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Introduction: In addition to the four pillars of homeopathy, vitalism and the miasmatic theory are often used to explain the health–disease process. According to Hahnemann's concepts, homeopathic miasms are the main obstacle to the cure of chronic diseases, with psora being the fundamental cause of all forms of diseases. According to modern genetics, the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the fundamental cause of the manifestation of chronic diseases. Objective: This article develops a philosophical–scientific correlation between chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic modifications, aiming to justify the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of an individual's DNA as homeopathic medicine. Results: Based on the study of homeopathic doctrine and epigenetics, a conceptual and functional correlation is observed between homeopathic chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic modifications. Additionally, several experimental studies suggest that homeopathy's mechanism of action may be by modulating gene expression. Conclusions: By the philosophical–scientific correlations described, it is inferred that disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the biological representation of the chronic miasms, suggesting the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA as homeopathic therapeutic modulator of gene expression for the management of chronic diseases.
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Isopathic Use of Auto-Sarcode of DNA as
Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine
and Modulator of Gene Expression?
Marcus Zulian Teixeira1
1School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Homeopathy 2019;108:139148.
Address for correspondence Marcus Zulian Teixeira, MD, PhD,
Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, Hospital das Clínicas da
FMUSP, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 10° andar, sala 10.166,
São Paulo, SP 05403-000, Brazil
The homeopathic sci entic model is based on four pillars: (1)
principle of therapeutic similitude; (2) homeopathic patho-
genetic trials in humans; (3) prescription of individualized
medicines; and (4) use of dynamized or potentized medi-
cines (homeopathic high dilutions). Although these assump-
tions are enough to substantiate and apply homeopathic
treatment to several health-related disorders, scientically
evidenced in hundreds of experimental and clinical stu-
dies,1,2 homeopathy also uses the philosophic concept of
vitalism and the miasmatic theory to broaden the under-
standing of the healthdisease process.
According to Samuel Hahnemanns vitalist concept, the
vital force is responsible for maintaining health and preser-
ving life, by acting on the bodys physiology automatically
and instinctively. Since it is strongly linked to the physical
body (organic vital force or vital principle), it is said to
maintain the bodys sensations and functions in balance
during the state of health. When vital dystoniaoccurs, the
body gets sick; in turn, healing occurs by restoring that
balance. Homeopathic medicines can restore vital harmony
because they are said to have a dynamic force of similar
nature. By producing an articial disease that is very similar
to the natural one, it has been proposed that the homeo-
pathic medicine acts by triggering a reaction from the vital
auto-sarcode of DNA
Abstract Introduction In addition to the four pillars of homeopathy, vitalism and the mias-
matic theory are often used to explain the healthdisease process. According to
Hahnemanns concepts, homeopathic miasms are the main obstacle to the cure of
chronic diseases, with psora being the fundamental cause of all forms of diseases.
According to modern genetics, the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the
fundamental cause of the manifestation of chronic diseases.
Objective This article develops a philosophicalscientic correlation between
chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic modications, aiming to justify
the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of an individuals DNA as homeopathic medicine.
Results Based on the study of homeopathic doctrine and epigenetics, a conceptual and
functional correlation is observed between homeopathic chronic miasms and disease-
promoting epigenetic modications. Additionally, several experimental studies suggest
that homeopathys mechanism of action may be by modulating gene expression.
Conclusions By the philosophicalscientic correlations described, it is inferred that
disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the biological representation of the
chronic miasms, suggesting the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA as homeopathic
therapeutic modulator of gene expression for the management of chronic diseases.
July 23, 2018
accepted after revision
October 25, 2018
published online
February 13, 2019
ISSN 1475-4916.
Copyright © 2019 The Faculty of
Debate 139
principle against the pre-existing organic disturbance,
removing the signs and symptoms manifested by means of
the principle of symptomatic therapeutic similitude.35
In the miasmatic theory, which seeks to broadenthe under-
standing about the nature of chronic diseases,6Hahnemann
adds to their etio-pathogenesis the existence of three chronic
miasms of dynamic nature (psora, sycosis, and syphilis), and
attributes to them the potential for being the main obstacle to
the action of correctly prescribed homeopathic medicines,
thus preventing the healing vital reaction from occurring.
He also attributes to psora the fundamental cause of all forms
of chronic diseases. To counteract the inuence of these
miasms and cure the resulting chronic diseases, he suggests
the use of anti-miasmatic medicines.
Similarly, studies on human genome identify in the epi-
genetic mechanisms the fundamental cause for the manifes-
tation of most chronic diseases. By presenting a complex and
dynamic modus operandi, the epigenome regulates gene
expression according to the multiple inuences that an
individual is subjected to throughout life. By presenting
conceptual and functional similarities, the homeopathic
chronic miasms nd their biological representation in the
disease-promoting epigenetic modications.
In this study, I propose to describe the philosophical
scientic correlation between the miasmatic theory and
epigenetics, by bringing contributions to broaden the under-
standing of the healthdisease process described by the
homeopathic model and suggesting a new therapeutic
approach to chronic diseases.
The main aim of this article is to develop a philosophical
scientic correlation between chronic miasms and disease-
promoting epigenetic modications, leading to the suggested
isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA as anti-miasmatic
homeopathic medicine and modulator of gene expression.
Nature of Chronic Diseases or Homeopathic Miasmatic
In the work, The Chronic Diseases,their Peculiar Nature and
their Homeopathic Cure,6and in the chapter, Nature of
chronic diseases, published in 1828 after decades of trials
with the classic homeopathic method (individualized med-
icine according to the characteristic symptomatic totality),
Hahnemann describes the failures that he himself
observed with this therapeutic approach in cases of too
inveteratechronic diseases: The chronic disease could,
despite all efforts, be but little delayed in its progress by
the homeopathic physician and grew worse from year to
year(p. 3).
To explain this nding, Hahnemann infers three chronic
and dynamic miasms (psora, sycosis, and syphilis) in the etio-
pathogenesis of these more deep-seateddiseases, and
classies them as chronic miasmatic sickness. By expanding
miasmatic etio-pathogenesis to all chronic diseases of man-
kind,hestatesthatthey must therefore all have for their
origin and foundation constant chronic miasms, whereby
their parasitical existence in the human organism is enabled
to continually rise and grow(pp. 59).6
By imputing to these miasms the main obstacle to curing
chronic diseases in general, he attributes special importance
to psora (original malady or fundamental disease that
caused so many chronic maladiesor the Itch disease),
which he regarded as the oldest and most hydra-headed of
all the chronic miasmatic diseasesand from which, as their
only source, originate at least seven-eighths of all the chronic
maladies(pp. 713).6
By attributing to psora a dynamic and uidly infectious
nature, Hahnemann explains that it is transmitted by scratch
continuously because of their unbearable itching, and thus
the uid was diffused around, and the psoric miasm was
communicated more certainly and more easily to many other
persons, the more it was concealed(p. 11).6
In the chapter Cure of the chronic diseases, sub-chapter
Psora,6Hahnemann describes a series of external and internal
environmental factors (events in human life)thatweakenthe
vital force and can bring the psora latent and slumbering to
break out into open chronic diseases, such as lifestyle, diet,
lack of physical activityor excesses of mentalor sexual activity,
trauma, acute infectious diseases, use of drugs and alcohol,
smoking, inadequate treatments, and emotional and psychic
disorders. He restates the importance of the mind and psyche
in the etio-pathogenesis of chronic diseases, and emphasizes:
By far the most frequent excitement of the slumbering psora
into chronic diseases, and the most frequent aggravation of
chronic ailments already existing, are caused by grief and
vexation(pp. 107114).
In the same chapter, he indicates the use of specic
homeopathic medicines (anti-miasmatics) to cure the miasms
and their resulting chronic diseases, choosing the remedies on
the basis of symptomat ic similitude. To cure the sycosis miasm
and gonorrhoea, he indicates the use of Thuja and Nitric
acidum, while to cure the syphilis miasm and the respective
disease syphilis, he indicates the use of Mercurius.Inthe
treatment of the psora miasm and the resulting numerous
symptomsand chronic diseases, Hahnemann indicatesvarious
anti-psoric medicines (Sulfur, Hepar sulfur, Sepia, Phosphorus,
Lycopodium, Calcarea carbonica, Silicea, Baryta carbonica,
Carbo vegetabilis, Carbo animalis, Graphites, Aurum, Platina,
among others) (Subchapter The medicines).6
At the end of this sub-chapter, Hahnemann discusses a
possible use of the Psorinum (potentized miasma of itchor
potentized itch substance,(auto-) isopathic medicinepre-
pared with secretion of human scabies) as anti-psoric
homeopathic medicine, although its pure effect has not
been proved enough, by far, that a safe homeopathic use
might be made of it. He suggests this application in accor-
dance with the philosophical correlation between the psoric
miasm and the Itch disease,inwhichthecrude original itch
substanceis the biological representation of psora. There-
fore, the potentized itch substancewould be the simillimum
of psoric miasm (The medicines,p.155).
By way of clarication, Hahnemann addresses these same
aspects of chronic miasms in the Introductionand in para-
graphs 5, 72 to 81, and 204 to 206 (among others) of
Homeopathy Vol. 108 No. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira140
Organon,3and names psora as the only real fundamental
cause and producer of all forms of diseaseor causam
morborum chronicum.
Life, Vitality, DNA, and Epigenome
Every living organism, from the simplest form to the most
complex one, essentiallypresents biochemicalinformationthat
allows it to function, develop, and multiply. Most of the time, it
is the DNA that stores and replicates this information from one
generation to another, and it also undergoes adaptive muta-
tions. This allows different organisms to adjust to different
environmental conditions by natural selection. DNA, genetic
material, or genome consists of a set of sequences of nucleo-
tides, molecules consisting of phosphate, deoxyribose, and a
nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine).
Each specic nucleotide sequence, which generates a pro-
tein-encoding gene, is called an exon. The set of exons, in other
words the encoding part of the genome, is called the exome.
Early this century,7the Human Genome Project high-
lighted that only 1 to 2% of the three billion genome nucleo-
tide sequences are responsible for the 20,000 to 25,000
protein-encoding genes (encoding DNA or exome), while
the genetic material left (98%) consists of non-encoding
DNA. They also veried that the same nucleotide sequence
(genes) generates hundreds of cell types and dozens of
different tissues, thus highlighting the complexity of the
cellular differentiation process and the resulting regulation
of the bodys functions. This nding brought down the key
molecular biol ogy dogma, according to wh ich the production
of protein would be limited to a single sequence of events
(nucleotide sequence mRNA protein). Thus, there is
another genetic control or mechanism that regulates gene
expression, today known as epigenetics(from the Greek
prex, epi,above,onor beyond), established in 1942 by
British embryologist and geneticist Conrad H. Waddington.8
Our body consists of close to one hundred trillion cells that
come from a single egg-cell or zygote (fusion of gametes
DNA), which replicates the same genome for the other cells
following the signals captured that can come from within the
very cells (cytoplasm), neighboring cells (including the
mothers cells), and from the environment. As long as these
stimuli reach the cell nucleus, they will determine the
morphology, physiology, and behavior of the future embryo
and individual. Accordingly, the cells respond to several
different signals and stimuli, both environmental and phy-
sical (temperature, pollutants, nutrients, hormones and
medicines, among others) and behavioral (lifestyle, stress,
emotions and feelings, among others).
The cell nucleus is in charge of harboring the DNA which,
although being innitely larger (if stretched, the human DNA
molecule is roughly 2 m long, while the human cell nucleus is
5 µm), is able to be stored inside it thanks to the action of
nuclear proteins named histones that wrap up (roll) the DNA
molecule in structures called nucleosomes. Should the DNA
stay fully enveloped, the genes will not be able to decode
their base sequence i n the form of protein, which is n ecessary
for the bodys functions. This is precisely the moment when
epigenetics comes into the picture.
So that genes can be expressed by the arrival of several
signals and stimuli, the DNA molecule needs to be partially
unwrapped, thus making genes accessible to the action of
several transcription factors. However, different genes are
expressed at different moments and, naturally, they are
located in different regions in the DNA molecules (or chro-
mosomes). Accordingly, parts of the DNA molecule are
constantly unrolled and rolled back (chromosome or chro-
matin remodelling). This DNA remodelling takes place pre-
cisely because of epigenetic modications: in other words,
chemical changes that mostly occur in the DNA molecul e and
histone proteins. There are more than 100 epigenetic mod-
ications or alterations that can affect chromatin.
In the methylation processof the DNA occurs the addition
of a methyl group (-CH
) to the cytosine nucleotide; both the
methylation and acetylation (-COCH
) processes of the lysine
and arginine amino acids can occur in the histone. The
modications in the DNA and in the histones are performed
by enzymes of the following types: DNA methylase/demethy-
lase, histone methylase/demethylase, and histone acetylase/
deacetylase. The DNA methylation process, which causes the
wrapping of chromatin and occursin regions that control gene
expression (called promoters), is related to the silencing of
genes: in other words, genes that are marked (methylated) do
not encode proteins. The histone acetylation process is usually
related to the unwrapping of chromatin andgene activation.9,10
Thus, the term epigenetic means genetic information addi-
tional to that which is encoded in DNA, and is used to dene
gene expression modications, without modifying the genetic
code of the nucleotide sequence in any way. These epigenetic
modications, or epigenome, correspond to a set of chemical
processes that constitute an additional layer of gene expres-
sion regulation at transcriptional level and forge the genome
functions and the phenotypic prole, by activating or deacti-
vating genes. In theory, each tissue must present a distinct
epigenome with specic epigenetic modications that are
responsiblefor its healthy or sickdevelopment. When it comes
to general gene expression and resulting protein encoding, the
genome is constitutedby encoding (exome) and non-encoding
(epigenome) portions, which regulate the encoding process.
Strongly united, exome plus epigenomesynergistically act on
gene expression.1113
With the exception of constitutive chemical alterations that
were genetically inherited, epigenetic modications can be
expressed in the genome of individuals at any age, as long as
they come in contact with agents that promote these phenom-
ena, by either activating or silencing the genes that are respon-
sible for the manifestation of a wide range of diseases.14,15
Another important aspect is that these disease-promoting
epigenetic modications are reversible and, by means of
epigenetic therapy, there is asearch fordeveloping techniques
that are able to restore or promote their re-programming
(epigenetic modulation by employing recombinant DNA tech-
nologies). Unfortunately, severe adverse events of similar ther-
apeutic practice have prevented its widespread use.12,16
That epigenome (set of epigenetic alterations or chemical
modications that are inserted in the genome and the
chromatin) can be passed on to descendant cells, maintaining
Homeopathy Vol. 108 N o. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira 141
a specic epigenetic pattern (epigenetic code or epigenotype)
for generations,12,17 inuencing the healthdisease correla-
tion of the descendants (epigenetic susceptibility). Thus, the
phenotype becomes the outcome of not just the genotype but
of the epigenotype as well, allowing added gene expression
control, which shows as much plasticity as the genotype. This
epigenetic code is the one that instructs the genome about
when and where genes are to be expressed.14,15
As it was mentioned earlier, the expression of theepigenetic
alterations on the genome is affected by distinct external and/
or internal environmental factors, such as lifestyle and habits,
irradiation and pollution,hormones, medicines,inammation,
hypoxia, stress, emotional and psychic aspects.10,12 During
pregnancy, for instance, harmful factors can inuence the
embryos epigenetic mechanisms, and increase the risk of
future development of a number of disorders and diseases
such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, depression, attention
decit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia.18
PhilosophicalScientic Correlation among Miasms
and Epigenetics
Regarding the miasmatic theory of the homeopathic model,
described in The Chronic Diseases, their Peculiar Nature and
their Homeopathic Cure,6the characteristics of the epigenetic
mechanisms endorse many of Hahnemanns chronic miasm-
related observations, which were suggested in a time when
there was no knowledge of genetics. If we replace the infec-
tious uid transmissionof the miasms by the hereditary
transmissionof the genome, both phenomena present similar
properties, such as most chronic diseases present a epigenetic
or miasmatic (psora) cause, which prompts their onset and
prevents their natural resolution. The silencing or activation of
disease-promoting genes (psora latency or manifestation)
occurs at any age and because of countless external and
internal etio-pathogenetic factors (similar in both processes),
the pathological epigenetic modications (chronic miasms)
are transmissible to future generations and can be reversed by
means of epigenetic treatments (anti-miasmatic or anti-psoric
medicines). These are analogies that are partly endorsed by
other homeopathic researchers.19,20
Thus, under the lens of the cited aspects, I propose the
hypothesis that the disease-promoting epigenetic altera-
tions would be the biological representation of chronic
miasms, described by Hahnemann as fundamental cause
(psora) and the main obstacle to the cure of chronic
diseases (causam morborum chronicum),bypreventing
the vital force from restoring the bodys balance even after
administering the correctly individualized homeopathic
Homeopathic Medicines Act on the Genome by
Modulating Gene Expression: Hypothesis and
Scientic Evidence
Based on experimental studies, since 1997, that show the
effect of homeopathic medicine on repairing chromosome
damage caused by toxic or radioactive stimuli, Khuda-
Bukhsh defends the hypothesis that the mechanism of action
of homeopathic medicines occurs by regulating gene expres-
sion at probably one or more levels of control.2123 After two
decades researching in the area, the authors report the
results of many homeogenomic and homeogenetic studies
conrming the postulate that homeopathic remedies could
deliver their benets by interacting with the genetic blue-
print,includingepigenetic modications such as DNA
methylation. According to this assumption, the authors state
that homeopathic remedies would have the capacity to
interact with the genome and rearrange the expression of
many genes.24
In an article that summarizes the results of in-vitro and
animal studies showing how molecular biological tools can
provide useful suggestions about how human organisms
behave when treated with homeopathic medicine, Dei and
Bernardini25 reafrm the hypothesis of Khuda-Bukhsh by
suggesting that the action of homeopathic medicine is not
quenched by ultra-high dilution and proceeds through mod-
ulation of gene expressions. In another review, Bellavite et
al26 describe experiments that show the action of homeo-
pathic medicine on gene expression, suggesting that these
ndings support the hypothesis that homeopathic remedies
could turn some important genes on or off, initiating a
cascade of gene actions to correct the gene expression that
has gone wrong and [that] produced the disorder or disease.
By adding recent studies to this set of experiments, the
data support the hypothesis that potentized homeopathic
medicines act at gene regulatory level according to three
main types of effects: change in the expression pattern of
many genes, cytotoxicity or apoptosis in cancer cells, and
therapeutic modication in gene expression (Tables 13).
Isopathic Use of Auto-Sarcode of DNA as
Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine and
Modulator of Gene Expression
After decades of failed experiments with the classical
homeopathic therapeutic approach to inveterate chronic
diseases, Hahnemann regarded the manifestation of chronic
miasms (psora, sycosis, and syphilis) as the main obstacle to
healing them and suggested the use of anti-miasmatic
medicines to neutralize their inuence. In turn, he locates
the fundamental cause of the vast majority of chronic
diseases in the psora miasm.
Based on conceptual, functional, and experimental correla-
tions described previously, I suggest that the disease-promot-
ing epigenetic alterations are the biological representation of
chronic miasms or the fundamental cause of chronic diseases.
In homeopathic terms, the pathological epigenetic modica-
tions are the simillimum of chronic miasms.
Grounded on this hypothesis and using the reactional
therapeutic method employed by the homeopathic model for
over two centuries, I propose the isopathic use of potentized
and individualized DNA (auto-sarcode of DNA) aiming at
triggering a complex and dynamic therapeutic reaction from
the epigenome (gene expression modulation).
Rather than the therapeutic similitude principle, which is
applied to the set of signs and symptoms as the sensible and
manifest representation of the disease(Organon, paragraph
6),3the employment of the therapeutic identity principle or
Homeopathy Vol. 108 No. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira142
isopathy (from the Greek prexes, isos, sameand pathos,
disease) would only be justied if it were possible to
redirect it to the fundamental cause of diseases.
As Hahnemann himself highlights in relation to isopathy:3
A third mode of employing medicines in diseases has been
attempted to be created by means of isopathy, as it is called:
that is to say, a method of curing a given disease by the same
contagious principle that produces it. But even granting this
could be done, yet, after all, seeing that the miasm is given to
the patient highly potentized, and consequently, in an
altered condition, the cure is effected only by opposing a
simillimum to a simillimum(Organon, note on paragraph
By regarding disease-promoting epigenetic alterations as
simillimum or biological representation of the chronic
miasms (fundamental cause of chronic diseases, according
to both rationales), the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA
could be employed as anti-miasmat ich omeopathic medicine
and modulator of gene expression, by acting as general or
specic reactional or isopathic medicine according to the
therapeutic approach proposed and the genetic material
selected for the preparation.
If we use generic DNA extracted from whole blood or any
biological sample (auto-sarcode of general DNA), we would
be acting on the epigenome systemic modulation, seeking to
restore the organisms dynamic, complex, and global bal-
ance, either associated or not with chronic diseases. In turn,
as long as it is feasible, by employing DNA extracted from
specic tissues (auto-sarcode of specic DNA), we would be
enhancing the response by directing gene modulation
Table 2 Experiments with potentized homeopathic medicines causing apoptosis in cancer cells
Author(s), date Potentized drugs Cell type Effects
Sunila et al 200942
Preethi et al 201243 Ruta 200c; Carcinosinum
200c; Thuja 200c
ascites (DLA) cells
Increased apoptosis in DLA cells
Frenkel et al 201044 Carcinosinum 30c;
Phytolacca 200c; Conium 3c;
Thuja 30c
Human MCF-7 and
MDA-MB-231 breast
adenocarcinoma cells
Increased apoptosis in breast
adenocarcinoma cells
Samadder et al 201345 Lycopodium 5c, 15c HeLa cells Increased apoptosis in HeLa cells
Arora et al 201346 Sarsaparilla,Ruta,Phytolacca
(MT, 30c, 200c, 1M, 10M)
Human renal
colorectal carcinoma and
breast carcinoma cells
MT and potentized drugs
produced apoptosis in the
respective cancer cell lines
Bishayee et al 201347 Condurango 30c HeLa cells Increased apoptosis in HeLa cells
Sikdar et al 201448 Condurango 6c, 30c H460-non-small-cell lung
cancer (NSCLC) cells
Induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells
Arora and Tandon 201549 Ruta MT, 30c COLO-205 colon
carcinoma cells
Induced apoptosis in COLO-205
Saha et al 201550 Sulfur 6c, 30c, 200c Non-small cell lung
carcinoma (NSCLC) cells
Induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells
Mondal et al 201651 Psorinum 6c A549 lung cancer cells Triggered apoptosis in A549 lung
cancer cells
Abbreviation: MT, mother tincture.
Table 1 Experiments with potentized homeopathic medicines causing change in expression pattern of many genes
Author(s), date Potentized drugs Cell type Effects
et al 201336 Condurango 30c;
Hydrastis 30c
HeLa cells
(HPV18 cell line)
Distinctly different expression patterns in over
100 genes when compared with control
Bigagli et al 201437 Apis mellica MT,
3c, 5c, 7c
Human RWPE-1
epithelial cell line
Expression of hundreds of genes show signicant
change (MT: 391 genes up- and 495 down-regulated;
3c: 558 up- and 483 down-regulated; 5c: 132 up-
and 168 down-regulated; 7c: 328 up- and
352 down-regulated)
Marzotto et al 201438
Olioso et al 201439
Marzotto et al 201440
Bellavite et al 201841
Gelsemium 2c Human SHSY5Y
neurocytes cell line
Expression of 56 genes involved in neuronal
functions show signicant change
(49 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated)
Abbreviation: MT, mother tincture.
Homeopathy Vol. 108 N o. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira 143
toward epigenetic modications that are located in particu-
lar tissues, which are responsible for manifesting and main-
taining specic chronic diseases.
Reiterating the possible therapeutic recommendations
related to the homeopathic chronic miasms and their epi-
genetic representations, while the auto-sarcode of general
DNA would act as anti-psoric medicine on the general
epigenome modulation, the auto-sarcode of specicDNA
would act as specic anti-miasmatic medicine by amplifying
the epigenome modulation to the epigenetic alterations
located in particular tissues.
By way of clarication of the varied terminology, in many
countries the term isotherapyis used as alternative
nomenclature to isopathy,aswellasisotherapicmedicine
as an alternative to isopathicmedicine. According to the
Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia,27 in the chapter
Biotherapics and Isotherapics,isotherapicsare described
as medicinal preparations obtained from inputs related to
the patients pathology that are prepared following the
homeopathic, pharmaco-technical method and are classi-
ed as auto-isotherapics and hetero-isotherapics.Auto-
isotherapicsare isotherapics whose active inputs are
obtained from the very patient (fragments of organs and
tissues, blood, secretions, excretions, calculus, feces, urine
and microbial cultures, among others) and are destined to
this specic patient. Following the Minimum Require-
ments for the Preparation of Biotherapics and Isotherapics,
complying with the biosafety norms of the Brazilian health
surveillance,28 auto-isotherapics can only be stored in
alcohol at 70% (v/v) and dispensed from 12cH or 24dH,27
concentrations that are below the Avogadro limit
(6.023 10
Extraction and purication procedures of genet ic material
(general or specic DNA) from patients must be performed
Table 3 Experiments with potentized homeopathic medicines causing therapeutic change in gene expression
Author(s), date Potentized
Model of study Effects
et al 201152 Secale 30c Croton oil-induced skin
papilloma in mice
Decreased DNA damage (modulated gene
expression levels) with amelioration of skin
Das et al 201153 Arsenicum 30c Saccharomyces cerevisiae
exposed to arsenate
Decreased DNA damage (down-regulated expres-
sion of Msn 2 and Yca-1 genes) and increased cell
De et al 201254 Arsenicum 30c Escherichia coli exposed to
Decreased DNA damage (up-regulated expression
of arsenic-resistant genes) and increased cell
Das et al 201255 Arnica 30c Escherichia coli exposed to
ultraviolet irradiation
Decreased DNA damage (up-regulated nucleotide
excision repair genes) and increased cell viability
Bishayee et al 201347 Condurango 30c HeLa cells Reduced histone de-acetylase (HDAC2) activity,
epigenetic event of genemodulation in combating
cancer cells
Marotti et al 201456 Arsenicum 45x Wheat seedlings
poisoned with sub-lethal
dose of arsenic
Down-regulated expression of genes that were up-
regulated during the oxidative stress
Bigagli et al 201437 Apis mellica MT,
3c, 5c, 7c
Human RWPE-1 prostate
epithelial cell line
Apis MT,3c,5c,7ccausedsignicant changes on
genes involved in inammation and oxidative
Marzotto et al 201438
Olioso et al 201439
Marzotto et al 201440
Bellavite et al 201841
Gelsemium 2c Human SHSY5Y neuro-
cytes cell line
Down-regulated of gene involved in nociception
and in depression-like behavior, causing anxiolytic
and analgesic effects
and Sikdar 201557 Condurango 30c H460-NSCLC cell and BaP-
Signicant decrease in band intensity of p15 and
p53 genes; epigenetic event involved in DNA
Saha et al 201558 Hydrastis 30c,
Condurango 30c
HeLa cells Altered methylation in specicregionsofDNA
(epigenetic event) and expression proles of many
genes associated with carcinogenesis
Olioso et al 201659
Olioso et al 201660 Arnica 1c THP-1 human macro-
phage cell line
Modied the expression of genes that are key
regulators of tissue re-modelling, inammation
and chemotaxis
Olsen 201761 Butyric acidum
30c, 200c
Human embryonic kidney
(HEK) 293 cells
Modulated the gene expression of HEK 293 cells
Abbreviation: MT, mother tincture.
Homeopathy Vol. 108 No. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira144
by molecular biology laboratories following specic techni-
ques and protocols29,30 and later forwarded to pharmacies or
homeopathic laboratories, so as to have auto-sarcode pre-
pared following the homeopathic, pharmaco-technical
method.27 As an example of whole-blood general DNA
extraction, the process is automated and uses specic meth-
ods and kits,31 and the material is delivered in buffer solution
(DNA dissolved in tris-EDTA), with concentration and purity
Since the DNA extracted is soluble in distilled water and
non-soluble in alcohol (it precipitates and preserves its
integrity), these means must be used in distinct phases of
the materials dynamization (potentization) process. In view
of these peculiar DNA properties and pharmaco-technical
requirements, it is suggested that a Protocol for the pre-
paration of auto-sarcode of DNAbe followed (Table 4).
By modulating the constitutional epigenomic expression and
performing possible prophylactic and therapeutic global
actions that are not necessarily associated with specic
tissues or diseases (e.g. increasing cellular resistance, stimu-
lating repair or regeneration systems, restoring the specic
characteristics of certain body systems), I believe that the
isopathic use of auto-sarcode of general DNA can system-
atically act favorably on chronic disorders and diseases in
general. In turn, the auto-sarcode of specic DNA would act
on directing gene modulation toward the epigenetic altera-
tions that are located in specic tissues and are responsible
for certain chronic diseases.
In applying this proposition, it is assumed that auto-
sarcode at different potencies should be applied gradually
so that the desired thera peutic response is achieved. Further-
more, by acting on the dynamic modulation of gene expres-
sion, I believe that periodic DNA extractions are needed, as
well as the resulting auto-sarcode preparations and pre-
scriptions, so that the modulation process occurs progres-
sively over the years.
Reiterating that this is a theoretical hypothesis with no
scientic evidence at this moment, it must be stressed that
the general use in humans can only be extended if studies
were conducted that prove its efcacy and safety. Thus, the
disclosure of this embryonic and innovative proposition
aims at bringing researchers together around it, by encoura-
ging them to conduct basic research and clinical trials to
either conrm or refute its validity. Since it is a therapeutic
procedure in humans with manipulationof genetic mate-
rial, following national and international legislations32,33 we
must prioritize the bioethical principle of non-malecence
before that of benecence.
Concerning this issue, it is worth pointing out that the
long-standing therapeutic use of homeopathic high dilutions
(at concentration values that are below the Avogadro limit) of
several toxic agents has made the safety of homeopathic
methods clear.34,35 Furthermore, it is worth pointing out that
the safety warnings regarding classic gene therapy (genetic
engineering) refer to injecting exogenous genes (DNA vac-
cines) into the body or applying recombinant DNA technol-
ogies that allow modications to be made to the genome per
se (introduction of therapeuticgenes in cells with the use of
vectors):12,16 such processes are not present in the referred
proposal of production and application of auto-sarcode of
DNA (Table 4).
Since it is a proposition that is easily applied and adjusted
to any existing experimental or clinical research model for a
wide range of disorders and diseases, I believe that studies
that validate the methodsefcacy and safety can be quickly
conducted. In this context, several variables should be tested:
most recommended dosages and potencies for each type of
approach and individual (individualization of doses and
potencies); treatment time needed so that laboratory and
clinical responses may be observed; use of approaches
proposed either individually or jointly (auto-sarcode of
general and/or specic DNA) for each type of disorder or
disease; ideal time intervals for performing periodic extrac-
tions and resulting preparation and prescription of auto-
sarcode of DNA; and concomitant use of classical homeo-
pathic medicines.
Should the proposed hypothesis be conrmed in practice,
we would be able to employ a new homeopathic therapeutic
approach to alleviate the human suffering resulting from
countless chronic diseases and expand the homeopathic
treatment spectrum.
Table 4 Protocol for the preparation of auto-sarcode of DNA
1. Receiving the material from the molecular biology
laboratory (DNA soluble in tris-EDTA)
6. Apply 100 strong succussions, obtaining the 1cH potency
2. Add alcohol 96° GL to the material. The lament of
DNA will precipitate
7. Transfer 1 drop of 1cH potency to another vial containing
99 drops of distilled water and apply 100 strong succussions
to obtain 2cH potency
3. Wash the lament of DNA with alcohol 96° GL to
remove residue of tris-EDTA adsorbed
8. Repeat the previous procedure to obtain 3cH to 11cH
4. Transfer the DNA lament with 1 drop of alcohol 96°
GL to vial for dynamization (potentization)
9. In the preparation of 12cH potency, make alcohol dilution
77% (v/v) 1:99 ratio and apply 100 succussions
5. Add 99 drops of distilled water to the vial. The DNA
will become soluble again
10. Repeat the process until the desired potency is obtained
Abbreviation: EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; GL, Gay-Lussac.
Homeopathy Vol. 108 N o. 2/2019
Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira 145
Vitalism and miasmatic theory are used to broaden the
understanding of the healthdisease process.
The chronic miasms are the main obstacle to the
homeopathic healing of chronic diseases.
Disease-promoting epigenetic modications are the
biological representation of the chronic miasms.
Anti-miasmatic homeopathic medicines are used to
cure the miasms and their consequent chronic diseases.
Isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA can be employed
as anti-miasmatic homeopathic medicine and gene
expression modulator.
Conict of Interest
None declared.
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Auto-Sarcode of DNA as Anti-Miasmatic Homeopathic Medicine? Teixeira 147
... Further based on these assumptions, we have also been proposing the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA (autoisotherapic of DNA) as a probable anti-miasmatic homeopathic medicine and modulator of gene expression. 1,2 Reiterating these philosophical-scientific correlations, numerous studies on telomeres (the terminal portion of chromosomes) indicate its role as a biomarker of cellular vitality, biological aging, and the health-disease process. In view of this evidence, telomere length (TL) could be clinically and experimentally used as a hypothetical biomarker of the organic vital force state, both in the disease-promoting vital imbalance and in the vital rebalancing resulting from therapeutic interventions. ...
... The objective of this article is to study the mechanism of action of telomeres and the telomerase enzyme in the integrity of chromosomes, in cellular vitality, in biological aging, and in the health-disease process, proposing to use TL as a biomarker of the organic vital force state and the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in order to expand the philosophical-scientific correlations of homeopathic vitalism with modern genetics, as widely discussed in previous studies. 1,2 Cause of Diseases According to the Homeopathic Model ...
... 2 Furthermore, in correlating the characteristics of chronic miasms with those of epigenetic alterations, we highlight analogies between them, such as: most chronic diseases have a miasmatic (psora) or epigenetic cause which predisposes their appearance and prevents their natural resolution (fundamental cause of chronic diseases); the latency or manifestation of psora and the silencing or activation of disease-promoting genes are triggered by similar etiopathogenic factors; both chronic miasmas and disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are transmissible to future generations, and can be reversed by antimiasmatic drugs or epigenetic treatments, respectively. 1 Since 1997, Khuda-Bukhsh [17][18][19] and other researchers 20,21 defend the hypothesis that homeopathic medicines act in the genome, modulating disease-promoting gene expression. In this context, dozens of in vitro experimental studies suggest that potentized homeopathic medicines may act in the homeostatic regulation of gene expression, in view of their causing apoptosis in cancer cells and therapeutic regulation in disease-promoting gene expression. 1 Therefore, we can correlate the intrinsic characteristics and properties of the homeopathic vital principle to those of the genome (exome plus epigenome), suggesting the hypothesis that this is the representation or biological substrate of that according to the biomedical model. 2 On the other hand, disease-promoting epigenetic alterations would be the representation or biological substrate of chronic homeopathic miasmas. 1 In short, in homeopathic terms, the genome would be the simillimum of organic vital force and the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations would be the simillimum of chronic miasmas. ...
Full-text available
Background: Philosophical–scientific correlations described in previous studies suggest that the genome can be the biological representation of the vital force, whilst the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations would be the biological representation of the chronic miasmas. In this study, we expand the functional correlation between vital force and chromosomes, describing the mechanism of action of the telomere–telomerase complex in the context of physiological balance. Aims: The aim of the work is to study the role of the telomere–telomerase complex in cell vitality, biological aging, and the health-disease process, with the goal of proposing the use of telomere length as a biomarker of the vital force state and the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. Results: Similar to the vital force, telomere length and telomerase enzyme activity play an important role in maintaining cellular vitality, biological longevity, and physiological homeostasis. Telomere shortening functions as a biomarker of vital imbalance and is associated with numerous diseases and health disorders. On the other hand, health-promotion practices neutralize the pathological shortening of the telomeres, acting therapeutically in diseases or age-dependent health disorders. Conclusions: As a hypothetical biomarker of the vital force state, an intra-individual analysis of the mean leukocyte telomere length before, during, and after homeopathic treatment can be used as a biomarker of therapeutic effectiveness.
... In this context, dozens of experiments show that potentised homeopathic medicines act at the gene regulatory level according to three main types of effects: change in the expression pattern of many genes; cytotoxicity or apoptosis in cancer cells; therapeutic modification in gene expression. 47 As implicated by the homeopathic vitalist concept, homeopathic medicines can be seen to restore the body's state of health because they modulate vital principle dystonia. By inferring that homeopathic medicines restore the body's state of health by modulating gene expression dystonia, the above experimental studies support the hypothetical correlation between genome (exome plus epigenome) and organic vital force. ...
... By valuing the respective fields of research addressed, it is suggested in this study that the organic vital force is able to find its biological representation in the cell genome (exome plus epigenome), while in the previous study 47 it was proposed that homeopathic chronic miasms are able to find their representation in disease-promoting epigenetic modifications. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: In homeopathic philosophy, vital force is a non-material substrate that is responsible for maintaining the body’s sensations and functions and where homeopathic medicines act. In genetics, the body’s vital functions are controlled by biochemical information, which is contained in the cell genome and consists of a protein encoding portion (exome) and another that regulates this encoding scheme (epigenome). Both the philosophical vital force and the genome present properties of complex and dynamic self-organisation systems. Aims: This study aimed to explore and develop a philosophical-scientific correlation between vitalism and genetics according to the complexity paradigm. Results: Vital principle and genome present inseparable composition among distinct existing components that influence one another and form a network of connections that create complex and dynamic self-organisation behaviour. Described in both models, ‘vortex’ indicates the existence of a force coming from within the system that is externalised as an emergent, information-transmitting phenomenon. Supporting this correlation, some experimental studies show that homeopathic medicines act on the genome by modulating gene expression. Conclusions: In line with the similarity of existing characteristics and properties, the genome may be considered as hypothetical biological substrate of organic vital force.
... According to vitalist medical rationalities 75 , such as homeopathy and acupuncture, cellular activity, physiological homeostasis, and the health-disease process would be related to vital force or chi (tsri), respectively; cellular senescence, physiological imbalance, and the disease manifestation would occur due to the disturbance of the body vitality. In order to approximate different rationalities, recent studies correlate the characteristics and properties of the homeopathic vital principle with those of the genome (exome plus epigenome), suggesting that the genome would be the biological representation or substrate of the organic vital force, according to biomedical episteme 76,77 . In this context, the telomere length could be used as an important biomarker of the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in maintaining vitality, physiological balance, and health. ...
Full-text available
Homeopathy is often attacked in several countries by groups of individuals who call themselves "sceptics", who autocratically and systematically disparage and deny any scientific evidence which underlies the homeopathic model. In fact, this posture defines them as "pseudosceptics", because the true sceptic doubts, investigates and accepts the existing evidence with an agnostic and neutral posture, with an open mind and free from prejudice. In unmasking these impostors, Marcelo Truzzi and Marcoen Cabbolet describe several "tell-tale signs" through which the conduct of these pseudosceptics disguised as pseudoscientists can be notably recognized. After the publication of the Special Dossier "Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy" in Brazil (2017), pseudosceptics made unfounded and fallacious criticisms of it in the media and social networks, in which the use of these pseudosceptical and pseudoscientific strategies to undermine the vast body of evidence presented is clearly demonstrating. Knowledge of the "tell-tale signs of pseudoscepticism" can be of great use in the differentiation between the true and the false scepticism.
... According to vitalist medical rationalities 75 , such as homeopathy and acupuncture, cellular activity, physiological homeostasis, and the health-disease process would be related to vital force or chi (tsri), respectively; cellular senescence, physiological imbalance, and the disease manifestation would occur due to the disturbance of the body vitality. In order to approximate different rationalities, recent studies correlate the characteristics and properties of the homeopathic vital principle with those of the genome (exome plus epigenome), suggesting that the genome would be the biological representation or substrate of the organic vital force, according to biomedical episteme 76,77 . In this context, the telomere length could be used as an important biomarker of the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in maintaining vitality, physiological balance, and health. ...
Full-text available
The aging process occurs due to the decline of vital physiological functions and adaptability of the body, being influenced by genetics and lifestyle. With advances in genetics, biological aging can be calculated by telomere length. Telomeres are regions at the ends of chromosomes that play a role in the maintenance and integrity of DNA. With biological aging, telomere shortening occurs, causing cellular senescence. Several studies show that shorter telomeres are associated with acute and chronic diseases, stress, addictions, and intoxications. Even in the current COVID-19 pandemic, telomere shortening is proposed as a marker of severity in individuals infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On the other hand, healthy lifestyle habits increase telomere length and balance of various cellular functions, preventing diseases.
... Hahnemann's vitalistic concept connects the world of modern genetics through conceptual and functional similarities of homoeopathic chronic miasm with the biological representation of disease causing epigenetic modification [23]. In a study called paradigm of molecular biology it is said that the vital principle in homoeopathy is similar to the characteristics and properties of genome like self-organisation, action of opposition and reduction which in turn preserves the state of health and in maintaining life [24]. In Immunology, there are instances where resistance or proneness can be demonstrated in patients with some disease states towards other types of diseases, e.g. ...
Full-text available
Homoeopathy, an alternate system of medicine, based mainly on similar principle of 'SimiliaSimilibusCurentur' means that cure must be taken by the drugs that produce similar effects on living being. The similar concept made a viable therapeutic method and consequent cures. The query of Homoeopathic physician of yore led to three possibilities when two dissimilar diseases meet together, either repulsion of the new disease or suppression of existing ailment or formation of a new complex of diseases. This concept of dissimilar diseases needed an explorative study on modern victims. This investigation resulted with many research papers related to genetic chromosomal diseases and other diseases. Many studies are being conducted in recent times on the increased resistance or hereditary susceptibility in people of certain genotype to some Infectious diseases. This suggests that mutations that takes place in a chromosome and resulting change in enzymatic activities in patients with genetic disorders can prevent certain infectious diseases. Though, there are numerous studies in this field, they need further clarification. It is interesting to note that the explanations given by modern medicine in relation to genetic and infectious diseases was anticipated by the pioneer of Homoeopathy Samuel Hahnemann a century ago.
... In homeopathy, one investigator recently proposed using an individual's own homeopathically prepared DNA (which is inherently nano-scale), in their unique current epigenetic state of gene expression isopathically to treat miasmatic diseases. 151 Separately, mainstream nano-medicine researchers are already beginning to consider the therapeutic potential of different personalized protein corona coatings on quantitatively higher dose nano-structures. 135,136,143 For most clinical scenarios, however, the simillimum for the patient's current state would still be the single correctly chosen homeopathic medicine whose information resonates with and literally adsorbs onto its surface the most relevant pattern of endogenous proteins reflecting the patient's current state: that is, the biological information pattern of the recipient individual in the protein corona. ...
Background: Evidence indicates that homeopathic medicines are complex self-organizing nano-scale systems that generate unique low-intensity electromagnetic signals and/or quantum coherence domains. In Part 1, we reviewed relevant concepts from complex adaptive systems science on living systems for the nature of homeopathic healing. Aim: In Part 2, we discuss the complex-system nature of homeopathic medicines. The aim is to relate the evidence on the nature and properties of homeopathic medicines to the complex systems model for homeopathic healing. Methods and results: The work is a narrative review, with complexity model development for the nature of homeopathic medicines. Studies suggest that homeopathic manufacturing generates nano-structures of source material, silica and silicon quantum dots if succussed in glassware or including botanical source materials; or carbon quantum dots if succussed in plastic or including any organic source materials, as well as solute-induced water nano-structures carrying medicine-specific information. On contact with physiological fluids (e.g., blood plasma), there is evidence that nano-structures additionally adsorb individualized patterns of the recipient's own proteins on to their surfaces to create a unique protein corona coat (shell). Thus, the simillimum may generate a personalized biological identity upon administration. Consequently, a medicine can serve as an individually salient, self-similar information carrier, whose protein corona constituent pattern reflects the individual's current internal state of health/disease. Homeopathic medicine complexity emerges from interactions of the component parts from source, silica from glassware or carbon from plastic containers, solvents (lactose, water, ethanol), adsorbed biomolecule layers from plant or animal sources, and adsorbed biomolecules of the recipient. Low doses of these complex medicines can act as biological signaling agents to initiate hormesis via a network-wide pattern of adaptive responses by the recipient complex adaptive system, rather than as conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Biological mediators of adaptive responses include inter-connected network elements of the cell danger/damage defense system: for example, gene expression, reactive oxygen species, heat shock proteins, cytokines, macrophages, T-cells, and associated brain-immune system mediator pathways. Conclusions: Every homeopathic medicine is a complex nano-scale system involving multiple inter-connected, interacting components, and emergent properties. Simillimum individualization derives from formation of a unique personalized protein corona shell adsorbed to the reactive surface of the homeopathic nano-structures on contact with the recipient's body fluids. Low doses of such complex nano-structures initiate the adaptive processes of hormesis to mobilize endogenous healing of a disease state. The capacity for self-organization and self-similarity in complex systems is the key to future research on the nature of homeopathic medicines and systemic healing during individualized homeopathic treatment.
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Since homeopathy is based on the vitalist medical model, concepts such as vital force, mind, soul, spirit, etc., referring to the immaterial human nature, are frequently cited, making their understanding indispensable. Based on the works of Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, including his minor writings and letters, this work seeks to clarify these conceptions, in order to dissolve doctrinal confusions. In this study, the concept of ‘instinctive and irrational vital force’, analogous to the Hippocratic ‘vis medicatrix naturae’, becomes clear, forming a substantial compound with the physical body and a nature distinct from the intelligent spirit. As another entity distinct from the previous ones, Hahnemann also mentions the mind, seat of the soul, as ‘physical organs almost non-material, of higher hierarchy’, attributing to the human psyche the greatest influence in the binomial health-disease, referring to the moral and ethics as preventive and curative factors for diseases that affect humanity. He criticizes scholasticism and the excess of metaphysical speculations, moving away from any philosophical or religious current, offering us universal spiritualist concepts within moral and ethical principles, further enhancing his work and demonstrating that he is a prejudice-free observer. For Hahnemann, the physical body forms a substantial unity with the vital principle, and not with the soul, being commanded by the intelligent spirit that in him dwells. The mind, as a psychic organ, assumes an important role in the relationship between these entities that make up the human being.
Conventional medical therapy for haemangioma usually consists of corticosteroids through oral administration, intralesional injection or topical application. Recently, propranolol has demonstrated to offer advantages because its therapeutic efficacy is comparable and fewer adverse effects are observed. This benign vascular tumour is not always so complicated to have to be removed surgically and many others remit without treatment. However, sometimes the unexpected can happen and evolve unfavourably. For these situations, homeopathy can also be evaluated. Here is a case report of an elderly bitch that developed a haemangioma on the pad of the left fifth toe. The lesion increased in size after applying a corticosteroid ointment and became an infected wound with suppuration when the bitch bit it (self-mutilation). A homeopathic approach to the treatment was proposed. Complete remission of the vascular tumour and improvement of behavioural and physical complaints was achieved with a high dilution of Mercurius solubilis. The homeopathic remedy Phosphorus, a phytotherapic ointment of Calendula officinalis, and the application of topical antibiotics did not have the efficacy of the previous one. Although homeopathy does not yet have a specific mechanism of action for each remedy, the pathogenesis of M. solubilis is compatible with a negative regulation of glutamine synthetase. Given that it has been shown that ultra-dilutions can stimulate gene expression, it is theoretically hypothesised here that Mercurius could stimulate glutamate-ammonia ligase gene, which expresses the aforementioned enzyme, and solve or improve diseases whose symptoms are due to their underexpression or inhibition (at gene and protein level). Hence, the aim of this article is to show the results of homeopathy in the clinical practice and to propose a line of research on the mechanism of action of the remedies.
The new pandemic disease COVID-19 has wreaked havoc worldwide. Its infectious agent, SARS-CoV-2, uses two key human enzymes called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to invade body cells. The first one is encoded by the ACE2 gene and the second by the TMPRSS2 gene. Both have an outstanding expression of RNA and proteins in the small intestine compared with other tissues. This prominent location may be related to the main entry route of SARS-CoV-2 into the organism. In the process of infection, two other genes can play a fundamental role: NOS2, which expresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and AOC1, which encodes diamine oxidase (DAO). Both also highlight in the small intestine and are involved in polyamine metabolism. These biogenic amines are important for viral replication, being enhanced when NOS2 and AOC1 genes are downregulated. In addition, NOS2 shows a negative correlation with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, while nondegraded histamine by DAO can lead to an upregulation of both genes on which the virus depends. Taken together, these data suggest that inhibition or underexpression of NOS2 and AOC1 determines the susceptibility to get sick, increasing the risk of infection. On the other hand, a therapeutic approach to the disease could be made with homeopathic medicines. Experiments show the remedies' ability to stimulate gene and protein expression, but a correlation between the symptoms of each drug and these expressions has not yet been established. Here an analysis of the pathogenesis of Silicea terra and Arsenicum album supported on the scientific literature is done. The objective is to propose a theory about their relationship with key genes whose protein expressed in deficiency can give rise to the chain of events that imbalance the internal environment (homeostasis) and allow the development of symptoms. Silicea seems to be related to NOS2 (gene)/iNOS (protein) and Arsenicum with AOC1 (gene)/DAO (protein), being necessary to carry out studies to corroborate these links. Therefore, the aim of this article is to show the importance of NOS2 and AOC1 genes in the development of COVID-19 and to propose a line of investigation to evaluate if homeopathy can improve their protein expression.
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Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories. Toxic doses of Gelsemium cause neurological signs characterized by marked weakness and convulsions, while ultra-low doses or high Homeopathic dilutions counteract seizures induced by lithium and pilocarpine, decrease anxiety after stress and increases the anti-stress allopregnanolone hormone, through glycine receptors. Low (non-Homeopathic) doses of this plant or its alkaloids decrease neuropathic pain and c-Fos expression in mice brain and oxidative stress. Due to the complexity of the matter, several aspects deserve interpretation and the main controversial topics, with a focus on the issues of high dilution pharmacology, are discussed and clarified.
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Antropologia é a ciência que tem como objetivo estudar o homem em sua pluralidade de modos de vida e de pensamento, incorporando os diversos aspectos da individualidade às suas modalidades de estudo (biológica, social, cultural e filosófica). Por sua vez, a Antropologia Médica estuda os fatores que influenciam o processo saúde-doença, incluindo os aspectos biossocioculturais e os variados sistemas de saúde. Seguindo o objetivo intrínseco de estudar o homem em sua pluralidade, a Antropologia Médica Vitalista fornece subsídios filosóficos para uma ampliação do entendimento do processo de adoecimento, analisando o mecanismo saúde-doença em conformidade com a estrutura ontológica humana. Fundamentando o diagnóstico e o tratamento das doenças em diversas racionalidades médicas não convencionais (Medicina Tradicional Chinesa, Medicina Tradicional Indiana, Medicina Homeopática e Medicina Antroposófica), a concepção vitalista é uma doutrina filosófica que considera a existência de uma força (princípio) vital responsável pela manutenção da saúde e da vida, unida substancialmente ao corpo físico. Além disso, valorizando a interação de outras instâncias superiores da individualidade humana (mente, alma e espírito) no equilíbrio fisiológico-vital, a concepção vitalista inclui a influência dos pensamentos, sentimentos e emoções na etiopatogenia e na evolução das doenças, aspectos difundidos pela dinâmica psicossomática moderna e pelo recente campo de pesquisas que relaciona a saúde à espiritualidade.
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Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl) during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.
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Almost two decades ago, it was postulated that homoeopathic remedies could deliver their benefits by interacting with the genetic blueprint. Over the years, the results of many homeogenomic gene expression studies have confirmed this postulate. The results of homeogenomic studies have begun to recognize which of the estimated 25,000 human genes are targeted by different homoeopathic remedies and how the expression profiles of these targeted genes are rearranged. From a mechanistic standpoint, seminal homeogenomic studies have shown that homoeopathic remedies can also facilitate epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This is an important discovery because DNA methylation plays an important role in the control of the expression of many genes. Understanding of the genes targeted by different homoeopathic remedies, taken together with information about the function of the protein/s encoded by the targeted gene/s provides a further complementary approach to homoeopathic remedy selection. In this review, as an example, we show how the results of homeogenomic studies support the applicability of frequently used homoeopathic remedies in patients suffering from cancer, particularly with respect to upregulation of the gene TP53. This review also outlines how the results of homeogenomic studies may also provide further help with potency selection and optimum dosage regimen.
To clarify for doctors, researchers, health professionals, and the general population, and demystify culturally rooted dogmatic postures, the Technical Chamber for Homeopathy (TC-Homeopathy), Regional Medical Council of the State of São Paulo (CREMESP, Brazil) prepared the Special Dossier, “Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy,” which is available online in Portuguese and English at Revista de Homeopatia, scientific journal of the São Paulo Homeopathic Medical Association (APH). Available at:
Background: Several recent studies reported the capability of high diluted homeopathic medicines to modulate gene expression in cell cultures. In line with these studies, we examined whether ultra-high dilutions (30C and 200C) of sodium butyrate (SB) can affect the expression levels of genes involved in acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 genes were determined by real-time PCR assay. Results: Exposure to both 30C and 200C during 48 h led to a significant decrease of the level of expression of TNF-α gene, while expression of IL-2 gene was increased when exposed to 30C, and expression of IL-10 gene was decreased when exposed to 200C. No changes in expression levels of all genes studied were observed in cells treated with both 30C and 200C remedies of SB during the 24 h. Conclusion: Observed changes in gene expression levels after exposure to 30C and 200C remedies of SB during 48 h suggest that extremely low concentrations of this agent can modulate the transcriptome of HEK 293 cells. These results are in line with findings from other studies confirming the ability of homeopathic remedies to modulate gene expression in cell cultures.
Background Arnica montana is a popular traditional remedy widely used in complementary medicine, also for its wound healing properties. Despite its acknowledged action in clinical settings at various doses, the molecular aspects relating to how A. montana promotes wound healing remain to be elucidated. To fill this gap, we evaluated the whole plant extract, in a wide range of dilutions, in THP-1 human cells, differentiated into mature macrophages and into an alternative IL-4-activated phenotype involved in tissue remodelling and healing. Methods Real-time quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis was used to study the changes in the expression of a customized panel of key genes, mainly cytokines, receptors and transcription factors. Results On macrophages differentiated towards the wound healing phenotype, A. montana affected the expression of several genes. In particular CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), coding for an chief chemokine, exhibited the most consistent increase of expression, while also CXC chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), Interleukin8 (IL8) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) were slightly up-regulated, suggesting a positive influence of A. montana on neutrophil recruitment and on angiogenesis. MMP1, coding for a metalloproteinase capable of cleaving extracellular matrix substrates, was down-regulated. Most results showed non-linearity of the dose-effect relationship. Conclusions This exploratory study provides new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of A. montana as a promoter of healing, since some of the genes it modifies are key regulators of tissue remodelling, inflammation and chemotaxis.
Objective: To provide in vitro evidence of Psorinum treatment against cancer cells in a controlled study. Methods: Effects of homeopathic Psorinum 6× on cell viability were initially determined in several cancer cell lines, including A549, HepG2 and MCF-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and an ethanol 6× control. The cell line that exhibited highest inhibition was selected and used in the following experiments. A range of Psorinum 6× doses was used to explore treatment effects on cell cycle arrest, cell death (apoptosis), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Expression of several signal proteins related to apoptosis and cell survival were quantified with Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Further, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to determine possible drug-DNA interactions, as well as the induction of conformational changes. Results: Treatment of cancer cell lines with Psorinum showed greater anticancer effects in A549 cells than in others. In A549 cells Psorinum treatment inhibited cell proliferation at 24 h after treatment, and arrested cell cycle at sub-G1 stage. It also induced ROS generation, MMP depolarization, morphological changes and DNA damage, as well as externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Further, increases in p53 expression, Bax expression, cytochrome c release, along with reduction of Bcl-2 level and caspase-3 activation were observed after Psorinum 6× treatment, which eventually drove A549 cells towards the mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. CD spectroscopy revealed direct interaction of Psorinum with DNA, using calf thymus-DNA as target. Conclusion: Psorinum 6× triggered apoptosis in A549 cells via both up- and down-regulations of relevant signal proteins, including p53, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2.