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Roles of Women within the Society

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Abstract

Within the society, women have important roles to perform. The roles of women are primarily recognized in the social, political, economic, cultural and religious spheres. In these spheres, when they are to possess efficient skills and abilities, so they are able to render their participation in an effectual manner. In addition to the skills and abilities, it is vital for women to generate awareness in terms of the factors influencing their participation. Possessing information regarding these factors also enables them in overcoming the barriers that may arise within the course of performance of roles. When women are performing various types of roles, they need to ensure that they work effectively towards promoting well-being of their family and community. In other words, they need to ensure that their contribution in beneficial to the individuals. The main areas that have been taken into account in this research paper include, significance of roles of women within society, factors influencing the participation of women, types of roles within the society, and roles of women within employment settings.
Roles of Women within the Society
Dr. Radhika Kapur
Abstract
Within the society, women have important roles to perform. The roles of women are
primarily recognized in the social, political, economic, cultural and religious spheres. In these
spheres, when they are to possess efficient skills and abilities, so they are able to render their
participation in an effectual manner. In addition to the skills and abilities, it is vital for
women to generate awareness in terms of the factors influencing their participation.
Possessing information regarding these factors also enables them in overcoming the barriers
that may arise within the course of performance of roles. When women are performing
various types of roles, they need to ensure that they work effectively towards promoting well-
being of their family and community. In other words, they need to ensure that their
contribution in beneficial to the individuals. The main areas that have been taken into account
in this research paper include, significance of roles of women within society, factors
influencing the participation of women, types of roles within the society, and roles of women
within employment settings.
Keywords: Employment Settings, Individuals, Participation, Roles, Society
Individuals are an integral part of the society. When the individuals reach the age of
four, they began to realize that outside their home also there is a world, which they have to
recognize. Family is regarded as the foundation, from where the growth and development of
the individuals takes place, hence, they give preference to their family members. But apart
from family members, individuals live within the society, therefore, they have a vital role to
play towards the society. The role of women within the society is recognized in various
spheres, social, political, economic, religious, and cultural. The role of women within the
society is primarily recognized in the ways that promote its well-being. In some cases, their
contributions towards promoting well-being of the society is through their employment, such
as, when they are employed in schools or higher educational institutions in teaching
positions, then they are not only generating a source of income to sustain their livelihoods,
but are working for the welfare of the society, by imparting knowledge and generating
awareness among the individuals.
The contributions of women towards the society is put into operation on an honorary
basis as well. Women, belonging to all age groups and backgrounds get engaged into
honorary work towards promoting well-being of the individuals. Some of the honorary ways
are, providing coaching classes to children, belonging to marginalized and socio-
economically backward sections of the society, or making donations of food items, clothing
and other items of daily use to poverty stricken individuals and so forth. In India, women are
residing in the conditions of poverty, they are illiterate, do not have access to proper health
care facilities, are victims of violence, and abuse, are discriminated against, neglected and do
not enjoy the rights and opportunities as the male counterparts (Mbogori, 2014). When these
factors are observed, some of the women, who are social workers work towards promoting
well-being of the communities.
Significance of Roles of Women within Society
The significance of roles of women within society is being taken into account mainly
within their employment settings and when they are involved into other areas, such as, social
work and so forth. The major trends in the family structures and transformations that are
taking place over the past decades are well-known (Olah, Richter, & Kotowska, 2014). There
have been emergence of nuclear families, where women are primarily involved in upbringing
of their children. They may or may not get involved in various forms of employment
opportunities or establishment of their own business. The major roles of women within the
household are dedicated towards transmission of cultural values, principles and beliefs to
their children and they tend to implement them throughout their lives (Giuliano, 2014).
The roles of women within the society are dedicated towards advocating human
development, social justice and are influencing the policy-induced change. In India, the
policy-advocacy on women’s issues involves the context-specific challenges due to the
politico-religious societies and institutions. Women, who are social workers are challenged by
different gendered-roles across the public and the private systems, while promoting gender
equality in India. Therefore, policy-advocacy on women’s issues implies the transforming
gendered social frameworks and confront a range of entities and institutions, governed by the
state policies (Dhaske, 2016). Hence, it can be stated that when participating in any roles
towards the society, women need to ensure that they follow the rules and promote well-being
of the individuals as well as the community in a well-organized manner.
Factors Influencing the Participation of Women
When women are to get engaged in various tasks and activities, then their
participation is influenced by various factors and these have been stated as follows:
Socio-Cultural Factors
In mainly rural communities, women and girls are required to render a significant
participation in the implementation of household responsibilities. When they have to
participate in the management of household responsibilities, then they are normally excluded
from participation in public life and other activities. In some cases, when they aspire to attend
schools and enhance their livelihoods and are discouraged, then they get affected
psychologically as well as physically. In this way, women and girls become much more
susceptible to gender discrimination. When they undergo these kinds of experiences, then
their ability to participate towards well-being of the society also get impeded. Limited access
to health care and medical facilities, lack of education and awareness, low life expectancies,
remaining confined within the household, are some of the socio-cultural factors that prevent
women and girls to participate in social activities.
Whereas, in rural as well as in urban communities, women possess certain traditional
beliefs and viewpoints. For instance, within the households, when men have their own
businesses, when they are adequately meeting the needs and requirements of their family
members, then women and girls are normally discouraged from getting engaged in various
types of employment opportunities. On the other hand, due to the prevalence of these
viewpoints and perspectives, they may not have access to get involved in any honorary work.
The social norms that are enforced by the male and female community elders continue to be
observed, irrespective of the growing body of legislation enacted to promote and protect the
rights of women.
Economic Factors
Financial resources are considered to be of utmost significance, particularly, when
women are to get involved in any task or activity on an honorary basis. For instance, when
they are to make provision of meals to the poverty stricken individuals, who are experiencing
malnutrition, then they need to possess sufficient financial resources. On the other hand,
when women are financially not strong, when they have limited income, then too, they
believe in making donations or in making use of their skills and abilities towards promoting
knowledge and upgrading the skills of the individuals. But when they are financially strong,
then they render a significant participation towards promoting goodwill and welfare of the
community members.
Research has indicated that there are number of children, within the country, who are
orphaned, residing in the conditions of poverty and do not have any means of support. The
women, who are wholeheartedly dedicated towards promoting welfare of the society,
establish organizations. Within these organizations, the children are not only provided with
living accommodation, but they are educated, undergo skills development programs, are
provided health care facilities, nutritious meals, they get engaged in the production of
handicrafts, are trained in terms of various extra-curricular activities, such as, artworks,
singing, music, dance, role play and so forth, they get engaged in leisure and recreational
activities and are able to bring about improvements in their overall quality of life. Therefore,
in order to get this job implemented, finances are regarded as indispensable. Hence, due to
the possession of financial resources, women can render an effective contribution towards
promoting welfare of the society.
Infrastructural Factors
Infrastructural factors are regarded as imperative, when women are to get involved in
various tasks and activities, primarily concerning the community. Infrastructure is referred to
the structure and the arrangement, through which one builds up the foundation for the work
that one has to get engaged in. Broadcasting, radio, transportation, roads, public services,
communications, water supplies, power supplies, machinery, technology, tools and equipment
are the various aspects that are included in infrastructure. Research has indicated that number
of women, who are social workers, usually conduct research studies on aspects, which they
aim to either improve or alleviate. For instance, there are number of individuals in rural as
well as in urban communities, who are residing in the conditions of poverty. Therefore, when
social work is to get carried out to alleviate the conditions of poverty and backwardness and
upgrade the living conditions of the individuals, then social workers may conduct an analysis
of the causes of poverty, how these effect the individuals and what measures can be
formulated to alleviate these conditions.
In order to achieve the objectives of the research study on poverty stricken and
underprivileged sections of the society, the individuals may have to make visits to other
regions and places. For this purpose, the infrastructural factors matter to a great extent. When
the means of transportation, roads, electricity, water supply and other factors will be
satisfactory, then women and other individuals, who are involved in social work will be able
to achieve their desired goals and objectives. The other aspects that individuals need to make
use of are, technology, tools and equipment to facilitate their undertakings.
Capacity Building
Capacity building is regarded as an essential lubricant of development, more
important as compared to finance (Mbogori, 2014). When women are engaged in the
implementation of various tasks and activities, then it is vital for them to possess the essential
skills and abilities. The term capacity building describes the tasks of leading to enhancement
of human as well as institutional capacities. It is regarded as one of the most challenging
functions of development (Mbogori, 2014). Learning is regarded as the lifelong activity. It is
commonly believed that individuals continue to learn throughout their lives. Therefore, the
individuals need to generate awareness in terms of viewpoints and perspectives towards
capacity building on a continuous basis. The establishment of individual organizations and
associations are instituted to promote capacity development among women, belonging to
economically backward sections of the society.
Research has indicated that not only in India, but in other countries of the world as
well, elderly women, who may live alone or with their family members may get involved in
social work, such as, providing coaching to children, belonging to poverty stricken, deprived,
marginalized and socio-economically backward sections of the society. For this purpose, it is
vital for them to work towards their capacity building, possess the essential skills and
abilities, and be knowledgeable in terms of subjects that they are teaching. Teaching is a hard
job, which requires the teachers to work diligently and resourcefully. Students feel contented,
when they learn from teachers, who possess the essential teaching skills. In other words,
when women, providing training would be proficient and ingenious, then they would lead to
generation of good academic outcomes among students.
Types of Roles within the Society
Women, belonging to all age groups and backgrounds feel pleasure and contentment,
when they get involved into various roles that are promoting goodwill and progression of the
society. The various types of roles that are performed by women have been stated as follows:
Providing Coaching Classes – Women, usually make provision of coaching classes to
the students, normally belonging to poverty stricken, marginalized and economically weaker
sections of the society. These children, migrate to urban communities from rural
communities, with the main purpose of acquisition of good education and promoting better
livelihoods. These students get enrolled in government schools, where education is provided
free of cost. In most cases, their basic literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic are not
honed and need to be developed. For this purpose, they need to take coaching classes from
well-trained individuals. Hence, they get enrolled into coaching classes, provided by some
women within their houses, free of cost. The women, who provide free coaching classes,
usually develop interest and enthusiasm to keep themselves occupied and to work towards
promoting goodwill and better means of support. These women may or may not be from the
field of education.
Providing Health Care Facilities – When women work towards promoting well-being
of the society, then normally their contributions are based upon their educational
qualifications and professions. When women are medical doctors or health care specialists,
then they make use of their skills and abilities and provide health care facilities to the
individuals, primarily belonging to underprivileged sections of the society. In making
provision of health care facilities, women may establish health care centres or clinics within
their homes, or they may make visits to the houses of the individuals, if they are ambulatory.
Research has indicated that women make visits to the areas, where individuals are affected by
certain natural calamities or disasters, which have imposed detrimental effects upon their
health conditions. In some cases, women, make visits to religious places, such as, temples or
gurudwaras, may be once or twice a week, where they attend to the medical and health care
needs of the individuals.
Counselling and Guidance – Counselling and guidance is regarded as an
indispensable area that is required by individuals, belonging to all age groups, categories and
backgrounds. From the stage of early childhood to old age, individuals need counselling and
guidance. These may be regarding various aspects, such as, career counselling, counselling
regarding psychological problems, such as, depression, trauma, stress, anxiety, counselling
regarding academics and so forth. When women are well-trained in terms of various factors
of counselling, then they organize counselling sessions. When they are working as
professional counsellors, then they may charge fees from their clients. Whereas, when they
may assist individuals, belonging to underprivileged sections of the society, then they may
even work on an honorary basis. In the case of counselling and guidance, the major objective
of the counsellors is to provide solutions to the problems and challenges experienced by the
clients. For the purpose of accomplishing this goal, they need to possess adequate knowledge
in terms of problems, particularly concerning their field of specialization.
Extra-curricular Activities – Individuals, belonging to all age groups, and
backgrounds, in most cases develop interest in extra-curricular activities. The various kinds
of extra-curricular activities are, production of artworks, handicrafts, dance, music, singing,
sports, physical activities, preparation of certain food items and so forth. Women, normally
belonging to middle age groups and the ones, who are senior citizens, normally develop
interest in doing something creative. Research has indicated that women are involved in
various types of extra-curricular activities. Apart from conducting coaching classes regarding
academic subjects, women also conduct classes regarding creative activities. In these cases,
they impart knowledge to the students in terms of artworks, handicrafts, singing, playing
musical instruments and so forth. On the other hand, when they are skilled in the preparation
of food items, then they give them as donations and also sell them. Therefore, through extra-
curricular activities, women are engaged in honorary as well as paid work.
Making Donations – Within the Indian society, making donations is regarded as
crucial. It is regarded as the most convenient ways of promoting well-being of the society. It
is stated that all individuals, irrespective of their categories and backgrounds should make
donations. If a person is financially not strong, then they may make small donations. On the
other hand, wealthy individuals make large donations. Making donations of various items is
regarded as common, which women normally make on a regular basis. Their financial
position is regarded to be of utmost significance in determining, what donations, they would
make and to what extent. The different types of items that are donated include food items,
clothing, utensils and other items of daily use. When women have obtained the services from
their domestic helpers for a long period of time, then they may even make valuable donations
to them, such as, jewellery, cars, technology, mobile phones or even accommodation. When
children are provided free coaching classes, then donations are made to them on a frequent
basis, these include, food items, school bags, stationary items, clothing and so forth.
Organization of Activities and Functions – Research has indicated that women render
a significant contribution towards the society by organizing various social, cultural and
religious functions. In these functions, they give invitations to their family members, friends,
relatives, and community members. These functions are normally organized in case of certain
occasions or festivals. For instance, in the case of religious functions, they sing hymns,
organize a religious procession and then meals are provided. Marriage ceremonies and
birthdays are regarded as social functions and cultural functions are organized in case of
festivals and so forth. In the organization of these functions, the individuals, make use of
skills and abilities. Financial resources are regarded as crucial, as individuals need to plan
their budgets adequately. Through the organization of activities and functions, one generates
pleasure among other individuals. The reason being, when one participates in them, they feel
happy and contented. One cannot carry these out in isolation and need to obtain support,
ideas and suggestions from others.
Alleviation of Criminal and Violent Acts – Within the Indian society, women and girls
are experiencing various forms of criminal and violent acts within as well as outside the
home. These include, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual harassment, neglect,
discriminatory treatment, and financial exploitation. Research has indicated that women
domestic helpers, may experience these acts from their family members, particularly their
husbands and in-laws. The major causes are poverty, financial problems and inability to
sustain their living conditions better. Hence, in such cases, they seek assistance from women
and other individuals, particularly in whose homes, they are employed. The contribution of
women in the alleviation of criminal and violent acts is recognized primarily by getting
engaged in verbal interaction with the males or other family members, who are involved in
such acts. The other way is, taking disciplinary action and imposing penalties upon the doers.
In the present existence, when individuals are involved in these acts, then severe disciplinary
action is taken as well as they are required to pay fines.
Alleviating Malnutrition – The problem of malnutrition within the country is severe.
Due to this problem, the health conditions of the individuals get affected and there is an
increase in the mortality rate. Malnutrition is the state, when the individuals are unable to
meet their sufficient dietary requirements. When the intake of food is insufficient, then what
is required for effective growth and development, then the individuals are stated to be
malnourished. In most cases, when women, residing in urban communities observe the
individuals, who are homeless and are living in deprived conditions, generate awareness that
they should be provided with nutritious meals. Therefore, in order to alleviate the problem of
malnutrition, along with assistance and support from their family members or friends, they
make provision of meals to these individuals. Meals are either distributed in the form of
packets or they prepare rice and dal, and provide to the homeless and poverty stricken
individuals.
Taking Care of Elderly Individuals – Throughout the country, there are old age homes,
where the elderly individuals reside. In some cases, women make visits to old age homes to
check the conditions of the elderly individuals. In old age homes, they also make donations of
various items, such as, blankets, shawls or bed covers for the elderly individuals.
Furthermore, they get engaged into interaction with them and find out how they feel, living
there. Whereas, within the households, women are vested with the responsibility of taking
care of the needs and requirements of the elderly individuals. When the male members go to
work and children go to school, then women need to ensure that they make provision of
nutritious meals, medicines, help the elderly to get engaged in physical activities and so forth.
Whereas, when they experience severe health problems and are not ambulatory, then they
need to ensure that proper medical facilities are provided to them, which may also include
hiring of qualified and trained nurses on a full-time basis.
Providing Information and Generating Awareness – When women are well-educated
and possess higher educational qualifications, such as, masters or doctoral degrees, then they
mostly have this objective of promoting well-being of the society. In the promotion of well-
being of the society, they need to make use of their knowledge and skills. When they possess
masters or doctoral degrees, then they are mostly employed as professors in educational
institutions or even in leadership positions in various organizations. When they are in these
positions, then they make provision of information and generate awareness among the
individuals, not only in terms of academics, but also prepare them in a well-organized
manner. Their main objective is to enable the individuals acquire self-sufficiency, efficiently
perform their job duties and accomplish the desired goals and objectives. When the women
are in leadership positions, then it is their job duty to ensure that their students as well as the
subordinates are carrying out their job duties in a professional manner. In addition, they
inculcate the traits of morality and ethics among them.
Roles of Women within Employment Settings
Employment opportunities are acquired by women on the basis of their educational
qualifications, skills, abilities, and personality traits. When the women are engaged in various
types of employment opportunities, then they have certain roles to perform. Research has
indicated that women normally give more preference to their employment than family and
household. Several distinct categories of women migrate from rural and remote communities
to urban communities, with the main purpose of seeking employment opportunities. They are
also regarded as active participants in migration, both within and between countries (2004
World Survey on the Role of Women in Development, 2006). The women differ from each
other, usually on the basis of their skills and personality traits. One of the important aspects
that need to be taken into consideration regarding employment is, it should be obtained in
accordance to ones, skills, abilities, needs and requirements. When one possesses adequate
knowledge and information in terms of the job duties, only then they would be able to
achieve professional and personal goals.
The roles of women within the employment settings are different. Mostly, when
women get engaged in employment settings, then they not only just carry out their job duties,
for the purpose of generating income, but also they are required to work efficiently towards
promoting well-being of the community. The differences are mainly on the basis of
organizational goals, job duties, working environmental conditions, other members of the
organization, pay and reimbursements, skills and abilities, effective communication
processes, managerial functions, decision making and team-work. These have been explained
as follows:
Organizational Goals
Organizational goals are referred to the aims and objectives of the organization. The
performance of job duties is not just to obtain pay and incentives, but when the individuals
are performing their job duties, then they need to ensure that they are able to accomplish
organizational goals. Different organizations have different goals. For instance, educational
institutions, such as, nursery schools, formal schools, colleges and universities have goals and
objectives that are different from the other organizations that are engaged in production of
goods or services. When the individuals are recruited and selected within the organizations,
then they are required to undergo the training and development programs. Within these
programs, the first concept that is imparted to them is, information regarding organizational
goals. After they have acquired an efficient understanding of the organizational goals, then
they are imparted information, regarding the measures and strategies that are required to
achieve them. For example, nursery schools have the major goal of putting into practice the
teaching-learning methods and instructional strategies in such a manner that the foundation of
learning is built among the students appropriately. The teachers, employed in nursery schools
are required to augment their skills and abilities, so they can achieve the organizational goals
satisfactorily.
Job Duties
Job duties are referred to the tasks and activities that the individuals are required to
carry out within their jobs. In some of the jobs, the number of job duties are numerous,
whereas in others, they are less. For instance, when women are employed in educational
institutions, then their job duties are primarily concerned with imparting knowledge and
information to the students, so they are able to augment their understanding and career
prospects. On the other hand, when women are employed as colleges or universities as
professors, then they are required to specialize in a particular subject area. They are required
to take lectures as per the schedule. In addition to lectures, they are also required to get
involved into research and writing activities. Research and writing are regarded as an integral
part of the job duties of the educationist and a professor. Individuals are normally engaged in
writing papers, articles and even books. They present these papers in seminars and
conferences or send them to journals for publishing purposes. Job duties are different in other
areas, such as, banks, non-government organizations, manufacturing companies and so forth.
To perform one’s job duties well, it is vital for the individuals to possess adequate knowledge
and information.
Working Environmental Conditions
Within the working environmental conditions, there are number of aspects, which
need to be taken into account. These include, the amenities and facilities available, such as
restrooms, clean drinking water, electricity, lighting, heating and cooling equipment in
accordance to the weather conditions and so forth. Another aspect is, there should be
availability of technology, machines and tools that would enable the workforce to carry out
the job duties in a well-organized manner. In most cases, when individuals seek employment
opportunities within organizations, it is preferred that they should possess experience, which
may be short-term or long-term. When the individuals are experienced, then they possess
certain amount of knowledge, regarding the performance of their job duties. The major roles
of women employees within the working environment are, they should perform their job
duties in a well-organized manner. In some cases, disagreements may take place between two
or more individuals within the workplace, hence, it is vital for the individuals to possess
efficient awareness and ensure that conflicting situations get resolved in a peaceful manner.
One cannot work in isolation and individuals need to maintain effective terms and
relationships with each other and work in co-ordination.
Other Members of the Organization
Within the organization, there is a hierarchy. The hierarchy is different in all
organizations. For instance, in university departments, the head of the department is at the
top-most position, then are the assistant professors and then the administrative staff members.
The individuals, who are in the top positions possess leadership skills. They are vested with
the authority to direct, control and co-ordinate the functions of the department. Their
subordinates are required to obey their authority and when meetings take place, they are
allowed to give ideas and suggestions. To achieve the desired goals and objectives,
individuals are required to work in co-ordination with each other. When individuals are
working at the same level and are colleagues, then they undergo the training and development
programs. In these programs, they are provided with the entire information in terms of
organization, history, products or services, personnel, departments, goals and the performance
of job duties. When the individuals experience challenges and problems in the
implementation of job duties, then they usually obtain help from their colleagues. Hence, the
major roles are focused upon providing help and support and maintain good terms and
relationships with the other members of the organization.
Pay and Reimbursements
Pay and reimbursements are regarded as integral parts of one’s job duties. Individuals
aspire to attain employment opportunities, mainly for the purpose of generating income.
Reimbursement is an act of compensating someone, out of the pocket expense, by giving
them the amount of money equal to what was spent. It is also used in insurance, when the
provider pays for the expenses, after they have been paid directly by the policy holder or
another party. To earn pay and reimbursement, it is vital for the individuals to possess
adequate knowledge and information regarding their job duties. In organizations, when the
employees meet the desired expectations, then they are given benefits and incentives. The
benefits and incentives are in the form of bonuses, and rewards. In some cases, individuals do
not feel satisfied with the pay and reimbursements, still they are wholeheartedly dedicated
towards the performance of their job duties. When they please their supervisors and
employers with their job performance, then they are not only given an increase in salary, but
also incentives and rewards. Hence, in this case, the major roles of women and other
employees is making use of skills operatively in performing job duties up to the required
standards.
Skills and Abilities
Skills and abilities are referred to the facilities that provide assistance to the
individuals to put into practice the tasks and functions in a well-organized manner. Women
normally inculcate these among themselves through the educational qualifications that they
possess. Normally, educational programs that they undergo provide them the knowledge and
develop their skills and abilities that are necessary to render a significant contribution within
the working environment. Apart from educational qualifications, women augment their skills
and abilities by getting involved in other tasks and activities, such as, reading, writing,
researching, surfing the internet, development of effective communication skills and bringing
life experiences in the implementation of their tasks and activities. The members of the
organization are required to possess different types of skills, particularly when they are
carrying out roles and functions within the organization. These include, communication
skills, leadership and management skills, decision making and problem solving skills and
team-work and collaboration. These skills are vital for the individuals to possess, when they
are dealing with other individuals, especially clients or when they are in leadership positions.
When the individuals are in leadership positions, then they are vested with number of
responsibilities and ensure that they provide assistance to the individuals to accomplish the
desired goals and objectives.
Effective Communication Processes
Effective communication processes are considered to be of utmost significance,
particularly, when women are employed in various organizations. To carry out the job duties
in an appropriate manner, they are required to collaborate and get engaged into effective
communication with others. In the communication processes, the individuals give the
message and then receive feedback. Communication can take place in two forms, verbal and
written. Verbal communication is the communication, which takes place between two or more
individuals in an oral form. It mostly takes place through telephone or face to face. The other
form of communication is written communication, it takes place through the letters, notices,
pamphlets, emails, messages and other written forms. When the women are in leadership
positions or possess awareness, then they need to ensure that they make provision of all the
information to the other members of the organization to carry out the job duties effectively
and accomplish the desired objectives. On the other hand, when women are in managerial or
subordinate positions, then too, their role is to get engaged in effective communication
processes to implement the job duties in a well-organized manner. Hence, apart from
possession of skills and carrying out the job duties effectively, it is the essential role of the
women to get engaged into effective communication processes.
Managerial Functions
The managerial functions of planning, organizing, directing, staffing, co-ordinating
and controlling are an integral part of all the organizations. In some organizations, women are
vested with the authority to carry out these functions. Planning is a function that bridges the
gap from where one is and where one has to be in future. It requires the planning of tasks and
functions, which are required to get implemented. Organizing is a function that involves
organization of tasks and activities, which need to be carried out, particularly when
performing one’s job duties. Directing refers to guiding and leading the individuals in the
right direction. When the women are in leadership positions or supervisors, then they need to
ensure that they adequately direct their subordinates in the performance of job duties. Staffing
is the function of recruitment of individuals in the right positions, mainly in accordance to
their skills and abilities. Co-ordinating is referred to the task of ensuring that all the jobs and
activities are carried out in a well-organized manner. Balance need to be maintained in the
use of materials and in the production of goods. One needs to co-ordinate the use of resources
and the production processes that are required to get implemented. Controlling is the task of
ensuring that the performance of job duties, use of resources, finances and the behavioural
traits and attitudes of the members of the organization are adequately controlled.
Decision Making
Decision making is regarded as an integral part of one’s life. Within the organizations
too, it is regarded as indispensable. When one is overwhelmed with workload or is under
pressure, then their decision making abilities may get impeded. Women, particularly are
overwhelmed with number of responsibilities, at home as well as within the workplace. When
they are under pressure and are required to make decisions in haste, then they may not be able
to make sound decisions. Hence, when one is making decisions, it is vital to conduct an
analysis of the alternatives and then make appropriate decisions. When women in leadership
positions are involved into making of major decisions that are going to have an impact upon
all the members of the organization, then they need to organize meetings and obtain ideas and
suggestions from others. In some cases, decisions cannot be made in just one meeting, in that
case, there are organization of several meetings, until a productive decision is made. When
recruitment of individuals is made within various positions, then it needs to be taken into
consideration that they possess the required qualifications, skills and abilities, and experience.
Team-work
Team-work is regarded as an essential aspect of all the organizations. Even when a
woman is a principal of a nursery school, then too, she cannot carry out her job duties in
isolation. In the implementation of job duties, in the accomplishment of the desired goals and
objectives, in organization of competitions and events and so forth, they are required to
collaborate with other individuals, which may include, teachers and staff members. With
experience, individuals are able to augment their knowledge and abilities. Hence, the
teachers, who have been employed in nursery schools or other educational institutions for
long period of time, are able to give productive ideas and suggestions. Another important
aspect of team-work is, individuals are less likely to encounter problems and difficulties,
particularly in the performance of their job duties. In the implementation of projects or when
writing research papers, in some cases, two or more individuals are involved. Hence, when
individuals are working in a team, their work also gets divided and they are able to perform
the job duties well. Therefore, it can be stated that team-work helps the individuals to form
effectual terms and relationships with each other and it also leads to alleviation of stress and
pressure.
Conclusion
Women have important roles to perform within the society. The factors that are
influencing their participation are, socio-cultural factors, economic factors, infrastructural
factors and capacity building. The types of roles within the society that women implement
are, providing coaching classes, providing health care facilities, counselling and guidance,
extra-curricular activities, making donations, organization of activities and functions,
alleviation of criminal and violent acts, alleviating malnutrition, taking care of elderly
individuals and providing information and generating awareness. The factors influencing the
performance of women in various roles are their financial position, health conditions, location
of homes, educational qualifications, skills and abilities, family background and interest
areas. When they are involved in the performance of any tasks and activities, then it is vital
for them to ensure that they make appropriate use of resources, follow the policies and ensure
that they are able to benefit from them and promote their well-being through their efforts and
skills.
Women, in the present existence are primarily performing their roles for promoting
well-being of the society, through their engagement within the employment settings. Within
the employment setting, when they are carrying out their job duties, they need to possess
adequate knowledge and awareness. The reason being, their roles are influenced by
organizational goals, job duties, working environmental conditions, other members of the
organization, pay and reimbursements, skills and abilities, effective communication
processes, managerial functions, decision making and team-work. The roles within the
society are carried out on a paid or honorary basis. When women are home-makers and have
free time, then they are involved in the implementation of social work activities on an
honorary basis. Whereas, when women are engaged in various types of employments, such
as, educational institutions, training centres, production organizations, service organizations,
financial institutions, then they are mainly imparting knowledge to the students or clients that
would be beneficial to them. Hence, roles of women within the society are primarily
dedicated towards promoting well-being.
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