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How Carrefour Revolutionizing Supply Chain Management: A Case from the United Arab Emirates

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Carrefour stands out as one of the largest and most successful hypermarket chains. It provides the customers with the great variety of the household goods, high-quality products, and food brands. Eventually, the hypermarket attracts the customers with the help of special offers and product promotions which customers are interested in. Nowadays, Carrefour in the United Arab Emirates serves over 200,000 customers a day operating 28 hypermarkets and 43 supermarkets (Carrefour Annual Report, 2016). Considering the high dynamics of UAE’s economy development, it is possible to emphasize the role of Carrefour’s power. In fact, it provides all necessary aspects for the cultivation of the effective supply chain, logistics, sourcing, supply management, customer service, demand management, inventory and transportation management, distribution, supply chain outsourcing and other aspects. The current paper is aimed to analyze the advantages and fallbacks of Carrefour within the mentioned area in order to explain the factors contributing to its success and competitiveness to better understand the uniqueness of supply chain in the UAE.
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ULUSLARARASI AFRO-AVRASYA ARAŞTIRMALARI DERGİSİ
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRO-EURASIAN RESEARCH (IJAR)
E-ISSN 2602-215X
VOLUME 4 - ISSUE 7 - JANUARY 2019 / CİLT 4 – SAYI 7 – OCAK 2019
Almaz SANDYBAYEV
asandybayev@hct.ac.ae
ORCID: 0000-0003-2310-194X
Araştırma Makalesi
Research Article
Geliş Tarihi
Received: 28.11. 2018
Kabul Tarihi
Accepted: 12.12.2019
TEDARİK ZİNCİRİ YÖNETİMİNİ CARREFOUR
NASIL GERİ DÖNÜŞTÜRDÜ: BİRLEŞİK ARAP
EMİRLİKLERİNDEN BİR VAKA
HOW CARREFOUR REVOLUTIONIZING SUPPLY
CHAIN MANAGEMENT: CASE FROM THE UNITED
ARAB EMIRATES
ÖZ Carrefour, en büyük ve en başarılı hipermarket zincirlerinden biri olarak öne
çıkıyor. Müşterilere çok çeşitli ev eşyaları, yüksek kaliteli ürünler ve gıda markaları sunar.
Sonunda, hipermarket, müşterilerin ilgisini çeken özel teklifler ve ürün promosyonları
sayesinde müşterileri kendine çekiyor. Günümüzde Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri'ndeki
Carrefour, 28 hipermarket ve 43 süpermarket işleten günde 200.000'den fazla müşteriye
hizmet veriyor (Carrefour Faaliyet Raporu, 2016). BAE’nin ekonomi gelişiminin yüksek
dinamiklerini dikkate alarak, Carrefour’un gücünün rolünü vurgulamak mümkündür.
Aslında, etkin tedarik zinciri, lojistik, tedarik, tedarik yönetimi, müşteri hizmetleri, talep
yönetimi, envanter ve taşımacılık yönetimi, dağıtım, tedarik zinciri dış kaynak kullanımı
ve diğer hususların geliştirilmesi için gerekli tüm unsurları sağlar. Bu makalede, BAE'deki
tedarik zincirinin benzersizliğini daha iyi anlamak için başarısı ve rekabet edebilirliğine
katkıda bulunan faktörleri açıklamak için Carrefour'un bu alandaki avantajlarını ve geri
dönüşlerini analiz etmeyi amaçlamaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi, Carrefour, BAE.
ABSTRACT Carrefour stands out as one of the largest and most successful
hypermarket chains. It provides the customers with the great variety of the household
goods, high-quality products, and food brands.
Eventually, the hypermarket attracts the customers with the help of special offers and
product promotions which customers are interested in. Nowadays, Carrefour in the
United Arab Emirates serves over 200,000 customers a day operating 28 hypermarkets
and 43 supermarkets (Carrefour Annual Report, 2016). Considering the high dynamics of
UAE’s economy development, it is possible to emphasize the role of Carrefour’s power.
In fact, it provides all necessary aspects for the cultivation of the effective supply chain,
logistics, sourcing, supply management, customer service, demand management,
inventory and transportation management, distribution, supply chain outsourcing and
other aspects. The current paper is aimed to analyze the advantages and fallbacks of
Carrefour within the mentioned area in order to explain the factors contributing to its
success and competitiveness to better understand the uniqueness of supply chain in the
UAE.
Keywords:
Supply Chain Management, Carrefour, UAE
ULUSLARARASI AFRO-AVRASYA ARAŞTIRMALARI DERGİSİ
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRO-EURASIAN RESEARCH (IJAR)
E-ISSN 2602-215X
VOLUME 4 - ISSUE 7 - JANUARY 2019 / CİLT 4 – SAYI 7 – OCAK 2019
211
Sandybayev A. (2019). How Carrefour revolutionizing supply chain management: case from the United Arab
Emirates. IJAR. 4(7),210-220
INTRODUCTION
The article tries to examine Carrefour in the UAE through implementation of the management of supply
chain in order to analyze and determine the success of a company. Carrefour is known as a global retailer
with spread operations over the world and managing such a complex supply chain is challenging. As noted,
the performance of the supply chain directly impacts the performance of a business. The case seeks to
understand how the supply chain management practices of Carrefour manages its supply chain including
supply chain and logistics, sourcing, customer and demand processes, inventory and distribution
management. It efforts to research how the company customized its supply chain operations in the UAE by
a detail discussion each of the drivers.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
Supply chain management is one of the major components to the current operational infrastructure and
the future long-term viability of its expansion strategies. The Carrefour’s company supply chain comprises
the following tools. This company uses EDI (Electronic data interchange), which gives an opportunity to
achieve a great number of benefits. Among such, Carrefour can receive the full control of workflow
throughout the supply chain. Moreover, it the number of human errors and the costs of their search and
correction gets reduced considerably. Also, reduction of up to 80% of costs for printing, sending and storing
documents is reached. At the same time, acceleration of processing the documents up to 75% becomes a
considerable benefit that improves a number of functions (Ptak, 2016). Finally, transparency of processes
in the procurement and supply of goods can be viewed as a great achievement that contributes to the
company effective management and success. In fact, the digitalization of the processes has become a
particularly appropriate choice for such a great organization.
On many stages of work, one can observe how the digital innovations improve the work of the organization.
Electronic data interchange does not depend on the work of courier services, freight forwarders, drivers,
warehouse employees. Sending and receiving messages occurs instantly. EDI helps to strengthen control
over supplies of Carrefour. Logistics output is defined by customer service where DI is one of the primary
resources of information (Williamson and Bloomberg, 1990; Sterling and Lambert, 1989).
The supply chain local Scorecard must ensure that optimization plans are identified and their performance
is tracked. Measuring the efficiency of the supply chain allows us to identify opportunities for achieving
operational excellence. Also, the company use an international Scorecard and has a dedicated team that
have to evaluate special indicators. In addition to these warnings, the benchmark between the suppliers of
this category is to determine the best in class. However, the focus on the supply chain improvements is
supported by the effective system of response to the customers.
Speaking about efficient consumer response, it should be mentioned that the company use ECR concept.
This concept is a development of the method of "Quick Response" (QR). The importance of Quick Response
in supply chain was predefined by writers such as (Blackburn, 1991 and Hunter, 1994). The concept involves
the use of manufacturers and retail stores of computerized systems for automatic processing of orders
when performing the same operations, which allows you to monitor the movement of goods in the
distribution network. An effective response to customer feedback includes QR and focuses on the
distribution, promotion and sale of goods. Moreover, a very important element is general forecasts for
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better estimation of the number of orders and replenishment of stocks. Through a joint forecast of sales
planning and replenishment, the supplier and seller can combine their competencies and data to establish
the most realistic replenishment planning. This sharing allows one to improve availability on the shelf,
reduce inventory and inventory of the catalog. Data collection in the company is one of the ways for
improving supply chain (Ptak, 2016). The operating system for data collection consists in the exchange of
fresh and detailed POS data to initiate corrective actions in the supply chain: identification or prediction of
stock availability, better management of production and delivery to launch or promote the product, better
management of time to market. It also contains the main information about sales and financial results.
SOURCING and SUPPLY MANAGEMENT
The major aim of the strategic sourcing process on which Carrefour relies is building an efficient system.
Therefore, it is possible to observe how all separate steps are united with the same task. In the supply
chain, each organization purchases materials from previous suppliers, adds value to them, and sells them
to the following consumers. As each organization buys and sells materials, they move farther along the
supply chain. In order to conduct business effectively, with the observance of clear procurement terms, it
is necessary to observe the quantitative volume of purchases and adhere to the stated requirements for
the quality of the goods purchased.
Organizationally, market research is both for selling finished products and for one department, often carries
out purchasing at the enterprise. Firstly, the strategic sourcing process relies on the scientific analysis of
needs. As the initial stage of the procurement management process, Carrefour needs the definition of the
requirements for the material and technical resources of the relevant divisions of the company. After that,
it is necessary to assess the requirements for the goods purchased. Afterwards, determining the intra firm
demand and supply for a number of parameters, including weight, service level of the supplier, as well as
other specifications for each item of purchased material resources is demanded. Although strategic
sourcing focuses primarily on reducing costs, its foundation is building longer term, win-win relationships
with key suppliers to give buyers a competitive advantage (Douglas, 2017).
Determination of the form of material and technical supply is the third step. Before identifying potential
suppliers, one should answer the following question.How to do it more efficient for company? After that,
it is necessary to make a choice of supplier. The choice of supplier is one of the most important tasks of
procurement logistics. The search for the optimal supplier is carried out by collecting information on
potential candidates, creating a database of suppliers, as well as evaluating the results of work with selected
suppliers.
The next step is known as procurement. Turner (2011) described procurement as a system or process that
supports organization’s total needs for the supply of goods, services and processes that is required to
achieve the goals and task established by the organization. The procurement process includes the
formalization of contractual relations, the transfer of ownership of resources, their payment, as well as the
organization of transportation of resources. In addition, a very important element of this process is control
of deliveries. The effectiveness of supply management is assessed in the results of monitoring the
fulfillment of the terms of contracts by terms, prices, quantity, quality and other parameters of supply and
service (Handfield, 2015). Company also has to prepare procurement budget. Preparation of the
procurement budget involves conducting appropriate economic calculations to learn the exact costs of the
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procedure and operations. Moreover, the last but very significant step is maintaining relationships with
suppliers. The establishment of close ties with suppliers ensures inclusion in a single micro logistic system.
Managing relationships seems to require new understanding of the dynamics involved (Brooks and Pawar,
2000, Cooper et al, 1997).
It should be noted that the presented scheme of the procurement process is not the only true one. The
main objective of procurement logistics is the advantageous acquisition of goods (raw materials or
material) in order to meet demand with maximum efficiency. Due to the prevalence of supply over demand,
successful procurement activity is related to the availability of complete and accurate information about
the market where purchases are made, which implies the continuous collection and analysis of information
about it. The status of consumers allows the enterprise to take into account its own interests and build its
relationships with suppliers based on modeling the conditions of material and technical support. From this
perspective, the enterprise acts as the final link in the logistics chain, in which suppliers, intermediaries,
and carriers operate.
CUSTOMER SERVICE and DEMAND MANAGEMENT
It is obvious that the customers are the most valuable resources of any business. Therefore, the reliable
customer service becomes the major goal of all processes. The manner in which businesses respond to
client complaints and attending to their needs plays an important role in developing loyalty. Carrefour an
international hypermarket was started in 1957 and has steadily grown over the years to become one of the
most successful businesses across the world. It has expanded to UAE and currently operates in eight
countries in UAE (Carrefour UAE, 2018). These are Carrefour Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Ras Al Khaimah,
Ajman, Fujairah and Ain. The chain is aimed to ensure the high-quality products and services. The
hypermarket’s success is largely attributed to provision of good customer service However, there have
been some weaknesses that have been experienced especially when handling customer problems.
There are various customer service elements embraced by the firm that has enabled it gain the trust and
loyalty of its clients over the years. The main element is often on delivering quality service. The firm
evaluates the quality of its service delivery based on performance of the product, conformance to
standards, being an international hypermarket, in UAE they thrive to ensure that that the service delivery
not only conforms to the hypermarket’s set standards but also with the local ISO standards, AS/NZ
standards and UAE government standards (Hemalatha and Sivakumar, 2009). They also assess the reliability
of the service delivery by its employees by ensuring that the employees behave in an appropriate manner.
Another important element that the chain thrives to implement is ensuring all appropriate information is
available to the customers. All the outlets have communication mechanisms where clients can easily obtain
information. Information regarding the available products, their prices, terms and conditions of purchase,
delivery options and warranties among other useful information are always available at the stores (Hsu and
Chou, 2015). Delivery of a personalized customer service is another important element utilized by the UAE
Carrefour stores. They understand that a client’s perception of services is pegged on their mood. The
employees have been well trained to show civility, congeniality and concern when delivering services.
The firm embraces various approaches in measuring its customer service delivery. The main approach is
the use of the SERVQUAL technique where the firms constantly assess the reliability, assurance, empathy,
tangibles and responsiveness. They also have customer review sections on their website where clients write
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about their customer service experiences at the hypermarket. Good reviews denote good service delivery
(Carrefour UAE, 2018). In such a way, the customers get more than a possibility to communicate and get
more information about the products they are willing to get. Such system lets them feel their opinion is
valued, and they are an important part of the team.
In as much as the UAE Carrefour hypermarkets have received positive accolades for their good customer
service delivery, they still need to do a lot to perform even much better. Customer service at the company
has overcome numerous challenges on the way to its perfection. The main weakness has been on handling
customers problems. Notably, they have inadequate customer care representatives. On average a
customer should not wait for more than five minutes to get solutions to their problems, however, this has
not been the case for these outlets because the few available representatives are working like machines
with limited or no interactions with the clients. They are able to improve their customer service delivery by
embracing the use of customer service management systems that provides a cloud computing solution that
will help them integrate all their functions together. The system must improve the customers’ satisfaction
and attract more clients.
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
A firm’s inventory is a valuable asset because a firm’s inputs and finished products are the core of its
business and a shortage of inventory can accrue detrimental impacts. Consequently, inventory can be a
liability when purchased in excess due to the risk of spoilage, damage, theft or shift in demand. UAE
Carrefour understands the significance of inventory management for their business. Being a hypermarket,
it deals with all kinds of products ranging from perishable to durable goods, fast moving to slow moving,
therefore before making an order, they have to be very effective with the inventory and therefore keeping
an updated inventory is paramount for the success of the business. In order to know what to restock certain
items, what prices to pay and what amounts to produce or purchase, they have embraced the used of
various kinds of inventory management systems. The main inventory management systems embraced by
Carrefour include both the periodic inventory management method as well as the perpetual inventory
management method. Moreover, JIT and RFI are used.
The Periodic Method
It uses the periodic inventory method in updating its inventory data periodically mostly after one year.
While the physical counting and inventories are quite time-consuming, mainly this method contributes the
effective time-management. The periodic method becomes crucial to ensure that all company managers
can get the updated data about the good’s cost and availability in time.
The Perpetual Method
The perpetual method is the main inventory method used by the firms in UAE. They use this method to
consistently update its inventory and accounts for subtractions and additions when items are sold, received
or moved from one location to another, scrapped or picked from inventory (Wild, 2017. Carrefour mainly
prefers the use of this method because it helps them deliver up-to-date inventory information and is also
efficient in handling minimal physical inventory counts. Furthermore, they are preferred for tracking
inventory since they deliver precise and accurate results on a continual basis when effectively managed.
Since it has minimal physical inventory counts, it has been able to save the firms significant amount of
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money and time by reducing the inventory costs and man power needed to run the business. The firm
understands that the hypermarket industry is highly dynamic and is greatly influenced by technological
advancements. It therefore, thrives to embrace the use of the latest technologies. The main techniques
used in these stores in maintaining its inventory include the use of barcode tracking. This technique updates
an inventory every time an item is scanned.
TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT
Carrefour hypermarkets in the UAE embrace the use of different modes of transport for its products.
Among such, it is possible to find the rode mode and the rail mode as the leading ones. They have numerous
advantages along with some disadvantages that are regularly re-considered. Transportation is
indispensable to economic growth and development of human settlement (Gbadamosi, 2010).
The main mode of transport is the use of the roads network. It is the most preferred mode of transport
due to various advantages that it accrues to the firm. The firms in UAE place a lot of focus to the reduction
of the distance covered by road. In order to attain this, the Group tries to develop a national logistics
network in all the UAE countries. The company uses its trucks for transportation of its products from its
stores to the consumers and from the main warehouses to its stores. The use of trucks by the company has
been considered a blessing in disguise as it has accrued both merits and demerits.
Some of the merits that road transport has brought to the firms in UAE include the following. First of all,
they are cost effective. The use of roads by the company in the UAE countries is considered relatively cost
effective as compared to other modes of transport. The reason is that the firm uses its own trucks. This
means that it rarely outsources for the transportation of its products from one store to another. The only
cost it therefore, incurs is the fuel charge and minimal costs incurred in outsourcing for transportation for
specialized products (Notteboom and Yang, 2016). Consequently, most of the products are delivered to the
company’s warehouse by the supplies.
Flexible service is another essential advantage that Carrefour gets. The use of road network for
transportation is very flexible because trucks can navigate through various destinations even in the most
remote areas. They are therefore preferred for delivering freight directly to their destinations.
Furthermore, UAE Carrefour outlets are not very distantly located and thus moving a product from one
outlet to the other is best done through the road network. Some of the products in these outlets are
perishable such as vegetables and fruits and can best be transported by the use of trucks. They can also be
easily monitored since people can easily communicate with the drivers.
Nevertheless, one cannot neglect the disadvantages of the road transportation. In as much as road
transport accrues many benefits, it can lead to serious adverse impacts to the firm. One of the major
challenges is traffic delays. Most of the UAE countries experience constant traffic delays and this is likely to
cause a delay in the delivery of its products and services. Trucks are also susceptible to breakdowns and
also to damage mainly through careless driving. Bad weather is also another major challenge especially
where the roads are not good. Considering these aspects, the rail transportation often becomes a solution.
Rail transportation is also used by the UAE Carrefour outlets in cases when the road transportation
becomes challenging. The main advantage is that rail transportation can transport large volumes of freight
over greater distances. This makes shipping more economical. It also has some disadvantages. The main
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demerit is a lack of flexibility. The reason is that the times and routes cannot be adjusted. However, the
skillful combination of the modes becomes the best choice for the firm.
DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT
Distribution is an important function in any business. The movement of products from the production site
to the final consumer is a chain that involves various stakeholders. Distribution management relies on all
the activities and processes related to the process. Packaging, warehousing, inventory, supply and logistics
are the basic related stages. Carrefour has an extensive distribution channel in UAE. The firm embraces the
use of different distribution approaches.
The push and pull strategy is the main distribution decision used by the firm. The push strategy processes
are speculative in nature and is based on order generation. The procurement cycle for goods falls under
the push process of the supply chain. Consequently, the pull processes is often used mainly when a client
arrives. The firm uses a client oriented culture where it focuses on customers and aspects of service.
Figure 1: The push and pull strategy
Source: Christopher, 2016
Carrefour embraces the use of different distribution chains depending on the kind of product, such as
consumer goods and business goods and services. The distribution chain for consumer goods is as depicted
below.
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Figure 2: Types of Marketing Channels
Source: Christopher, 2016
The main strategic distribution decision that intrigued the firm to embrace the use of this distribution
channels include the market, product and competitive factors.
The market factors are the main factors it considers in UAE under shorter channels include the geographical
location, business users, the kind of orders as well as the extensive technical knowledge or regular service
needed. For longer channels they consider consumers, diversity of the geography. The product factors rely
on the aspects to consider include the perishability or durability of a product, the cost of the product and
whether the product is standardized or complex. The competitive factors are the strategic decision takes
into account the satisfaction level of the manufacturer.
UAE Carrefour warehouses is another important strategic distribution decision. Each of the Carrefour
hypermarkets has their own warehouse. The main outlets are Carrefour Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Ras Al
Khaimah, Ajman, Fujairah and Ain. Each of the outlets having their warehouses is important for their daily
operations. Warehouses play an important role in protection of the stores goods. All products cannot be
placed in stores, it is often important to have some stock in the warehouse so that in case of a deficit they
can easily be restocked. This helps in ensuring there is a constant flow of goods. When there is constant
flow of goods production can never stop. These warehouses are often located in strategic locations where
they can be easily accessible by rail or road. In addition, they reduce the risk of losses. These warehouses
have also been considered to be a source of employment to many residents in the regions.
SUPPLY CHAIN RELATIONSHIPS and OUTSOURCING
Counting on the rapidly developing economy of the UAE, Carrefour has received the power base for the
development in this country. It provides all necessary aspects for the cultivation of the chain relationships
and outsourcing in general. These two elements are a core for the successful functioning of any company
or chain of enterprises.
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Within the chain, there are strong connections. Firstly, it means that it is possible to recruit employees in
Majid Al Futtaim Retail, which comprises Carrefour franchises not only in the United Arab Emirates but also
in Bahrain, Jordan, Egypt, Qatar, Oman, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait (Reardon et al, 2008). Moreover,
Carrefour initiates the strategic programs, which help not only to increase the concernment and
attendance but at the same time, it is the effective way to rally the employees and strengthen ties within
the chain. First, the effective training is provided for the workers in order to increase their competence and
develop the leadership. Furthermore, employees have the opportunity of the quick promotion and
receiving benefits in a case is they show good results and qualitative work. All workers take part in different
social initiatives suggested by Carrefour. For example, reducing the ecological footprint through the energy
efficiency and the natural disaster response involves the employees raising their awareness simultaneously
improving the reputation of the company and its perception in the society.
Customers have the great choice of goods of different brands including world-known ones like DANONE,
Tefal, Moulinex, Skullcandy, Hisense, HP, Microsoft, Toshiba and parallel Carrefour presents own private
flagship brands. These products are popular among customers and provide high quality. In addition,
Carrefour cares about secure payments. Online transactions can be done using Emirates NBD and with the
help of Visa and Mastercard (Yue, 2008). To ease the process of online shopping, PayPal is also available.
Generally, all data concerning payments are secured with the help of HTTPS including Cyber Source.
STRATEGIES FOR LOGISTICS and SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
In order to hold a place in the market and be competitive, Carrefour uses different strategies. First
marketing and service strategies come. To launch them, two steps are necessary: fast functioning to get
the higher turnover and personnel training with monitoring the needs of the market (Reardon et al, 2012).
They lead to enhancing of the service quality and creating of the own private brands. Next sourcing strategy
comes. Carrefour can meet almost all customer preferences. Such a big choice of products makes the chain
competitive and widely used. Then differentiation strategy is used in order to define the product with the
highest rates of buying and in such way creating the choice of the goods, which correspond the customer
preferences.
Technology-based strategy presupposes the usage of the information technology tools to connect all
components and elements of the particular market chain. Carrefour has a storage management system
and good-developed system of the online shopping. At the same time, workers and sellers are those who
create the impression of the whole chain enterprise. Therefore, human resource management strategy is
crucial. It includes not only treating customer’s friendly but attracting new workers and encouraging their
professional development in this sphere. It functions with the help of such methods as education and
training, profit sharing, social responsibility, motivating and challenging, stock options and creating leaders
(Baofeng et al, 2017). This strategy can be considered as the relationship-based one since it deals with the
building strong connections between colleagues. As a result, the Carrefour has a professional and creative
team of workers who are ready to meet all issues and deal with them. In such way, customers are provided
with high-quality goods and services.
CONCLUSION
The review of the supply chain elements and related modes and activities reveals that Carrefour processes
rely on the effective planning and analysis of the strengths and weaknesses. Among the major advantages
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Emirates. IJAR. 4(7),210-220
of the company, one can find the timely availability of all products, in-time delivery, reduced costs and
information sharing. The focus on the customers’ demands is particularly important as it encourages the
improvements on all stages of the products supply and distribution. Overall, it is worth noting that the
effective supply chain system and control of the processes is that background of the success of this hyper–
organization.
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ULUSLARARASI AFRO-AVRASYA ARAŞTIRMALARI DERGİSİ
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRO-EURASIAN RESEARCH (IJAR)
E-ISSN 2602-215X
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Chapter
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Best Practice in Inventory Management 3E offers a simple, entirely jargon-free and yet comprehensive introduction to key aspects of inventory management. Good management of inventory enables companies to improve their customer service, cash flow and profitability. This text outlines the basic techniques, how and where to apply them, and provides advice to ensure they work to provide the desired effect in practice. With an unrivalled balance between qualitative and quantitative aspects of inventory control, experienced consultant Tony Wild portrays the many ways in which stock management is more nuanced than simple “number crunching” and mathematical modelling. This long-awaited new edition has been substantially and thoroughly updated. The product of decades of experience and expertise in the field, Best Practice in Inventory Management 3E provides students and professionals, even those with no prior experience in the area, an unbiased and honest picture of what it takes to effectively manage stocks in a firm.
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Chapter
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