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Symbolic Color Associations in Goethe's Farbenlehre and its Application in the Pictorial Work of its Early Receptors

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In this article will be recognized the main contributions of Goethe in relation to a symbolic consideration of color for its use in the pictorial practice, from the connection of the chromatic polarities theory proposed by Goethe in the Farbenlehre with its section on the 'Effect of Color with Reference to Moral Associations'. A review of Goethe's Color Circle as the visual manifesto of his work and also to his previous Rose of Temperaments will be useful to understand how the German poet was visually thinking in giving a guide for the pictorial color application to the receptors of his Theory of Colors. Finally, the reception of this symbolical section of the Theory in the contemporary painters Philipp Otto Runge and J. M. William Turner will also be reviewed, and how each painter enriched the chromatic symbology proposed by Goethe from his own interest in religious and / or allegorical themes.
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Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science | 09 | 2018 ISSN 2384-9568
Ingrid Calvo Ivanovic
ingridcalvo@uchilefau.cl
Departamento de Diseño,
Facultad de Arquitectura y
Urbanismo, Universidad de Chile
Symbolic Color Associations
in Goethe’s Farbenlehre
and its application in the pictorial
work of its early receptors
ABSTRACT
In this article will be recognized the main contributions of Goethe in relation
to a symbolic consideration of color for its use in the pictorial practice, from the
connection of the chromatic polarities theory proposed by Goethe in the Farbenlehre
with its section on the ‘Effect of Color with Reference to Moral Associations’. A review
of Goethe’s Color Circle as the visual manifesto of his work and also to his previous
Rose of Temperaments will be useful to understand how the German poet was visually
thinking in giving a guide for the pictorial color application to the receptors of his
Theory of Colors. Finally, the reception of this symbolical section of the Theory in the
contemporary painters Philipp Otto Runge and J. M. William Turner will also be
reviewed, and how each painter enriched the chromatic symbology proposed by
Goethe from his own interest in religious and / or allegorical themes.
KEYWORDS
Goethe, Theory of Colors, Chromatic Polarities, Symbology of Color, Farbenlehre,
Pictorial Color, Color Circle
CITATION: Calvo Ivanovic I., (2018) ‘Symbolic Color Associations in Goethe’s Farbenlehre and its
application in the pictorial work of its early receptors’, Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture
and Science Journal, 09, pp. 65-73, DOI: 10.23738/ccsj.i92018.07
Received 08 February 2018; Revised 13 April 2018; Accepted 17 April 2018
Ingrid Calvo Ivanovic. MA in Images Studies, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Chile. Graphic Designer, Universidad de Chile. Assistant
Academic of the Departamento de Diseño of the Universidad de Chile and Co-Researcher of the Color Studies Program of the Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile. Active member of the International Color Association (AIC) and the Study Group on Color Education (SGCE) and
the Study Group on Environmental Color Design (ECD) of the AIC. Former Outreach Director of the Chilean Color Association (2009-2017)
and President of the Scientific Committee of the AIC2016 Color in Urban Life Interim Meeting of the AIC.
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1. INTRODUCTION
One of the foundations of Goethe’s Theory of
colors that has been recognized as relevant
for later studies is related to the aesthetic and
symbolic effects of color, which the German poet
describes in the Didactic Section of his theory.
The section called ‘Effect of Color with Reference
to Moral Associations’ contains specific guidelines
that correspond to an intensification of the polar
associations present in his theory, and which
are proportionated for the assessment and
understanding of color. These guidelines are
susceptible to be applied in the artistic practice,
since one of Goethe’s motivations when studying
color as a natural manifestation was to generate
knowledge about its possibilities of application
as a pictorial medium. For each perceived
color, Goethe associated an answer inside the
human being, from two fundamental ideas:
first, that vision is not a passive sense, but an
active, constituent, communicative disposition;
and second, that due to this condition there
is a correspondence between ‘external light’
(the environment) and ‘inner light’ (inside of the
viewer), by which vision comes into contact
with things, since ‘only the affine can know the
affine’ (Arnaldo 1992). The aesthetic and moral
effects of color that he points to, are then derived
from a sensitive action that is physiologically
determined and that this action is, according to
the poet, independent of cultural impositions or
conventions, although these are present anyway.
Goethe believed that colors have a clear effect
on the mind and feelings (Miguel-Pueyo 2009),
semantic associations with which he will begin
his reflection on the color code as a specific
language for art (Arnaldo 1992), and that will
be of special interest to the artists who will
later read his work, the receptors. This is clearly
illustrated from the following paragraph of the
Farbenlehre:
§758. Since color occupies so important
place in the series of elementary phenomena,
filling as it does the limited circle assigned
to it with fullest variety, we shall not be
surprised to find that its effects are at all times
decided and significant, and that they are
immediately associated with the emotions of
the mind. We shall not be surprised that these
appearances presented singly, are specific,
that in combination they may produce an
harmonious, characteristic, often even an
inharmonious effect on the eye, by means
of which they act on the mind […] Hence,
color considered as an element of art, may be
made subservient to the highest aesthetical
ends. (Goethe 1840)
The vindication of the color over the form that
Goethe raises constantly, it is based on the
consideration of color as a constituent aesthetic
means, with full and sovereign formal capacity;
this will be possible, to a great extent, due to
the universal physiological conditions that order
the chromatic values. The reactions of the
observer to the chromatic combinations will not
be for Goethe accidental answers, but derived
from a combination of effects and counter-
effects of the eye. The inherent artistic values
of color in painting would remain incomplete,
according to Goethe’s conclusions, if they are
not contemplated in relation to a receiver. The
aesthetic and moral effects of color are not
based only in the colored object –as traditional
doctrines had pointed out– but in relation to an
active subject.
2. ANALYSIS: GOETHE’S PROPOSALS
ON COLOR SYMBOLISM
When Goethe took his theory, the chromatic
circle, to image, he considered the inclusion of
the moral and sensitive effects within the circle, in
a textual way, positioning the different concepts
in places close to the colors that produce them.
The morphology of the circle will then serve as
support for the symbolism of color, and in the
same way, the various chromatic-conceptual
polarities will be visualized in the chromatic
circle. This chromatic circle corresponds –
probably– to the first color model in history that
incorporates concepts or written associations of
a non-technical or pictorial nature, but rather of
a cultural or symbolic nature.
An antecedent for the creation of Goethe’s
chromatic circle was the Rose of Temperaments
(1798-1799), a scheme he had designed with
Friedrich Schiller and which was based, in part,
on the fourfold system of the four elements of
Antiquity and the Middle Ages: the four humors,
the four cardinal points, the four seasons, the four
parts of the day, the four ages of man, the four
phases of the moon, etc. (Miguel-Pueyo 2009).
In that theory, red, for example, was associated
with air, midnight, north, winter, old age and
melancholy, reason, humor and judgment,
ideal and unity. The Rose also constitutes a
previous reference for the visualization of the
symbolic associations of color, in which the
different temperaments are indicated textually
and associated by their position to one of
the arcs of the circle. In the same way, the
different personalities also appear explicitly and
associated to a certain color of the corresponding
arc. Thus, in the warm or active arc of the
circle, we find the ‘choleric’ temperament and
its personalities ‘tyrants, heroes and adventurers’,
which will be associated with the colors red,
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orange and a part of yellow; while the ‘sanguine’
temperament and its ‘hedonistic, lovers and poets’
personalities will also be on the active arc of
the circle, mainly associated with yellow and a
part of green. On the passive side of the circle,
there are the ‘melancholic’ temperament along
with their personalities ‘pedants, philosophers and
rulers’, and the ‘phlegmatic’ temperament and their
personalities ‘historians, speakers and teachers’,
associated with purple and blue respectively.
When he writes the Farbenlehre and publishes
his chromatic circle, in 1810, Goethe takes up
the structure of textual associations within the
circle, present in the Rose. He develops his
chromatic circle from two concentric rings, in
which he incorporates the textual references,
but this time, on the colored areas. In the outer
ring, Goethe positions four concepts, dividing the
Figure 1 - Translation of the Rose of
Temperaments of J.W.V. Goethe and
F. Schiller, 1798.
Figure 2 - Translation of the Color
Circle of J.W.V. Goethe, 1810.
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circle into four quarters, which are related to the
concepts of the inner ring and are associated to
them by their color and closeness. In this way,
in the outer ring, we see the concept ‘fantasy’,
associated with violet and purple colors, which
contains the ‘superfluous’ (in violet) and part of
‘beauty’ (in purple). The ‘beauty’ is also contained
by the ‘reason’, purple and orange, which
also contains entirely the ‘nobility’ (in orange).
The ‘intelligence’, of yellow and green colors,
contemplates ‘goodness’ (in yellow) and ‘utility’ or
‘function’ (in green). Finally, the ‘sensuality’, of blue
and green colors, is related to the ‘function’ and
the ‘common’ (in blue).
These associations contemplated in the circle
correspond to a summary of what is stated in the
Theory, in the ‘effects’ section. These are symbolic
qualities that accentuate the distinction of the
two fundamental arcs of the circle. As expected,
the poet will refer to the moral-sensitive effects
of colors in terms of polarity, in their relation
to both arcs of the circle, active and passive,
yellow and blue. This polarization gives symbolic
characteristics related to light and illumination
to the colors that are close to yellow, and the
characteristic of darkness to the colors that are
close to blue (§778). On the active side, it is
possible to find the qualification of yellow as the
color of warmth and gladness (§773), cheerful
and magnificent, especially pleasant when
it has a reddish tone. Orange brings yellow to
exaltation, ‘intolerably powerful impression’ (§774).
Of the red-purple, Goethe will say that its effect
is ‘as singular as its nature’, with an impression of
‘grave dignity’ at the same time as ‘of serene grace’.
In his unique style, he will add that ‘the dignity of
age and amiableness of youth may adorn itself with
degrees of the same hue’ [1] (§796). Besides the
red-purple, the union of the two exalted poles
–yellow and blue– will occur and therefore
the calm, an ineffable satisfaction (§794). With
yellow, orange and red-purple, the active side is
‘in its highest energy’ (§775).
The colors of the passive side, blue, green and
violet, on the other hand, ‘produce a restless,
susceptible, anxious impression’ (§777). Blue will
be ‘a kind of contradiction between excitement and
repose’ (§779). Violet will have ‘something lively
without gladness’ (§789). In the green, on the other
hand, the color resulting from the mixture of both
poles, if none of them is above the other, ‘the eye
and the mind repose on the result of this junction as
upon a simple color’ (§802).
Considering the effects of colors, Goethe
introduces some reflections on the importance
of tradition and conventions in the meanings that
colors can acquire in different cultural contexts.
This is how the poet alludes, for example, to
the preferred colors of ‘lively nations’ such as
the French –the active side of the circle– in
comparison with the ‘sedate nations’, English
and German, and people aiming at ‘dignity of
appearance’, as Italians or Spaniards, who would
prefer the colors of the passive side (§838); or
the preferred colors of the fair-haired women in
comparison with the brunettes (§840); or the
disinclination of refined people to color (§841).
He also makes some suggestions for the pictorial
use of color in relation to harmony, classifying
the combinations into ‘characteristic harmonies’
and ‘non-characteristic’, and also regarding the
use of complementary colors. Towards the end
of the ‘effects’ section, Goethe refers to different
uses of color, which he names as symbolic
–natural or attached to Nature–; allegorical
–arbitrary or conventional–; and mystical.
All these considerations were very useful for
the artists who received the Farbenlehre, at
different times. The artists were attracted by the
seductive brilliance of their observations, as well
as its charming writing (Kemp 2000).
3. RESULTS: RECEPTION OF THE
‘EFFECTS’: RUNGE AND TURNER
Two early recipients of the Farbenlehre were
the German painter Philipp Otto Runge and the
English painter J.M. William Turner. Runge had
first-hand access to Goethe’s chromatic studies
since they were great friends and regularly
exchanged correspondence. Although Runge
would not be able to read the complete Theory
of Colors, since he passed away the same year
of its publication in 1810, he was perhaps the
most important consultant of the work, receiving
constantly commentaries and questions that
the poet sent him by letter. In parallel, Runge
developed his experimental series of works
called Hours of the Day, in which is believed he
was testing and applying the advances that
Goethe shared with him.
Turner, in the other hand, had access to one
of the copies of the first and perhaps most
influential translation of the Farbenlehre into
English, made by his friend the painter Charles
Eastlake. Turner was fascinated with the work
of the German poet and put it into practice in
his later pictorial work, alluding to the Theory
in the name of his series of two paintings: the
first called Light and Color (Goethe’s Theory), The
Morning after the Deluge - Moses Writing the Book of
Genesis and the second Shade and Darkness - The
Evening of the Deluge, both of 1843, where both
names show a clear allusion to the theory of
polarities –light and dark– as it is already said,
one of the foundations of Goethe’s work.
Returning to Runge, the German painter
manifested an important interest in the
symbolism of color. This was partly based on the
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ideas shared with Goethe via correspondence,
as well as his conviction that the pictorial
work could be used to express the moods of
man, through a series of natural symbols and
allegories, as exemplified in the following quote,
taken from a letter to his brother Daniel of 1802:
Nov. 7th, 1802: ‘Color is the final art, which
is and always will remain a mystery. It contains
the true symbol of the Trinity. Light or white is
good and the darkness is evil; that is why men
were given the revelation and colors came to
the world; that is, blue, red and yellow. Blue
is the Father and red is the true link between
earth and heaven. When both disappear,
then the fire appears in the night, which is
the yellow, or the Holy Spirit that is sent to
us; also, for this reason, the moon is yellow’
(Runge 1982).
From the quotation, it is possible to notice that
already towards 1802 great similarity existed in
Goethe and Runge with regard to the symbolic
association of the black-white polarity, in linking
white with the light and the good, and black with
darkness or evil. Although we have seen that for
Goethe color acquires fundamental importance
as a means to access sensitive experience,
for Runge it will have a religious-mystical tint,
since it ‘contains the true symbol of the Trinity’ and is
part of ‘the revelation of God towards men’. He also
refers to the three primary nuances of Goethe’s
symbolism, yellow, red and blue, but these are
also defined in religious terms, associating
the blue color with the Father, red with ‘the link
between heaven and earth, between God and men’,
Jesus Christ; and yellow as the color of the Holy
Spirit.
From these associations, it might seem
difficult to link the rationality of Runge in the
construction of his geometric-mathematical
model Die Farben-Kugel (The Sphere of Colors)
with the mystical intensity with which he refers
to color in his letters to Daniel. However, in the
same publication of The Sphere, the painter
included another brief scheme that alludes to
the symbolic qualities of colors: a six-pointed
star inscribed within a circle, which will
summarize some of his chromatic associations.
Runge contrasts what he considers to be ‘ideal
colors’ in the upper pole of the scheme, where
the red color is placed, with the ‘real colors’ of
the lower pole, or shades of green. Red is linked
in Die Farben-Kugel to love (Liebe) and green
with the physical world. The cold colors, blue
and violet, are linked to the woman (Weib) and
the feminine passions (Weibl: Leidenschaft),
respectively; Warm colors, yellow and orange,
on the other hand, are related to man (Mann)
and male passions (Männl: Leidenschaft).
Some theorists, such as Martin Kemp, argue
that Runge took much of the mysticism of the
seventeenth century, and sought particular
inspiration in the writings of Jakob Böhme. From
Böhme’s work, Aurore oder Morgenrote in Aufgang,
of 1620, Runge would have adopted the divine
triangle of the Trinity as an omnipresent principle
of organization in the universe, as in the three
fundamental primary colors –yellow, red and
blue– (Kemp 2000). In another letter to Daniel
in 1803, Runge again alludes to the trinity in
chromatic terms:
‘the one and the three, that is, the longing,
the love and the will; yellow, red and blue; the
point, the line and the circle; the muscles, the
blood and the bones’ (Runge 1982).
When trying to take its symbolism to the
pictorial practice, Runge generated his project
of four pictorial works called Hours of the Day he
initiated in 1802 and that was composed by the
morning, the day, the dusk and the night. For
all, he developed sketches in engraving, but
he only managed to paint the allegory of The
Morning (1809-1810). This series was widely
admired by Goethe and is perhaps the most
representative work that links the mystical and
symbolic associations of Runge with different
characters and nuances. The Morning presents
a symmetrical image with the representation of
a sunrise, its Renaissance appearance is bathed
with the warm brilliance of the golden light and
translucent blue-purple shadows, which mark
the chromatic counterpoint.
Inside and around the work sprout the flowers,
the sun rises warmly from behind the earth, all
the souls seem to ascend towards the ethereal
blue and a baby in the center below alludes to
the new day that is received by the angels. Other
angels in the middle of the play surround Aurora,
who is holding a white lily, symbol of purity,
which ‘is in the highest light’, as Runge wrote in
Figure 3 - Hexagram of color and
correspondences of P.O. Runge, Die
Farben-Kugel, 1810.
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another letter, combining the brightness of the
symbolic trilogy, of yellows, reds and blues,
which are protagonists of the painting. The
warm and cold nuances are perfectly balanced,
as in the background of the work where you
can see an impeccable transition between the
complementary blue and yellow. For Runge,
color and light within the work express the
progress of the earthly soul towards liberation.
In the case of Turner, his interest in symbolic
representation with color dates back to his
lectures prior to reading the Farbenlehre. For
the English painter, the three primary colors
constituted the epitome of all visible creation.
In a lecture of 1818, he pointed out that
yellow represents the medium –that is, light–,
red represents material objects, while blue
corresponds to distance in the landscape –or also
to the air–, and the three colors are associated
with morning, afternoon and night, respectively.
However, Turner was constantly skeptical about
attempts to arrange colors into rigid groups
of emotional or symbolic associations: ‘the
practice of these sentiments of color, particularly
in those who follow color as sentiment [...] they
must be left with those who framed them as
emblematical concepts and typical allusions’
(Gage 2001); in some of his lectures he even
exemplified contrasting the emblematic and
crude use of the color choices of artists like
Carlo Dolci, among others, with more sensitive
and expressive chromatic palettes like those of
painters like Nicolas Poussin.
The polarity, the division of colors in Goethe’s
circle on the active and passive sides was one
of the topics that most interested Turner in his
reading of the Farbenlehre. His series of works
Shade and Darkness and Light and Color (Goethe’s
Theory) –both of 1843–, is precisely the pictorial
response of Turner to the consideration of color
Figure 4 - Philipp Otto Runge, The
Morning, 1809-10. Oil on Canvas,
Kunsthalle, Hamburg.
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in polar terms. But this same series of works
will also be fundamental to understand how
Turner granted semantic associations to colors,
based on polarity but also related to his interest
in linking religious allegories with the forces of
Nature, from the inclusion of a poem to foot of
the series of paintings, The Fallacies of Hope.
The painting Shade and Darkness, The Evening of
the Deluge is accompanied by the first part of the
poem, which gives an account of the ‘darkness’
of the Deluge:
‘The morn put forth her sign of woe
unheeded:
But disobedience slept; the dark’ning deluge
closed around,
And the last token came: the giant framework
floated,
The rous’d birds forsook their nightly shelters
screaming
And the beasts waded to the ark’.
This work is the abstraction of a landscape that
announces the disaster, dark and bluish. Turner’s
interest was to claim the sublimity of darkness,
the sadness of the black. The greens and purple
blues present in the work are taken by the
painter on the passive side of Goethe’s circle,
which the poet called ‘restless, susceptible,
anxious impressions’, and which for Kemp will
correspond to ‘dramatic use’ (Kemp 323) of the
negative polarity of the Farbenlehre. In the
case of Turner, darkness –or shadow– does not
have the symbolic character of ‘passive’, but
rather, associates a negative force or power.
The Deluge is the storm that advances, where
the forces of darkness threaten to hide the new
dawn.
On the other hand, the iconography of Light and
Color (Goethe’s Theory), presents a ‘brightness’
absolutely opposite and complementary to that
of his companion:
‘The ark stood firm on Ararat: th’returning
sun
Exhaled earth’s humid bubbles, and emulous
of light
Reflected her lost forms, each in prismatic
guise
Hope’s harbinger, ephemeral as the summer
fly
Which rises, flits, expands and dies’.
This work is presented with the rounded shape
of a fragile sphere, a bubble like the ones
with which Goethe and Turner experimented
Figure 5 - J.M.W. Turner, Shade and
Darkness, The Evening of the Deluge,
1843. Oil on Canvas, London, Tate.
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–with water and soap– in order to obtain the
prismatic colors, the rainbow, on their surface.
Goethe referred in the Farbenlehre on numerous
occasions to the ‘floating kaleidoscope’ of the
surface of the bubbles. In the poem, Turner refers
textually to the ‘wet bubbles’ and the ‘prismatic’
character. Light and Color represents the morning
after the Deluge, the sun rising after the storm,
through the visual and emotional power of the
reflected and refracted prisms. Turner replaced
the classic pictorial figure of hope, the rainbow,
with ‘prismatic bubbles’ expressing his interest in
optical and chromatic theory.
When John Ruskin asked Turner what this work
meant, the author would respond with only three
words: ‘red, blue and yellow’ (Gage 126) that is,
the foundation of color. Both works, Shade and
Darkness and Light and Color, as a unique series,
are a reflection on the symbolism of color,
correspond to the reduction of color, in one case,
and the deployment of its totality, in the other.
The spectator experiences directly, due to color,
the state of mind that the works manifest.
Both The Morning of Runge and this series of
works by Turner are the consecration of the
romantic tendency to a greater consideration of
color as a resource to account for the feeling and
subjectivity in the pictorial work. To a greater or
lesser extent, they are the test of the symbolic
associations of Goethe, mediated by Runge
and Turner, in a state of common thought. They
deal specifically with the elemental power
of color and light, as the chromatic attitude
of other artists such as John Constable or
Caspar David Friedrich, and later of Eugène
Delacroix. All these artists contributed to raise a
prosperous era for the representation with color,
which wouldn’t have a point of return –happily
would have said Goethe– and is what makes
Romanticism so important for what authors
such as Manlio Brusatin, Michel Pastoureau or
Ariel Jiménez have more recently defined as ‘the
History of Color’, an incipient and prosperous field
of knowledge.
FUNDING
This research did not receive any specific grant
from funding agencies in the public, commercial,
or not-for-profit sectors.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
I declare that no financial o personal interests
have affected my objectivity, and this
investigation has no conflicts of interest.
Figure 6 - J.M.W. Turner, Light and
Color (Goethe’s Theory), The Morning
after the Deluge – Moses Writing the
Book of Genesis, 1843.Oil on Canvas,
London, Tate.
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NOTES
[1] In the section of the sensitive-moral effect of color it is
recurrent to find poetic descriptions regarding the use of
colors proposed by the poet. This is the main way in which
Goethe alludes to artists, granting them exemplary literary
images to promote a more conscious application of color.
This can be further illustrated by paragraph §848, when
he states: ‘from the moral associations connected with the
appearance of colors, single or combined, their aesthetic
influence may now be deduced for the artist’.
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In this article, I argue that Goethe's way of science, understood as a phenomenology of nature, might be one valuable means for fostering a deeper sense of responsibility and care for the natural world. By providing a conceptual and lived means to allow the natural world to present itself in a way by which it might speak if it were able, Goethe's method offers one conceptual and applied means to bypass the reductive accounts of nature typically produced by standard scientific and humanist perspectives. I illustrate this possibility largely through examples from Goethe's Theory of Color (1810).
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Traducción de: Gespräche mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens Johan Wolfgang Goethe, escritor alemán nacido en 1749 en Frankfurt, es autor de numerosas obras, varias de ellas creadas durante extensos intervalos de tiempo o redactadas en más de una ocasión. La novela epistolar Las desventuras del joven Werther (1774) es uno de sus títulos significativos previos a la partida de Goethe a Weimar, donde permaneció de 1775 a 1786. Este período enmarcó una primera versión del Meister (La vocación teatral de Wilhelm Meister) y un drama sobre Fausto, que en líneas generales corresponde a la primera parte del Fausto definitivo. Tras viajar a Italia, la segunda etapa en Weimar corresponde a la segunda redacción del Meister (Los años de aprendizaje de Wilhelm Meister, 1795-1796); el período de colaboración con Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller; la aparición de la primera parte del Fausto (1808); la publicación de la novela Las afinidades electivas (1809) y la segunda parte del Meister (Los años de peregrinaje de Wilhelm Meister). Goethe culminó, poco antes de morir, la segunda parte del Fausto, publicada póstumamente el mismo año de su fallecimiento (1832) y pasó a la historia no sólo como el escritor por antonomasia de la lengua alemana, sino como uno de los autores clásicos de la literatura universal.
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Arnaldo, J. (1992) 'Introducción. Teoría de los colores de J.W.V. Goethe', Madrid: Colegio Arquitectura Técnica de Murcia, pp. 7-52.
Theory of Colors: Translated from the German with Notes by
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