ArticlePublisher preview availableLiterature Review

Physical Literacy, Physical Activity and Health: Toward an Evidence-Informed Conceptual Model

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Physical literacy (PL) provides a powerful lens for examining movement in relation to physical activity (PA) and motor skill outcomes, environmental context, and broader social and affective learning processes. To date, limited consideration has been given to the role PL plays in promoting positive health behaviours. There is no clear conceptual framework based on existing empirical evidence that links PL to health, nor has an evidence-informed case been made for such a position. The purpose of this paper is to (1) present a conceptual model positioning PL as a health determinant, and (2) present evidence in support of PL as a health determinant, drawing on research largely from outside physical education. Viewing PL from the perspective of a multidimensional, experiential convergence process enables it to be differentiated from other models. However, parallels between our model and existing models that focus on movement competence are also drawn. Arguing from a pragmatic perspective on PL, we present evidence for positioning PL as a determinant of health from two literature sources: research on motor coordination disorders in children, and associations between motor competence, PA and health in typically developing children. Statistical modelling approaches consistent with the concept of PL are discussed. Results from these approaches—confirmatory factor analysis and cluster analysis—support the idea that measures related to motor competence, motivation and positive affect work in an integrative manner to produce differences in PA and subsequent health outcomes in children. There is increasing interest in PL, particularly in the field of public health. Presenting a model that explicitly links PL to health can lead to the generation of new research questions and the possibility of broadening impact beyond the context of physical education alone. To date, there has been little conceptual attention to what positioning PL as a determinant of health means. By providing an evidence-based model of PL as a determinant of health, we hope to further the discussion and stimulate increased empirical research in the field.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Vol.:(0123456789)
Sports Medicine (2019) 49:371–383
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01063-3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Physical Literacy, Physical Activity andHealth: Toward
anEvidence‑Informed Conceptual Model
JohnCairney1,2 · DeanDudley3· MatthewKwan2,4· RheannaBulten1· DeanKriellaars5
Published online: 11 February 2019
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
Abstract
Physical literacy (PL) provides a powerful lens for examining movement in relation to physical activity (PA) and motor skill
outcomes, environmental context, and broader social and affective learning processes. To date, limited consideration has been
given to the role PL plays in promoting positive health behaviours. There is no clear conceptual framework based on existing
empirical evidence that links PL to health, nor has an evidence-informed case been made for such a position. The purpose of
this paper is to (1) present a conceptual model positioning PL as a health determinant, and (2) present evidence in support of
PL as a health determinant, drawing on research largely from outside physical education. Viewing PL from the perspective of a
multidimensional, experiential convergence process enables it to be differentiated from other models. However, parallels between
our model and existing models that focus on movement competence are also drawn. Arguing from a pragmatic perspective on PL,
we present evidence for positioning PL as a determinant of health from two literature sources: research on motor coordination
disorders in children, and associations between motor competence, PA and health in typically developing children. Statistical
modelling approaches consistent with the concept of PL are discussed. Results from these approaches—confirmatory factor
analysis and cluster analysis—support the idea that measures related to motor competence, motivation and positive affect work
in an integrative manner to produce differences in PA and subsequent health outcomes in children. There is increasing interest
in PL, particularly in the field of public health. Presenting a model that explicitly links PL to health can lead to the generation of
new research questions and the possibility of broadening impact beyond the context of physical education alone. To date, there
has been little conceptual attention to what positioning PL as a determinant of health means. By providing an evidence-based
model of PL as a determinant of health, we hope to further the discussion and stimulate increased empirical research in the field.
* John Cairney
john.cairney@utoronto.ca
1 Faculty ofKinesiology andPhysical Education, University
ofToronto, 55 Harbord St, Toronto, ONM5S2W6, Canada
2 Infant andChild Health Lab, Department ofFamily
Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
3 Faculty ofHuman Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney,
NSW, Australia
4 Department ofKinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton,
ON, Canada
5 Department ofPhysical Therapy, College ofRehabilitation
Sciences, University ofManitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Key Points
Physical literacy (PL) has been defined as the compe-
tence, confidence and knowledge to be physically active
for life. We provide an expanded definition and then pre-
sent a conceptual model positioning PL as a health and
disease determinant, based on evidence drawn largely
from work outside physical education.
Evidence from research on motor coordination disor-
ders in children, and from associations between motor
competence, physical activity and health in typically
developing children, support the positioning of PL as a
determinant of health and disease.
By providing conceptual direction concerning what
positioning PL as a determinant of health and disease
means, and outlining an evidence-based model of PL as
a determinant of health, further discussion and empirical
research may be conducted in the field.
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Traditionally, there have been more articles attempting to define the concept than articles studying the phenomena, including their possible effect or consequences on other aspects, such as health or well-being [18]. In this respect, Cairney, Dudley [18] conducted one of the first studies to establish a link between PL and health. ...
... Traditionally, there have been more articles attempting to define the concept than articles studying the phenomena, including their possible effect or consequences on other aspects, such as health or well-being [18]. In this respect, Cairney, Dudley [18] conducted one of the first studies to establish a link between PL and health. Specifically, they showed a model that positions PL as a primary determinant of health, through a fully mediated model involving physical activity (PA), positive physiological adaptations resulting from acute and chronic exposures to PA, and possible moderating (interactive) effects of both individual levels, as well as social/environmental conditions that may intervene in the process. ...
... Another relevant aspect is the growing interest in the study of PL from a health perspective. Proof of this is that the second most cited article (with 100 citations) is "Physical literacy, physical activity and health: Toward an evidence-informed conceptual model" by Cairney et al. [18]. In this sense, the results reported that two of the clusters where the most common keywords were evaluated referred to terms related to this topic, such as health, obesity, or quality of life ( Figure 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article empirically provides a global overview of physical literacy, which allows for the understanding of the structure of the epistemic community studying literacy for healthy living. Publications registered in the Web of Science are analyzed using bibliometrics (spatial, productive, and relational) based on data from 391 records, published between 2007 and April 2022, applying five bibliometric laws and using VOSviewer software for data and metadata processing and visualization. In terms of results, we observe an exponential increase in scientific production in the last decade, with a concentration of scientific discussion on physical literacy in seven journals; a production distributed in 46 countries situated on the five continents, but concentrated in Canada and the United States; co-authored research networks composed of 1256 researchers but with a production concentrated of around 2% of these, and an even smaller number of authors with high production and high impact. Finally, there are four thematic blocks that, although interacting, constitute three specific knowledge production communities that have been delineated over time in relation to health and quality of life, fitness and physical competence, education, and fundamental movement skills.
... A origem do conceito de literacia física (LF) remonta ao século XIX [17], no entanto, foi apenas no inicio do século XXI que se assistiu à sua rápida disseminação entre profissionais e académicos [17,18], suportando-se nas discussões geradas pelos trabalhos de doutoramento de Margaret Whitehead [19] que pela primeira vez ofereciam suporte teórico e filosófico ao conceito [2,20]. Atualmente, a LF é reconhecida como central nas agendas da educação física de qualidade [21][22][23], desporto [22,24] e de saúde pública [25,26], informando a mudança de políticas e práticas que valorizem e promovam a concretização de objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável [27] como a criação de parcerias comunitárias entre sectores [28] para promoção do acesso equitativo e de qualidade a oportunidades de educação [29] e de desenvolvimento da saúde ao longo da vida [25,30]. ...
... A origem do conceito de literacia física (LF) remonta ao século XIX [17], no entanto, foi apenas no inicio do século XXI que se assistiu à sua rápida disseminação entre profissionais e académicos [17,18], suportando-se nas discussões geradas pelos trabalhos de doutoramento de Margaret Whitehead [19] que pela primeira vez ofereciam suporte teórico e filosófico ao conceito [2,20]. Atualmente, a LF é reconhecida como central nas agendas da educação física de qualidade [21][22][23], desporto [22,24] e de saúde pública [25,26], informando a mudança de políticas e práticas que valorizem e promovam a concretização de objetivos de desenvolvimento sustentável [27] como a criação de parcerias comunitárias entre sectores [28] para promoção do acesso equitativo e de qualidade a oportunidades de educação [29] e de desenvolvimento da saúde ao longo da vida [25,30]. ...
... O constructo de LF possui, desta forma, um valor acrescido para os sectores da educação, desporto e saúde pública ao reportar-se à aprendizagem integrada, adquirida e aplicada através do movimento e em contextos de atividade física ao longo da vida [3]. Este valor advém do facto de, enquanto referencial teórico, a LF permitir adotar uma visão mais holística e integrada de análise do movimento e dos resultados da atividade física e de habilidades motoras, relacionando-os com um conjunto alargado de processos de aprendizagem social e afetiva [25] que desafiam o desenvolvimento da motivação, confiança, competência física, do conhecimento e da compreensão dos indivíduos para praticarem atividade física e se moverem num conjunto diversificado de contextos ao longo da vida [1,20,31,32]. ...
Poster
Introduction: physical literacy (PL) can be described as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engaging in physical activities (PA) for life [1,2]. PL is the holistic learning that occurs through movement and physical activity and integrates physical, psychological, social and cognitive capabilities [3]. It is developed in relation to individuals and their context. This poster aims to review the problem that may justify and enhance the study of the development of PL through blue physical activities (BPA). Development: blue spaces, understood as outdoor environments – natural or built predominantly constituted by water, offer opportunities for adhering to PA behaviors [4]. BPA allow the improvement of adaptive capacities [5], overall physical fitness, general health levels, the adoption of active citizenship behaviors and the reduction of antisocial behaviors [6,7]. A case study developed in Portugal reveals that BFA framed in physical education (PE) and school sports (SS) settings generate physical, mental, educational and social benefits in children and young people [8]. However, particularly in public education, Portuguese PE has not had the active role that the SS has recently assumed in equitable aquatic education of children and young people. The geographical and cultural background of Portugal, along with the Portuguese adolescent low levels of PA [9,10], the increased incidence of premature drowning deaths on the Portuguese population over 15 years of age [11] and the current threats to the sustainability of blue spaces and their biodiversity [12] , lead us to the necessary reflection on how to develop PL through BPA can promote citizenship actions in the different areas of intervention/problems listed and lead to improved health and quality of life. Conclusion: Aquatic environments are a neglected context in PL development research. This hinders the design of holistic aquatic education programs informed by scientific evidence [13,14] and capable of supporting the development of citizens willing to take responsibility for their participation in eclectic, intense and significant PA throughout life; promoting individual and collective safety in the aquatic environments and intervene in the preservation and sustainability of blue spaces. Considering the geography, culture, economic and social value that blue spaces have for Portugal, schools should be recognized as a privileged context through which we can educate for meaningful and safe interaction with aquatic environments [15,16]. Keywords: physical literacy, aquatic education, active citizenship, physical education, school sports.
... This notion describes the interface of several constructs in relation to children and adolescents' PA participation, which encompasses the motivation, confidence, physical competence, and knowledge required to value and take responsibility for life [11]. PL is a critical worldwide public health initiative that supports ongoing engagement with PA [12] and is deemed the ultimate outcome in the domain of physical education (PE) [13]. PL is rapidly becoming the guiding ideology in promoting PE reforms in school settings to obtain maximum health benefits [14]. ...
... The lifestyles of Europe and Asia have changed over the past 40 years, mainly due to advancements in technology, a fact that resulted in how children spend their leisure time, with more time spent in sedentary behavior and therefore less PA participation [35]. Given that Cairney, Dudley [12] model highlights the bidirectional relationship between PA and PL, the downward trends of children's PA levels may impact their overall PL levels. Taking this into account, PA and PL promotion should be addressed at the policy level across nations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background The concept of physical literacy (PL) has been advocated as a crucial determinant for increasing the quality and quantity of movement and physical activity (PA). Children’s PL has been rarely compared across countries, although it has shown low levels in many countries. This study aimed to explore and compare children’s PL from China and Greece. Methods A total of 327 Chinese (47.1% boys) and 295 Greek children (48.1% boys) aged 8 to 12 years participated in this study. Children’s PL was objectively assessed by the Chinese and Greek version of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy, 2nd edition, which consists of four domains: Daily Behavior, Physical Competence, Motivation and Confidence, and Knowledge. and Understanding. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) on total PL and domain scores were conducted in both countries, respectively. Results MANOVA revealed significant differences in total PL and distribution scores between two countries (Pillais’ trace = 0.260, F = 53.855, p
... Ultimately, however, a physical education environment that invites high participation, enjoyment and a wide array of games and exercise opportunities (as well as embracing diversity across all strands of the curricula such as health-related fitness, aquatics, and adventure education) is essential to the requisite development of both strength and flexibility skills among male and females (Dudley, 2015;Kriellaars et al., 2019). It is within the best interests of physical education stakeholders to provide a well-rounded curriculum for their students in their efforts to promote healthy and active individuals, with diverse movement abilities, in addition to strong social and teamwork skills Cairney et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
In prior research, Irish youth displayed poor motor competence across fundamental movement skills (FMS) and functional movements (FM). Our purpose in this study was to compare FMS and FM across male and female Irish adolescents and to determine whether there are associations between these movement domains. We collected data on 373 adolescents (178 females; M age = 14.38, SD = 0.87 years) from six Irish secondary schools, including motor competence testing of 10 FMS, and 7 FM. Overall levels of motor competence of both FMS and FM were low, and certain levels of dysfunctional movement were high. We observed significant sex-based differences in both FMS and FM, and there was a moderate association between FMS and FM that warrants further investigation. There is a need for societal intervention and policy changes to address low levels of motor competence among adolescent youth.
... The growth and development of this eSports sport do not only occur in the Asian region, but throughout the world, even some media reports that eSports world championships such as the League of Legends World Championship and The International 2018 beat the number of spectators for sports in general such as the NBA, Baseball World Series, and Stanley Cup (Rosenthal, 2021 Sports are all systematic activities to encourage, foster, and develop physical, spiritual, and social potential. Sport is identical to physical activity, with the material object being the human motion (Cairney et al., 2019). When e-sports entered one of the sports that were contested in an exhibition at the 2018 Asian Games in Indonesia, a question arose among the public. ...
Article
Full-text available
Esports is a strong phenomenon, especially in the world of children, youth, and youth. This study aims to contribute new ideas, ideas, and perspectives in the debate on Esports discourse in the world of sports, as well as in order to raise the awareness of sports academics to study more deeply about esports from various points of view of sports science. The research method used is library research. Data collection techniques by conducting a review study of books, literature, notes, journals and reports. Judging from the three main elements in sports, physical, competition and institutional, Esports cannot be identified as a sport mainly because of the physical activity missing in Esports. Although the movements that look amazing cannot be ascribed to Esports players, they require some motor skills in playing the game including hand-eye coordination and speed of action with strategic and tactical understanding but that is still considered lacking and still far from being a sport. Besides that, there is an element of addiction and symptoms of lack of movement, if you play video games too often, it is also a consideration in determining Esports as a sport. It is necessary for the role of various stakeholders and appropriate government institutions to handle esports so that they can develop and contribute as expected
... Moderate physical activity is known to be beneficial to physical and mental health. It prolongs life and reduces the risk of mortality (Cairney et al., 2019;Vedøy et al., 2020). The positive effect of exercise is achieved when a person practices sports regularly and sets optimal physical activity objectives (Bull et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Moderate physical activity is known to be beneficial to physical and mental health. It prolongs life and reduces the risk of mortality. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to explore the changes in the blood levels of HPS70 in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and non-athletes. Approach. The measurements were taken before and after physical activity in order to evaluate the rate of the muscle adaptation processes. The study involved 120 apparently healthy people aged 18 to 30 years (60 Chinese and 60 Russians). Of them, 47 (39.2%) were women and 73 (60.8%) were men. Group 1 (n = 40) included apparently healthy young people who led a sedentary lifestyle and were physically inactive. Group 2 (n = 40) consisted of professional athletes who were engaged in rowing. Group 3 (n = 40) involved professional athletes who practiced artistic gymnastics. Results. There were higher basal levels of HSP70 in the blood of athletes as compared to non-athletes. The values registered for rowing athletes exceeded those registered for non-athletes by 2.83 times (13.08 ± 1.15 ng/mL versus 4.62 ± 0.73 ng/mL, p < 0.05). In gymnasts, the basal levels of HSP70 exceeded those measured in non-athletes by 4.20 times (19.40 ± 1.86 ng/mL versus 4.62 ± 0.73 ng/mL, p < 0.05). After submaximal physical exercise, the concentrations of HSP70 and total anti-HSP70 in the blood of athletes returned to the baseline values within 24 hours. As to non-athletes, they still followed an increasing trend at 24 hours post-exercise. This is indicative of impairment of the adaptive processes in the body of non-athletes and inability of their body to restore cellular homeostasis in due time. Conclusions. Thus, the blood levels of HSP70 may be regarded as a marker of the rate and plasticity of the adaptive processes occurring in the body after physical exercise.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction After COVID-19 restrictions, hybrid solutions were established that combined smart working and work in presence. Workplace conditions significantly impact employees' lives, particularly in terms of meeting their needs and promoting their wellbeing. Based on a socio-ecological and multilevel methodology, the UP150 concept (Proactive Office 150) represents a possible innovative solution to meet employees' needs and valorize flexible work. It encourages physical exercise and active breaks during the typical workday by using particular architectural modifications, a dedicated App, and physical activity professionals as wellness coaches. The present study is the last step of the preliminary actions planned to check the benefits of the UP150 concept and aims to explore the workers' perceptions after experiencing this project. Methods The qualitative analysis of a preliminary survey (concerning information about the company structure and workers' habits) performed before conducting a randomized controlled trial intervention study and the analysis of the semi-structured interviews after 8 weeks of a UP150 experience served as datasets for this study and have been examined and discussed. Results In the preliminary survey, the young (under 40) and generally active (57% of the workers) reported being motivated to exercise but inhibited by a lack of time and a heavy workload. After 8 weeks at a modified workplace designed in accordance with the motive behind the UP150, the workers displayed noticeable positive perceptions and appreciation. Discussion The qualitative analysis confirmed and supported the effectiveness of the UP150 concept that previous research had already found in quantitative parameters related to employees' motor efficiency, psychophysical status, and amount of physical activity. Participants reported beneficial perceived effects on their wellness and psychophysical status following a UP150 experience. Moreover, the concept improved social relationships and increased motivation. In conclusion, the UP150 concept efficiently fostered a positive perception of physical exercise and directed the employees toward the assumption of healthy behaviors fitting the physical literacy paradigm.
Article
Objective The aims of this study were to: 1) analyse the longitudinal trends in the evolution of the association between children’s actual and perceived motor competence (AMC and PMC, respectively) according to the source of information: children, parents, and Physical Education (PE) teachers; 2) assess whether children, parents, and PE teachers can report on children’s AMC longitudinally (considering the children’s age, sex, and the type of motor competence). Design and method A sample of 108 typically developing Spanish children (47.12% girls) from five schools participated in this study. AMC and PMC (locomotion, object control and overall MC) data was collected at three time points one year apart. Longitudinal mixed effects models with repeated measures were conducted. Results Regardless of the domain of MC, no longitudinal association between children’s AMC and PMC was found. Parents also exhibited limited capability to proxy report their children’s AMC longitudinally. PE teachers’ proxy reports of children’ AMC were associated over time with object control and overall level. Conclusion This study confirms the necessity of specific training in AMC to effectively report on children’s motor competence. PE teachers can be seen as a potential source to empower children’s AMC and PMC development over time.
Article
Physical education discourse has increasingly discussed the importance of physical literacy, but this discourse has not been fully incorporated into physical education programs around the world. Together with the emphasis from the Future Education 2030 Physical Education Development Report, the inclusion of physical literacy should be upheld. Hence, how the physical education pedagogy is applied to achieve physical literacy effectively should be discussed. Using a scoping review, the current study aimed to investigate the pedagogical approaches adopted in enhancing students’ physical literacy and its association with physical literacy. The review (N = 21) has summarized the definition of physical literacy, mainly defined by the International Physical Literacy Association and Whitehead (2007). It has also captured various pedagogical approaches, including Teaching Games for Understanding, Non-linear Pedagogy, Integrated Approach going beyond physical education lessons, and other student-centered methods. The results indicated that Non-linear Pedagogy showed a better effect on students’ physical literacy compared to Linear Pedagogy and Performance-based Pedagogy. It is highly recommended that a student-centered with autonomy-supportive pedagogical approach was considered as the most effective form of pedagogy for promoting and enhancing children's physical literacy. In addition, the curriculum and assessment of physical education must also be reviewed in order to align and expand the role of pedagogy in delivering physical literacy. Moreover, more evidence-based research utilizing lesson observation and randomized control trials should be conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of different pedagogies, thereby raising the level of awareness and utilization of pedagogy in classrooms.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have consistently been found to be at higher risk of physical inactivity, as they tend to have deficits or difficulties performing the complex motor skills required for participation. Consequently, children with DCD have also been found to be at greater risk for cardiorespiratory disease and mental health issues as they enter adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, to effectively intervene and promote physical activity among children with DCD, it is important that we understand the factors related to their behaviors or participation. Recent Findings The current paper is a scoping review to examine the salient psychosocial factors related to physical activity among children with DCD based on three of the most common behavioral theories in physical activity research (i.e., social cognitive theory [SCT], self-determination theory [SDT], theory of planned behavior [TPB]). Summary Our results found 14 relevant studies, with most that are based in social cognitive theory and self-determination theory. Self-efficacy, perceived motor competence, and the broader construct of motivation were consistently found to be positively related to physical activity behaviors. Most studies, however, were cross-sectional in design and did not test the theories in its entirety. More studies designed to test behavioral theories are needed in the DCD literature. However, current findings suggest that physical literacy-based interventions that simultaneously target confidence to move and motivation to engage in different activities could be an effective strategy to better promote physical activity among children with DCD.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. Objective: The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). Methods: Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria. English-language, peer-reviewed published papers containing empirical studies of physical literacy were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Qualitative methods included: (1) interviews; (2) open-ended questionnaires; (3) reflective diaries; (4) focus groups; (5) participant observations; and (6) visual methods. Quantitative methods included: (1) monitoring devices (e.g., accelerometers); (2) observations (e.g., of physical activity or motor proficiency); (3) psychometrics (e.g., enjoyment, self-perceptions); (4) performance measures (e.g., exergaming, objective times/distances); (5) anthropometric measurements; and (6) one compound measure. Of the measures that made an explicit distinction: 22 (61%) examined the physical domain, eight (22%) the affective domain; five (14%) the cognitive domain; and one (3%) combined three domains (physical, affective, and cognitive) of physical literacy. Researchers tended to declare their philosophical standpoint significantly more in qualitative research compared with quantitative research. Conclusions: Current research adopts diverse often incompatible methodologies in measuring/assessing physical literacy. Our analysis revealed that by adopting simplistic and linear methods, physical literacy cannot be measured/assessed in a traditional/conventional sense. Therefore, we recommend that researchers are more creative in developing integrated philosophically aligned approaches to measuring/assessing physical literacy. Future research should consider the most recent developments in the field of physical literacy for policy formation.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To provide a broad overview of the state of physical activity (PA) research in the form of (1) definitions of PA, (2) health benefits, (3) prevalence, (4) correlates and (5) interventions. Design: A high-level overview of published reviews of the literature. Results: Regular PA is an effective primary and secondary preventative strategy against at least 25 chronic medical conditions with risk reduction typically in the 20–30% range. While approximately 75% of adults meet recommended PA guidelines, the prevalence is slightly lower for women compared to men, and considerably lower for youth, older adults and those in higher income countries. Motivation, self-efficacy and self-regulation remain consistent correlates of PA. Interventions show PA changes in the small effect size range for adults and youth but the heterogeneity is considerable across studies. Only a few (aggregate of behavioural regulation strategies, supervision, high frequency of contact) reliable moderators of intervention success were identified across study quality, sample characteristics, theory/behaviour change techniques and delivery modes/settings. Conclusion: PA research should continue to examine the mechanisms causing health outcomes, the dose that can lead to clinically relevant changes in health status, the scope and validity of PA surveillance and innovative behaviour change techniques, while improving the reach and duration of PA interventions.
Article
Purpose: Physical literacy (PL) has been proposed as a key construct for understanding participation in physical activity. However, the lack of an agreed-upon definition and measure has hindered research on the topic. The current study proposed and analyzed the construct validity of a PLmodel comprised of motor competence, perceived competence, motivation, and enjoyment. Method: The authors tested three different models in two samples: Grade 5 (N = 1,448) and Grade 7 students (N = 698). Results: The PL construct was best represented as a hierarchical model in both the Grade 5, X ² (295) = 791.90, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation = .035; and comparative-fit index = .97, and the Grade 7 samples, X ² (295) = 557.21, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation = .036; and comparative-fit index = .98, samples. Discussion: Future work is needed to design and evaluate a PL measure consistent with our model. Such work will help generate further research and understanding of PL.
Article
Purpose: The relationship between organized sport participation and positive youth development is well established. However, over-involvement in sport and organized physical activity (e.g., dance) has been identified as having a potentially negative impact. Over-scheduling and its impact on free play is one concern, given the importance of free play to overall health and development. Currently, it is not known if greater participation in organized sport has a positive or negative effect on discretionary free play in children and youth. Methods: The Physical Health and Activity Study Team (PHAST) study was a five-year, longitudinal cohort study that followed 2278 fourth grade children (ages 9 to 10 years). Organized sport and free play was assessed at in the fall of each school year from fifth to eighth grade using self-report questionnaires. Results: Using mixed effects modeling, we found that higher participation in organized sport was associated with increased participation in free play over time (Coef = 0.20, p<.001). While this effect was independent of age and socioeconomic status, we did find that boys with high levels of organized participation reported the highest levels of free play overall. Conclusion: Possible explanations for this association are related to the role sport might play in supporting physical literacy and the development of fundamental movement skills, allowing children to participate in more active free play pursuits. It might also be the case that active children simply seek out both organized and unorganized physical activity opportunities during this developmental period. Limitations and implications for further research and policy are discussed.
Article
Numerous skill batteries assess fundamental motor skill (e.g., kick, hop) competence. Few skill batteries examine lifelong physical activity skill competence (e.g., resistance training). This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the “Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery”. Development of the skill battery occurred in three stages: i) systematic reviews of lifelong physical activity participation rates and existing motor skill assessment tools, ii) practitioner consultation and iii) research expert consultation. The final battery included eight skills: grapevine, golf swing, jog, push-up, squat, tennis forehand, upward dog and warrior I. Adolescents (28 boys, 29 girls; M = 15.8 years, SD = 0.4 years) completed the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery on two occasions two weeks apart. The skill battery was highly reliable (ICC = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72–0.90) with individual skill reliability scores ranging from moderate (warrior I; ICC = 0.56) to high (tennis forehand; ICC = 0.82). Typical error (4.0; 95% CI 3.4–5.0) and proportional bias (r = −0.21, p = .323) were low. This study has provided preliminary evidence for the content validity and reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in an adolescent population.
Article
Purpose: School-age children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have poor health-related fitness (HRF), but little is known about when these deficits emerge. The purpose of this study was to determine if 4- and 5-year old children who meet the criteria for DCD exhibit poorer HRF than typically developing (TD) children, and if this relationship is mediated by vigorous physical activity (VPA) engagement. Methods: Five-hundred and ninety-two children participated (age 5.0±0.6 years) from the Coordination and Activity Tracking in CHildren (CATCH) study. Motor skills were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2), with groups defined as having DCD (≤5th %ile), at risk for DCD (rDCD; 6th-16th%ile), and typically developing (TD; >16th percentile). Measures of body composition included body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Musculoskeletal fitness assessments included standing long jump distance, as well as peak and mean power assessed using a 30s Wingate protocol on a pediatric cycle ergometer. Time to exhaustion on a progressive, treadmill test was used to determine aerobic fitness. Flexibility and VPA were assessed using a sit-and-reach test and 7-day accelerometry, respectively. Results: Children in the DCD group had the poorest musculoskeletal and aerobic fitness, whereas TD children had the highest. No differences in body composition among groups were found. Daily vigorous physical activity was similar among groups and did not explain HRF differences. Conclusions: Preschool children with DCD have decreased anaerobic and aerobic fitness compared to TD children; however, VPA and body composition appear to be less affected by DCD in the early years. Early motor interventions may be able to improve fitness and reduce the risk of hypoactivity and obesity as children with DCD get older.
Article
Purpose of review: The health benefits of physical activity and exercise are clear; virtually everyone can benefit from becoming more physically active. Most international guidelines recommend a goal of 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Many agencies have translated these recommendations to indicate that this volume of activity is the minimum required for health benefits. However, recent evidence has challenged this threshold-centered messaging as it may not be evidence-based and may create an unnecessary barrier to those who might benefit greatly from simply becoming more active. This systematic review evaluates recent systematic reviews that have examined the relationship between physical activity and health status. Recent findings: Systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses (based largely on epidemiological studies consisting of large cohorts) have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature mortality and the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic medical conditions. The relationships between physical activity and health outcomes are generally curvilinear such that marked health benefits are observed with relatively minor volumes of physical activity. Summary: These findings challenge current threshold-based messaging related to physical activity and health. They emphasize that clinically relevant health benefits can be accrued by simply becoming more physically active. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/HCO/A42.
Article
Objective: The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined – setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Design: Participants (Ns = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1–3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Main Outcome Measures: Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Results: Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. Conclusion: These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.