time, it is
the pilot who is underutilized in PA instead of the courier. A cost-effective solution is to replace a fleet of
couriers with a trained pilot. The cost of staffing an airport can translate into a lot of costs, so cost of operations,
carrying costs of routing, refueling, restocking, loading and unloading airplanes is a big challenge, and requires
well-paid staff, as indicated in Figure 17.
Figure 16 Pilot Distribution, courtesy US Census Bureau
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Figure 17 Occupational stats for air travel infrastructure, courtesy of Bureau of Labor Statistics
Data Pulled from Penn Dot’s 2017 Highway Safety Report
The following few pages of lime green charts show that fatalities in driving accidents in Pennsylvania primarily
happen to very old or very young drivers, from leaving the lane and from distracted driving. Most of the fatalities,
though, are from children being run over by cars. All this data from this section is pulled from the 2017 Highway Safety
Plan (Rowe, G. &Grey, G, 2017).
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Figure 18 Pedestrians Using Crosswalks, Courtesy of Penn Dot
The report shows in Figure 18 that pedestrian deaths continue to rise, and what is not shown is that
children are most often the one’s killed by motorists.
Figure19 Older people are becoming worse drivers, courtesy of Penn Dot
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Figure 19 shows that older drivers are continuing to drive worse. Figure 20 shows that
drowsy and distracted driving are not decreasing. One of the non-surprises from the
data was that beginner and elderly drivers are the worst drivers. One of the positive
trends not shown in this paper was the reduction in deaths that resulted from removing
items from roadside, items which cause fatalities. The removal of debris and unused
infrastructure items from the roadside contributed to safer roadways. It is expected that
distracted driving will increase the number of highway and roadside fatalities,
specifically from leaving the lane. In Figure 20, the trend is barely rising, but the
demographics of Pennsylvania is shifting numbers from the older groups to the younger
groups. This will cause young people who use their phones more often than the elderly
to increase the number of roadside fatalities. This is a challenge for automakers who
develop collision-avoidance and semi-autonomous control options to increase the
situational awareness of both the car and the driver.
Figure 19 Distracted and drowsy driving is also trending negatively, courtesy of Penn DoT
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Statistical Method of Penn Dot 2017 Highway Safety Report
Figure 20 Statistical model can also be applied to determining service areas and boundary conditions, courtesy of Penn DoT
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In Figure 21, this chart yields a Voronoi distribution that can be used to build a resource allocation plan
for drones. A sample of what one of these systems would look like is in Figure 22, This is a Voronoi
distribution from points of reception to determine shape of service vector. This map should replace the quaint
“triangle” presented in Figure 1. These optimized service areas could be thought of as session groups that come
from updated databases and let pilots know where they might be more likely to be called in to work to monitor
traffic or assist in autonomous vehicle monitoring and communication.
Closing Organ Transplant Statistics
The statistics in Figure 22 for the large percentage of kidneys as a use case option are again supported
by OPTN statistics. Kidneys make up more than half of the transplants, and, as mentioned before, more than
half of the people dying are waiting for a kidney or have become so sick that they can no longer have a
transplant. It is a primary goal of this medical UAS integration effort to go after the large issue, and use its
Figure 21 Voronoi Distribution, courtesy of PennDOT
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Organ Delivery Drone
small size as an ideal cargo for local, state, and interstate use cases using a drone. This can take the cost off
facilities and infrastructure spending, and it will reduce pollutants and traffic. Couriers on the ground can
allocate more resources for delivering biomedical equipment that, like fused SLAM sensors or multimodal
transportation infrastructure solutions, work better together, so this boosts supply demand for biomonitoring
equipment.
Figure 22 OPTN transplant statistics, courtesy of OPTN.gov
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Recommendations
Learn more about infection control for infrastructure involving airports and hospitals (Maclean, et al., 2015)
(Handschuh, O'Dwyer, & Adley, 2015) (Safety and Health Topics - Ergonomics - Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, n.d.), (Guidance on Personal Protective Equipment To Be Used by Healthcare Workers During
Management of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease in U.S. Hospitals, Including Procedures for Putting On (Donning)
and Removing (Doffing), n.d.) so biohazard risks can be minimized when using airport or hospital systems in the
business model. Add a BEA, 3-Year sales projection, cost list and design specs, including CADD assemblies with
dynamic atmospheric modelling using COMSOL 5.4 imaging systems.
Include more information about algorithms such as SLAM (Pathiranage, Watanabe, & Izumi, 2009)
customizable sensor fusion networks that can conform to aggregations of input and allow for appraisal of
unconventional set-ups, especially for use with LIDAR on MCUs using sparse encoding approaches in Python 3 and
other native language-friendly open source dynamic programming environments using Octave, Julia, Cuda, and other
dynamic system modelling software to explore solutions cheaply when planning schematics and hardware assembly.
Implement useful qualities of SLAM’s ability to simultaneously map and position a drone for visual odometry and
emergency landings with failed motors or hostile jamming events (Geng, Chien, Nicolescu, & Klette, 2016), (Sarvrood,
Hosseinyalamdary, & Gao, 2016) (An, Zhang, Gao, & Liu, 2017), (Ferrera, Moras, Trouvé-Peloux, & Creuze, 2018).
MCMC for linear manufacturing production optimization, and some sample flight initiatives for parks and rec funding
and access to fairs and cultural events by local artisans and cultural awareness groups. And finally, process the research
according to the guidelines put forward in the multimodal transportation (MTF) fund program according to 2017 or
later guidelines, through the Pennsylvania Department of Community & Economic Development. Use connections
through VOLPE’s Analytics and AI Research Initiative (VOLPE, 2018) at the DoT, and Dr. Helen Reed as advisors to
bridge the gap between national level transportation challenges and workshops where bright young mines may light the
way of future progress in UAS technology and distributive forms of communication and transport of material goods.
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Design Proposal
The design scope is going to focus on producing a 1200 mm frame octocopter with a Pixhawk flight controller
connected to an onboard Raspberry Pi A+ used for controlling cargo payload and an open source phone module used to
build a MANET, a mobile ad-hoc communication system. The flight controller functions as a pilot when the PIC needs
to focus on mission objectives and includes autonomous navigation and avoidance features. The Raspberry Pi
supplements telemetry, audio, video, LEDs, camera, cargo communication through I2C or Zigbee anything not related
to flight control apart from communication feeds and messaging from SMS systems, ATIS, apps and subscriber
systems. A system by-pass can be used to repress data transfers from when RTOS aboard he canister require onboard
mechanical activity and sparse data encoding. The flight controller publishes often, the Raspberry less often because its
UARTs do not need to control flight, and the cannister least of all because its peripherals need only to publish to a
remote app and/or medical database. An IoT management system called Azure, from Microsoft will collect and retain
data that could be more useful mirrored in a cloud rather than piling up in the control loops of a delivery drone. When
designing the cargo cannister, the requirements for ice-based perfusion will be built into the design, but will also include
the option for body-temperature systems using the same TEGs a switch in current polarity to determine whether to cool
or heat the circulating fluid enveloping the canister and absorbing nominal vibrations from the rotorcraft. The design
will build upon successful research and use case conducted in Maryland for organ transplant delivery over a three-mile
range ( (J. R. Scalea, 2018). It will also incorporate advances in warm body ex vivo perfusion techniques that will both
improve transplant outcomes and increase vectors for donors and recipients (Hamar & Selzner, 2018).
The second UAV for the project is a large box-wing hybrid slated for construction beginning six months to eight months
into the first stage of production. This large fixed-wing unmanned-optional aircraft will feature electric motors, laser-
charging, and an optional GPIM fuel package to replace the rear propeller with a massive thrust engine that can easily
hit Mach 3 after a 45-minute climb above the weather, and its waste product is steam. It will skip boost over the
atmosphere like a stone skipped on the water of a lake. This UAV has all sensors and controls in the rear of the craft.
The front nose houses air intake for passive air steering. DBD plates (Singhal, Castañeda, Webb, & Samimy, 2018)
(Zhou, Liu, Hu, Hu, & Meng, 2018) embedded in the lower wings to control crosswind effects during landing, take-off,
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Organ Delivery Drone
and when travelling through turbulent or stormy weather. Using NACA formulas, CFD simulation, and wind tunnels, a
small model can be tested before fabricating a lightweight model from lightweight strong alloys, carbon fiber, and
hydrogels that can be engineered to produce “smart” wings that automatically adjust to weather conditions (Rao, 2018) .
This technology is growing with the help of advances in 3D printing and imaging technology. Another application of
nanotechnology at work in aerospace manufacturing will be the use of pressure-sensitive paint that can deliver
information directly to control systems through the surfactants used to protect the aircraft from debris and weathering
(Gardner, et al., 2014). The plasma actuators create a body effect to reverse wing stall and can also be used to de-ice
wings when travelling into lower, warmer air creates ice problems on wings and sensors. GPIM is a “clean” fuel that
offers superior thrust without damage associated with thermal breakdown or harmful pollutants associated with JP-7 or
hydrazine fuels (Harbaugh, 2018). So, with less avionic wiring and moving parts, the craft can travel safely at a higher
rate of speed without building a giant heavy aircraft full of miles of wiring and parts that cause aerodynamic headaches
and unnecessary challenges. Smart paint, smart wings, and geofencing will make transonic and hypersonic organ
delivery feasible and reliable. The paint can be used to allow the pilot to remotely control COG on a craft mounted on a
pressure-sensitive launch point. Approach lights, identifying markers and QR codes can be modified to transmit
important data for quick loading and balancing of cargo within the larger UAV. The large UAV will be able to deploy
three 1200 mm frame drones during a NYC to LA flight using skip boosting, laser charging and a chain of pilots,
observers and medical personnel. Dispatch can be enhanced through weighted Voronoi spatial distribution, using the
local mapping found in Figure 21, but applied on a larger scale, as seen in seen in Figure 23, but with added Delaunay
triangulation, which is just the tangents between the intersecting spheres of space used to model the straight edges of the
mosaic. On return flights, the aircraft supplements municipal traffic systems much in the way local drones do, but on a
larger model (Barami & Merrefield, 2016). The prize is improving the number of deliveries, with more organs reaching
recipients, in less time, and reaching the supply demand that can create years-long wait times. Again, in Figure 24, as a
reminder, these three statistics need to direct medical organ transport UAS system development.
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Figure 23 World airport Voronoi interactive map, courtesy of JasonDavies.com
On return flights, the aircraft supplements municipal traffic systems much in the way local drones do, but on a larger
model (Barami & Merrefield, 2016)
Figure 24 Facts about organ transplant to remember, courtesy of unos.org
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Conclusion
Drones are coming, and they will help reduce carbon costs. By saving lives, taking the load off infrastructure, it
should be subsidized as a DoT infrastructure improvement and pair with Department of Education and NASEM to
develop disruptive technologies sooner. Drones can go where other vehicles cannot, and are indispensable tools for
growing multimodal forms of transportation solutions in the age of artificial intelligence and AI analysis. With this new
territory comes an integration challenge. The organ transplant transport UAS can simultaneously lower non-billable
service costs, expedite transport with lower infrastructure costs, is easier to build and maintain than cars and airplanes,
and reach areas that other forms of transportation cannot. A medical drone helps stimulate local and regional economies,
and save lives. The arrival at standards worthy of an ISO:9001 stamp is merely a milestone, because drones will
continue to serve as a valuable tool of scientific investigation, engineering creativity and exploration of our natural
world. The integration of drones into specific national airspace These tools can be used to create a better quality of life
standard for future generations and save lives, and drones can do this with more community support.
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Silica aerogels with high elasticity and superhydrophobicity have several scientific and technological applications such as in multidisciplinary subjects dealing with liquid/solid interfacial energies, long-range attractive interactions, frictionless flow of liquids through nano and microchannels, pipes, and storage of mechanical energy. In addition, the aerogels are being used as light weight super thermal, acoustic and electrical insulating materials especially in microelectronics, aeronautics, Space, in high-energy physics; as bandages for leaks in oil supply pipes, and underwater pressure sensitive devices. The present paper describes the preparation, physicochemical properties along with applications of elastic superhydrophobic silica aerogels with a water contact angle as high as 175o and Young’s modulus as low as 3 × 10⁴ N/m² with one of the highest reverse compressibility of around 60% known for any solid state material. The Young’s modulus is measured by uniaxial compression. The water droplets placed on surfaces coated with the superhydrophobic aerogel powder at 55° of angle of inclination showed velocities as high as 1.44 m s⁻¹ (free fall velocity ≈ 1.5 m s⁻¹). Water intrusion into the superhydrophobic aerogels at pressures greater than the Laplace pressure exhibited hysteresis resulting in the storage of water in the aerogels, and indicating the sizes of the pores. It has been shown that the elastic superhydrophobic aerogels are very efficient adsorbents of oil and organic compounds and hence useful for oil-spill clean-up applications, in addition to their potential use as laser induced X-ray and plasma emission sources. Moreover, the recent developments in the field of aerogels have shown a great potential for the combination of ambient pressure drying and a low-cost inorganic, and easily available precursor such as sodium silicate, which is also called as water–glass, for the production of hydrophobic silica aerogels on a large industrial scale for commercial applications. The properties of such aerogels are comparable to those obtained by the conventional supercritical drying methods. So far, only powders and translucent and transparent grains of sizes 2–4 mm, are being produced. The experimental results on the preparation and properties along with various applications of elastic superhydrophobic and sodium silicate-based silica aerogels, are presented in this paper. Several sol–gel and drying parameters affecting the quality of the aerogels, in terms of low-density (<0.05 g/cm³), high-optical transmission (> 90% in the visible range), are also presented and discussed.
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The present work presents and discusses the results of a comprehensive study on the bioactive properties of Nb-substituted silicate glass derived from 45S5 bioglass. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. We undertook three different types of in vitro analyses: (i) investigation of the kinetics of chemical reactivity and the bioactivity of Nb-substituted glass in simulated body fluid (SBF) by 31P MASNMR spectroscopy, (ii) determination of ionic leaching profiles in buffered solution by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and (iii) assessment of the compatibility and osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) treated with dissolution products of different compositions of Nb-substituted glass. The results revealed that Nb-substituted glass is not toxic to hESCs. Moreover, adding up to 1.3 mol% of Nb2O5 to 45S5 bioglass significantly enhanced its osteogenic capacity. For the in vivo experiments, trial glass rods were implanted into circular defects in rat tibia in order to evaluate their biocompatibility and bioactivity. Results showed all Nb-containing glass was biocompatible and that the addition of 1.3 mol% of Nb2O5, replacing phosphorous, increases the osteostimulation of bioglass. Therefore, these results support the assertion that Nb-substituted glass is suitable for biomedical applications.
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This paper presents the development of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system testbed used for cybersecurity research. The testbed consists of a water storage tank’s control system, which is a stage in the process of water treatment and distribution. Sophisticated cyber-attacks were conducted against the testbed. During the attacks, the network traffic was captured, and features were extracted from the traffic to build a dataset for training and testing different machine learning algorithms. Five traditional machine learning algorithms were trained to detect the attacks: Random Forest, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and KNN. Then, the trained machine learning models were built and deployed in the network, where new tests were made using online network traffic. The performance obtained during the training and testing of the machine learning models was compared to the performance obtained during the online deployment of these models in the network. The results show the efficiency of the machine learning models in detecting the attacks in real time. The testbed provides a good understanding of the effects and consequences of attacks on real SCADA environments.
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With 36 ventures testing autonomous vehicles (AVs) in the State of California, commercial deployment of this disruptive technology is almost around the corner (California, 2017). Different business models of AVs, including Shared AVs (SAVs) and Private AVs (PAVs), will lead to significantly different changes in regional vehicle inventory and Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT). Most prior studies have already explored the impact of SAVs on vehicle ownership and VMT generation. Limited understanding has been gained regarding vehicle ownership reduction and unoccupied VMT generation potentials in the era of PAVs. Motivated by such research gap, this study develops models to examine how much vehicle ownership reduction can be achieved once private conventional vehicles are replaced by AVs and the spatial distribution of unoccupied VMT accompanied with the vehicle reduction. The models are implemented using travel survey and synthesized trip profile from Atlanta Metropolitan Area. The results show that more than 18% of the households can reduce vehicles, while maintaining the current travel patterns. This can be translated into a 9.5% reduction in private vehicles in the study region. Meanwhile, 29.8 unoccupied VMT will be induced per day per reduced vehicles. A majority of the unoccupied VMT will be loaded on interstate highways and expressways and the largest percentage inflation in VMT will occur on minor local roads. The results can provide implications for evolving trends in household vehicles uses and the location of dedicated AV lanes in the PAV dominated future.
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Organ transportation has yet to be substantially innovated. If organs could be moved by drone, instead of ill-timed commercial aircraft or expensive charter flights, lifesaving organs could be transplanted more quickly. A modified, six-rotor UAS was used to model situations relevant to organ transportation. To monitor the organ, we developed novel technologies that provided real-time organ status using a wireless biosensor combined with an organ global positioning system. Fourteen drone organ missions were performed. Temperatures remained stable and low (2.5°C). Pressure changes (0.37-0.86 kPa) correlated with increased altitude. Drone travel was associated with less vibration (<0.5G) than was observed with fixed wing flight (>2.0G). Peak velocity was 67.6 km/h (42 m/h). Biopsies of the kidney taken prior to and after organ shipment revealed no damage resulting from drone travel. The longest flight was 3.0 miles, modeling an organ flight between two inner city hospitals. Organ transportation may be an ideal use-case for drones. With the development of faster, larger drones, long-distance drone organ shipment may result in substantially reduced cold ischemia times, subsequently improved organ quality, and thousands of lives saved.
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Purpose of review: Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. Recent findings: Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation. Keeping kidney grafts functionally and metabolically active during the preservation period offers a unique chance for viability assessment, reconditioning, and organ repair. Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion has been recently translated into clinical practice. Preclinical results suggest that prolonged warm perfusion appears superior than a brief end-ischemic reconditioning in terms of renal function and injury. An established standardized protocol for continuous warm perfusion is still not available for human grafts. Summary: Ex-vivo machine perfusion represents a superior organ preservation method over static cold storage. There is still an urgent need for the optimization of the perfusion fluid and machine technology and to identify the optimal indication in kidney transplantation. Recent research is focusing on graft assessment and therapeutic strategies.