Bioactive Knits Fiber-based bio-receptive architectural composite materials for augmented knitted tectonics with graded material distribution

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The project explores the distinct textile tectonics and structural potential of bio-solidified composites through traditional knitting techniques with non-uniform materials. A handcrafted soft textile column is gradually transformed into a rigid structure by an active textile microbiome of Sporosarcina Pasteurii inducing a calcite matrix on fiber level. The fabrication system hereby can be understood as an architectural mediator staging an explorative multi-actor fabrication process, allowing the interdependent inputs from the digital, the microbiological as well as the human body to merge into one co-creating entity.

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Microbial mats are ecosystems that arguably greatly affected the conditions of the biosphere on Earth through geological time. These laminated organosedimentary systems, which date back to > 3.4 Ga bp, are characterized by high metabolic rates, and coupled to this, rapid cycling of major elements on very small (mm-µm) scales. The activity of the mat communities has changed Earth's redox conditions (i.e. oxidation state) through oxygen and hydrogen production. Interpretation of fossil microbial mats and their potential role in alteration of the Earth's geochemical environment is challenging because these mats are generally not well preserved.Preservation of microbial mats in the fossil record can be enhanced through carbonate precipitation, resulting in the formation of lithified mats, or microbialites. Several types of microbially-mediated mineralization can be distinguished, including biologically-induced and biologically influenced mineralization. Biologically-induced mineralization results from the interaction between biological activity and the environment. Biologically-influenced mineralization is defined as passive mineralization of organic matter (biogenic or abiogenic in origin), whose properties influence crystal morphology and composition. We propose to use the term organomineralization sensu lato as an umbrella term encompassing biologically influenced and biologically induced mineralization. Key components of organomineralization sensu lato are the “alkalinity” engine (microbial metabolism and environmental conditions impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index) and an organic matrix comprised of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which may provide a template for carbonate nucleation. Here we review the specific role of microbes and the EPS matrix in various mineralization processes and discuss examples of modern aquatic (freshwater, marine and hypersaline) and terrestrial microbialites.
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The natural world around us provides excellent examples of functional systems built with a handful of materials. Throughout the millennia, nature has evolved to adapt and develop highly sophisticated methods to solve problems. There are numerous examples of functional surfaces, fibrous structures, structural colours, self-healing, thermal insulation, etc., which offer important lessons for the textile products of the future. This paper provides a general overview of the potential of bioinspired textile structures by highlighting a few specific examples of pertinent, inherently sustainable biological systems. Biomimetic research is a rapidly growing field and its true potential in the development of new and sustainable textiles can only be realized through interdisciplinary research rooted in a holistic understanding of nature.
The mechanical properties of weft-knitted fabrics are strongly related to fabric structure, yarn properties and fabric direction. These properties may be designed according to the needs of a particular application by choosing the fibres and yarns with the most appropriate properties and placing them in the most appropriate structure to obtain the required fibre architecture. The flexibility provided by weft-knitting technology enables the production of a wide range of structures with different properties. 3D structures and directionally oriented structures (DOS) are reviewed and represent types of textile fabrics developed for engineering applications, especially for the reinforcement of composite materials. In composite materials the ends of straight or nearly straight yarns are introduced to engineer the fabric characteristics and to enhance the fabric properties in the required directions, thus the fabric produced offers the ideal combination of excellent mechanical properties and cost-effective production. Simulation and modelling are reviewed, these being very important tools for engineering design. They may enable the development of new structures with particular properties and a significant reduction in time and costs of sample manufacturing and testing. The industrial applications of weft-knitted fabrics are reviewed.
In literature, there exist many investigations about the application of knitted textiles as a reinforcement material in composites. Although majority of them are mainly centered on flat plates, tubular knitted fabric is used in current study to develop composite pipes. Produced composite pipes are subjected to axial compression before and after 5J impact test. Force–time and force–displacement curves are obtained, and compression stress is calculated according to wall thicknesses of the pipes. It is observed that the interlacing of yarns in knitted tubular fabric through the thickness direction increases the splitting toughness of composite pipes. Although the compression failure takes place as buckling in both nonimpacted and impacted composite pipes, damage propogation in the transverse direction is not observed. The results of the study are presented in detail.
Conference Paper
The use of bio-mediated processes for geotechnical applications seems very promising for numerous underground geotechnical and environmental applications including waterproofing, soil stabilisation, pollution treatment, etc. As an alternative to existing consolidation methods, Soletanche Bachy has investigated a microbially induced carbonate precipitation process that showed to be potentially competitive for the treatment of fine-grained soils. Calcareous sandstone like material can be obtained within a few days, without significant modification of the permeability of the starting material. The process is implemented by percolating bacteria and calcifying solution throughout the mass to be treated. The paper presents some results of up-scaling works that have led to the validation of the industrial concept. The use of the process for mitigating liquefaction risks in seismic areas is discussed and design rules for real site application are detailed.
Knitted Fabric Composites. Advances in Knitting Technology
  • Miro Duhovic
  • Debes Bhattacharyya
Duhovic, Miro, and Debes Bhattacharyya. 2011. Knitted Fabric Composites. Advances in Knitting Technology. doi:10.1533/978085
A Novel Grouting Process for the Reinforcement of Low Permeability Soils with the Use of Biocementation by Biocalcis ®
  • Esnault Filet
  • Ira Gutjahr
  • Jean-François Mosser
  • Leslie Sapin
  • Khalil Ibrahim
Esnault Filet, Annette, Ira Gutjahr, Jean-François Mosser, Leslie Sapin, and Khalil Ibrahim. 2016. "A Novel Grouting Process for the Reinforcement of Low Permeability Soils with the Use of Biocementation by Biocalcis ®," no. June: 1-4.