Dietary Pattern among Coronary Heart Disease Outpatients Attending Ahmed Gasim Hospital at Bahri Locality, Khartoum North

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Coronary artery disease is the most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death worldwide. Diets high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol increase the risk of CHD by raising LDL cholesterol levels. In contrast, individuals consuming diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fatty acids appear to have low risk of CHD due to the presence of antioxidants, folic acid, B-vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, and others .The objective of this study, to assess of the dietary pattern among Sudanese coronary heart disease outpatients who attending Ahmed Gasim Hospital at Bahri locality, Khartoum North during the period from July 2013 to April 2014.The study was case finding hospital based, Sample size was 72 respondents attended the hospital during the period of July 2013 to September 2014 and they selected by convenience sampling. Results revealed that50% of the respondents at the age group of ≥50 years with high body mass index of 30.6% and 38.9 % for overweight and obese respectively. High cholesterol and triglycerides level were recorded among the respondents (22.2%), (11%)respectively,26.4% with low density lipoprotein cholesterol while 59.7% with low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, 76.4% of the patients consumed high dietary fats, 12.5% consumed saturated fats , consumption of 61.1% of sodium was demonstrated among the respondents and 33.3% of them consumed less than 2000Kcal per day. Low dietary fibers intake, high dietary protein and low carbohydrate consumption among the respondents were found to be 52.8%, 63.9%, 65.3% respectively. Respondents' age was positively correlated with HDL-C(R=-0.284)**, P=0.015), and LDL-C level (R=0.377**, P=0.004). Results exhibited that the body mass index was positively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol(R=0.280**,P= 0.003) and the dietary fat was correlated with cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (R=0.312*P= 0.022),(R=0.351* P= 0.011) respectively. Significant correlation was also found between consumption of foods contain niacin with HDL-C(R=0.421*, P=0.02); and foods contain vitamin c with LDL-C (R==0.322,P=0.035).The study concluded that, there were relationships between some dietary components and coronary heart disease. Effective awareness should be raised among Sudanese population for healthy dietary intake to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Background:

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Body iron status has been suggested to be related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Biologically plausible mechanisms for this association have been described, however epidemiological studies on iron status and CVD risk have provided conflicting results. The lack of consistency is likely explained by differences in the study design, the measures used for the assessment of iron status, the definition of outcomes, and adjustment for confounders. To help clarify the available evidence, we report a systematic review of published cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies evaluating the relationship between different measures of iron status and CVD risk. The most likely scenario that emerges from the available studies is that, in the reference range, iron status has a neutral effect. Extreme conditions of iron deficiency, as well as of iron overload, are associated with modestly increased CVD risk, although with different proposed mechanisms.
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No dietary recommendations for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are given by the National Institute of Medicine, the United States Department of Agriculture, European Food and Safety Authority and the American Diabetes Association. In contrast, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the Canadian Dietetic Association both promote <25% MUFA of daily total energy consumption, while the American Heart Association sets a limit of 20% MUFA in their respective guidelines. The present review summarizes systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies investigating the effects of MUFA on cardiovascular and diabetic risk factors, cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. Electronic database Medline was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using "monounsaturated fatty acids", "monounsaturated fat", and "dietary fat" as search terms with no restriction to calendar date or language. Reference lists and clinical guidelines were searched as well. Sixteen relevant papers were identified. Several studies indicated an increase of HDL-cholesterol and a corresponding decrease in triacylglycerols following a MUFA-rich diet. The effects on total and LDL-cholesterol appeared not consistent, but no detrimental effects on blood lipids were observed. Values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found to be reduced both during short- and long-term protocols using high amounts of MUFA as compared to low-MUFA diets. In type 2 diabetic subjects, MUFA exerted a hypoglycemic effect and reduced glycosylated hemoglobin in the long term. Data from meta-analyses exploring evidence from long-term prospective cohort studies provide ambiguous results with respect to the effects of MUFA on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). One meta-analysis reported an increase in CHD events, however, most meta-analyses observed a lesser number of cases in participants subjected to a high-MUFA protocol. Although no detrimental side effects of MUFA-rich diets were reported in the literature, there still is no unanimous rationale for MUFA recommendations in a therapeutic regimen. Additional long-term intervention studies are required to characterized efficacy and effectiveness of recommending MUFA-rich diet among general and clinical populations.
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Countries in Africa and the Middle East bear a heavy burden from cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of coronary heart disease is promoted in turn by a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyles. Patients in Africa and the Middle East present with myocardial infarction at a younger age, on average, compared with patients elsewhere. The projected future burden of mortality from coronary heart disease in Africa and the Middle East is set to outstrip that observed in other geographical regions. Recent detailed nationally representative epidemiological data are lacking for many countries, and high proportions of transient expatriate workers in countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates complicate the construction of such datasets. However, the development of national registries in some countries is beginning to reveal the nature of coronary heart disease. Improving lifestyles (reducing calorie intake and increasing physical activity) in patients in the region will be essential, although cultural and environmental barriers will render this difficult. Appropriate prescribing of pharmacologic treatments is essential in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. In particular, recent controversies relating to the therapeutic profile of beta-blockers may have reduced their use. The current evidence base suggests that beta-blockers are as effective as other therapies in preventing cardiovascular disease and that concerns relating to their use in hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been overstated.
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Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a drug used to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. Its antiatherosclerotic activity is believed to result from lipid-modifying effects, including its ability to decrease LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol levels in plasma. Here, we report that in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, we found that nicotinic acid inhibited disease progression under conditions that left total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol plasma levels unaffected. The antiatherosclerotic effect was not seen in mice lacking the receptor for nicotinic acid GPR109A. Surprisingly, transplantation of bone marrow from GPR109A-deficient mice into atherosclerosis-prone animals also abrogated the beneficial effect of nicotinic acid. We detected expression of GPR109A in macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. In macrophages from WT mice, but not from GPR109A-deficient animals, nicotinic acid induced expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCG1 and promoted cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, activation of GPR109A by nicotinic acid inhibited MCP-1-induced recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity and impaired macrophage recruitment to atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast with current models, our data show that nicotinic acid can reduce the progression of atherosclerosis independently of its lipid-modifying effects through the activation of GPR109A on immune cells. We conclude therefore that GPR109A mediates antiinflammatory effects, which may be useful for treating atherosclerosis and other diseases.
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Zinc is a vital element in maintaining the normal structure and physiology of cells. The fact that it has an important role in states of cardiovascular diseases has been studied and described by several research groups. It appears to have protective effects in coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy. Intracellular zinc plays a critical role in the redox signaling pathway, whereby certain triggers such as ischemia and infarction lead to release of zinc from proteins and cause myocardial damage. In such states, replenishing with zinc has been shown to improve cardiac function and prevent further damage. Thus, the area of zinc homeostasis is emerging in cardiovascular disease research. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge and suggest further avenues of research.
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Diets with increased protein and reduced carbohydrates have been shown to improve body composition, lipid and lipoprotein profiles, and glycemic regulations associated with treatment of obesity and weight loss. Derived from these outcomes, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are also being examined for treatment of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have been found to have positive effects on reducing risk factors for heart disease, including reducing serum triacylglycerol, increasing HDL cholesterol, increasing LDL particle size, and reducing blood pressure. These diets appear particularly attractive for use with individuals exhibiting the atherogenic dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have also been investigated for treatment of type 2 diabetes with positive effects on glycemic regulation, including reducing fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose and insulin responses, and the percentage of glycated hemoglobin. Specific effects of increasing protein compared with reducing carbohydrates have not been extensively investigated. Additional research is needed to determine specific levels of protein, carbohydrate, and fat for optimum health of individuals who differ in age, physical activity, and metabolic phenotypes.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the impact of obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI), and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) according to glucose tolerance status. Methods: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 123,746 Japanese men aged 18-72years (normal glucose tolerance: 72,047; prediabetes: 39,633; diabetes: 12,066). Obesity was defined as a BMI≥25kg/m(2). Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as those with one or more of the following conditions: hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL cholesterol. A Cox proportional hazards regression model identified variables related to CAD incidence. Results: The prevalences of obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes and diabetes were 21%, 34% and 53%, whereas those for metabolically unhealthy people were 43%, 60% and 79%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a metabolically unhealthy phenotype increases hazard ratios (HRs) for CAD compared with a metabolically healthy phenotype, regardless of glucose tolerance status (normal glucose tolerance: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.32-2.95; prediabetes: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.85-4.55; diabetes: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18-3.06). HRs for CAD among metabolically unhealthy non-obese diabetes patients and obese diabetes patients with a metabolically unhealthy status were 6.14 (95% CI: 3.94-9.56) and 7.86 (95% CI: 5.21-11.9), respectively, compared with non-obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and without a metabolically unhealthy status. Conclusion: A metabolically unhealthy state can associate with CAD independently of obesity across all glucose tolerance stages. Clinicians may need to consider those with at least one or more conditions indicating a metabolically unhealthy state as being at high risk for CAD regardless of glucose tolerance status.
This small study has determined the effect of vitamin C on myocardial reperfusion in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study was to explore whether antioxidant vitamin C infusion before the procedure is able to affect the incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) in patients undergoing PCI. In this prospective single-centre randomized study, 532 patients were randomized into 2 groups: the vitamin C group, which received a 3-g vitamin C infusion within 6 hours before PCI, and a control group, which received normal saline. The primary end point was the troponin I-defined PMI, and the second end point was the creatine kinase (CK)-MB-defined PMI. Separate analyses using both end points were performed. PMI was defined as an elevation of cardiac biomarker values (CK-MB or troponin I) > 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), alone or associated with chest pain or ST-segment or T-wave changes. After PCI, the incidence of PMI was reduced, whether defined by troponin or by CK-MB, compared with the control group (troponin I, 10.9% vs 18.4%; P = 0.016; CK-MB, 4.2% vs 8.6%; P = 0.035). Logistic multivariate analysis showed that preprocedure use of vitamin C is an independent predictor of PMI either defined by troponin I (odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.97; P = 0.037) or by CK-MB (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.99; P = 0.048). In patients undergoing elective PCI, preprocedure intravenous treatment with vitamin C is associated with less myocardial injury.
—We examined topographic distributions of atherosclerosis and their relation to risk factors for adult coronary heart disease in right coronary arteries and abdominal aortas of more than 2000 autopsied persons 15 through 34 years of age. We digitized images of Sudan IV–stained fatty streaks and of manually outlined raised lesions and computed the percent surface area involved by each lesion in each of 6 regions of each artery. In abdominal aortas of 15- to 24-year-old persons, fatty streaks involve an elongated oval area on the dorsolateral intimal surface and another oval area in the middle third of the ventral surface. Raised lesions in 25- to 34-year-old persons involve an oval area in the distal third of the dorsolateral intimal surface. In other areas of the abdominal aortas of older persons, fatty streaks occur but raised lesions are rare. In the right coronary arteries of 15- to 24-year-old persons, fatty streaks are most frequent on the myocardial aspect of the first 2 cm. Raised lesions follow a similar pattern in 25- to 34-year-old persons. High non-HDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol concentrations are associated with more extensive fatty streaks and raised lesions in all regions of both arteries. Smoking is associated with more extensive fatty streaks and raised lesions of the abdominal aorta, particularly in the dorsolateral region of the distal third of the abdominal aorta. Hypertension is not associated with fatty streaks in whites or blacks but is associated with more extensive raised lesions in blacks. Risk factor effects on arterial regions that are vulnerable to lesions are ≈25% greater than risk factor effects assessed over entire arterial segments. These risk factor effects on vulnerable sites emphasize the need for risk factor control during adolescence and young adulthood to prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis.
Elevated levels of blood lipids are well-documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Current classification schemes and treatment levels for hyperlipidemia are based on the National Cholesterol Education Panel's Adult Treatment Program-3 (ATP-III) guidelines. Extensive research over the past decade has raised the question whether or not ATP-III guidelines are sufficiently aggressive. New guidelines from ATP-IV are expected to be released in the near future, but in the meantime physicians are faced with uncertainty about how low to target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whether to pharmacologically treat high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and how best to achieve target goals.
Many studies have examined the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and the intake of essential micronutrients (potassium (K+), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and sodium (Na+)). They may separately reduce the CVD incidence to a small degree over the short term levels. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of micronutrients in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of myocardial infarction (MI) patients of both genders where ages ranged from 45 to 60 years at first, second and third heart attack (n = 232). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched referent subjects (n = 103) and patients with cardiovascular without MI, of both genders were also selected. The elemental concentrations in scalp hair and whole blood were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-induced acid digestion. The validity and accuracy was checked by means of certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of K+ and Mg(2+) were significantly reduced, while the Na+ level was higher in blood and scalp hair samples of MI patients as com-pared to control subjects of both genders (p < 0.05). The levels of Ca(2+) in the biological samples of MI patients were found to be higher than in referents, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The urinary levels of these elements were found to be higher in MI patients than in the age-matched healthy controls. Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that deficiency and efficiency of some essential micronutrients may play a role in the development of heart disease. The micronutrient supplements containing K+ and Mg(2+) may be beneficial, but because of potential risks, use should be carefully monitored and restricted to men taking potassium-losing diuretics.
Meat consumption is inconsistently associated with development of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes mellitus, limiting quantitative recommendations for consumption levels. Effects of meat intake on these different outcomes, as well as of red versus processed meat, may also vary. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence for relationships of red (unprocessed), processed, and total meat consumption with incident CHD, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. We searched for any cohort study, case-control study, or randomized trial that assessed these exposures and outcomes in generally healthy adults. Of 1598 identified abstracts, 20 studies met inclusion criteria, including 17 prospective cohorts and 3 case-control studies. All data were abstracted independently in duplicate. Random-effects generalized least squares models for trend estimation were used to derive pooled dose-response estimates. The 20 studies included 1 218 380 individuals and 23 889 CHD, 2280 stroke, and 10 797 diabetes mellitus cases. Red meat intake was not associated with CHD (n=4 studies; relative risk per 100-g serving per day=1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.23; P for heterogeneity=0.36) or diabetes mellitus (n=5; relative risk=1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.46; P=0.25). Conversely, processed meat intake was associated with 42% higher risk of CHD (n=5; relative risk per 50-g serving per day=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.89; P=0.04) and 19% higher risk of diabetes mellitus (n=7; relative risk=1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.27; P<0.001). Associations were intermediate for total meat intake. Consumption of red and processed meat were not associated with stroke, but only 3 studies evaluated these relationships. Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of CHD and diabetes mellitus. These results highlight the need for better understanding of potential mechanisms of effects and for particular focus on processed meats for dietary and policy recommendations.
Over the past half century scientific data support the strong relationship between the way a person or population lives and their risk for developing or dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). While heredity can be a major factor for some people, their personal health habits and environmental/cultural exposure are more important factors. CVD is a multifactor process that is contributed to by a variety of biological and behavioral characteristics of the person including a number of well-established and emerging risk factors. Not smoking, being physically active, eating a heart healthy diet, staying reasonably lean, and avoiding major stress and depression are the major components of an effective CVD prevention program. For people at high risk of CVD, medications frequently need to be added to a healthy lifestyle to minimize their risk of a heart attack or stroke, particularly in persons with conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia. Maintaining an effective CVD prevention program in technologically advanced societies cannot be achieved by many high-risk persons without effective and sustained support from a well-organized health care system. Nurse-provided or nurse-coordinated care management programs using an integrated or multifactor approach have been highly effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality of high-risk persons.
No prospective studies have examined the association between calcium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in Japanese populations with a low mean calcium intake. Between 1988 and 1990, 110,792 Japanese subjects (46,465 men and 64,327 women) 40 to 79 years of age without a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer, completed a lifestyle questionnaire including food intake frequency under the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. By the end of 1999, after 515,029 person years of follow-up, 566 deaths from stroke (101 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 140 intraparenchymal hemorrhages, and 273 ischemic strokes) and 234 deaths from coronary heart disease had been documented. The intake of total calcium tended to be inversely associated with mortality from total stroke but not from coronary heart disease or total cardiovascular disease for men and women. The inverse association with dairy calcium intake was apparent for total stroke, both hemorrhagic and ischemic. The multivariate relative risk for men with highest versus lowest quintiles of dairy calcium intake was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.81) for total stroke, 0.46 (0.23 to 0.91) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 0.53 (0.29 to 0.99) for ischemic stroke; corresponding relative risks for women were 0.57 (0.38 to 0.86), 0.51 (0.28 to 0.94), and 0.50 (0.27 to 0.95). Dietary calcium intake from dairy products was associated with reduced mortality from stroke for Japanese men and women.
Every year, more young people start the slow progressive injury that eventually becomes cardiovascular disease and death. It could be prevented with nutrition education, but medical efforts focus more on treatments for older people than on preventing primary causes of disease in young people. Two avoidable risks are prevented by simple dietary interventions: (1) Eat more omega-3 and less omega-6 fats, so tissues have less intense n-6 eicosanoid action, and (2) eat less food per meal to lower vascular postprandial oxidant stress. An empirical diet-tissue relationship was developed and put into an interactive personalized software program to aid informed food choices.
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