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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth are suggested to be overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care. In the current study, we assess whether LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in unstable housing and foster care and examine disparities in school functioning, substance use, and mental health for LGBTQ youth versus heterosexual youth in unstable housing and foster care. METHODS: A total of 895 218 students (10–18 years old) completed the cross-sectional California Healthy Kids Survey from 2013 to 2015. Surveys were administered in 2641 middle and high schools throughout California. Primary outcome measures included school functioning (eg, school climate, absenteeism), substance use, and mental health. RESULTS: More youth living in foster care (30.4%) and unstable housing (25.3%) self-identified as LGBTQ than youth in a nationally representative sample (11.2%). Compared with heterosexual youth and youth in stable housing, LGBTQ youth in unstable housing reported poorer school functioning (Bs = −0.10 to 0.40), higher substance use (Bs = 0.26–0.28), and poorer mental health (odds ratios = 0.73–0.80). LGBTQ youth in foster care reported more fights in school (B = 0.16), victimization (B = 0.10), and mental health problems (odds ratios = 0.82–0.73) compared with LGBTQ youth in stable housing and heterosexual youth in foster care. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities for LGBTQ youth are exacerbated when they live in foster care or unstable housing. This points to a need for protections for LGBTQ youth in care and care that is affirming of their sexual orientation and gender identity.

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... Youth with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions are notably overrepresented in the U. S. foster care system (Wilson, Cooper, Kastanis, & Nezhad, 2014;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015). We will use the acronym LGBTQ + inclusively to refer to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning, as well as a range of other identities including queer, asexual, pansexual, demisexual etc. Mounting data from U.S. foster care youth indicate that LGBTQ + youth often enter the child welfare system at higher rates because of familial rejection of the youths' sexual orientation, gender identity, and/or gender expression (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Freeman, et al., 2008;Woronoff & Estrada, 2006). Familial rejection of youths ' LGBTQ + identities can lead to abuse or neglect or result in the youth running away from home (Baams et al., 2019;Freeman, et al., 2008;Woronoff & Estrada, 2006). ...
... We will use the acronym LGBTQ + inclusively to refer to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning, as well as a range of other identities including queer, asexual, pansexual, demisexual etc. Mounting data from U.S. foster care youth indicate that LGBTQ + youth often enter the child welfare system at higher rates because of familial rejection of the youths' sexual orientation, gender identity, and/or gender expression (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Freeman, et al., 2008;Woronoff & Estrada, 2006). Familial rejection of youths ' LGBTQ + identities can lead to abuse or neglect or result in the youth running away from home (Baams et al., 2019;Freeman, et al., 2008;Woronoff & Estrada, 2006). For example, a study of 75 foster care youth found very high rates of in-home violence for transgender youth (44%) and LGB youth (29%) (Baker, Kroehle, Patel, & Jacobs, 2018) and this type of violence could lead to the removal of the youth from the home or result in the youth running away from home which also increases their risk of foster care involvement. ...
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ+) youth are notably overrepresented in the foster care system, often entering the child welfare system because of abuse or neglect associated with familial rejection of youths’ sexual orientation, gender identity, and/or gender expression. LGBTQ+ foster youth are often exposed to identity-based victimization within the foster care system. There is a call for evidence-informed interventions aimed at improving the well-being of LGBTQ+ youth in systems of care. This study examines the initial effectiveness of AFFIRM Caregiver, a 7-session, manualized intervention aimed at enhancing affirmative parenting practices among foster parents. AFFIRM Caregiver was delivered to foster parents (n = 103) at two U.S. sites. Findings indicate significant improvements in affirmative caregiving attitudes, behaviors, and self-efficacy at post-test, as well as at the 3-month follow-up assessment. Given positive preliminary results, AFFIRM Caregiver represents a promising option to address a particularly notable challenge to the safety and well-being of LGBTQ+ youth in care.
... However, there is evidence that sexual minorities or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth not only are overrepresented in OoHC but also are likely to experience discrimination, isolation, maltreatment, and placement instability as a result of their sexual orientation (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Mccormick, Schmidt, & Terrazas, 2017). As a result, they are likely to have greater risks related to education, substance use, and mental illness (Baams et al., 2019). ...
... However, there is evidence that sexual minorities or lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth not only are overrepresented in OoHC but also are likely to experience discrimination, isolation, maltreatment, and placement instability as a result of their sexual orientation (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Mccormick, Schmidt, & Terrazas, 2017). As a result, they are likely to have greater risks related to education, substance use, and mental illness (Baams et al., 2019). It would be of interest to delineate whether biological sex or gender, or the interaction between the two, increases the likelihood of poor outcomes from OoHC. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to examine sex differences in self‐reported psychological distress, behavioural and emotional problems, and substance use in young people living in out‐of‐home care (OoHC). One hundred seventy‐six young people aged 12–17 years (females 53.4%) in OoHC in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. Participants completed self‐report measures: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test—Youth Version. Girls had more OoHC placement instability over the past year compared with boys (p = .019). Compared with boys, the girls had significantly higher levels of distress (p < .001) (p = .007), were more likely to have self‐reported emotional symptoms (p < .001) and peer relationship problems (p = .043) and were more likely to use sedatives (p = .004). Girls had more psychological distress, behavioural disturbance, and sedative abuse; placement instability might contribute to these problems. Greater integration across OoHC, mental health, and substance use sectors is required. Girls in OoHC may benefit from interventions targeting problems with peer relationship and substance use and supporting prosocial behaviour; such targets may reduce distress and emotional symptoms and possibly prevent longer term problems.
... Considering that both girls in foster care and sexual minority girls demonstrate greater risk for poor sexual health outcomes, it is likely that girls in foster care who are also sexual minorities experience unique vulnerabilities for sexual health risks. Local (Los Angeles Foster Youth Survey), state (California Healthy Kids Survey), and national (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and NSCAW) survey studies demonstrate that sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the foster care system at approximately 2.5 to 3.5 times the general population rate (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Fish, Baams, Wojciak, & Russell, 2019;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015), illustrating the importance of studies detailing the unique sexual health challenges and vulnerabilities of sexual minority youth in foster care. Yet, few studies of sexual health exist with this population (i.e., sexual minority youth specifically in foster care). ...
Article
Girls in foster care are at heightened risk for poor sexual health outcomes compared to their general population counterparts. Sexual minority girls are also at greater risk for poor sexual health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Yet, little is known about the sexual health of sexual minority girls in foster care. This study aims to provide a preliminary understanding of how sexual minority girls in foster care experience the phenomenon of sexual health. Using a single-case interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design, we interviewed five sexual minority girls in foster care using a single in-depth focus group discussion and analyzed the data using a series of IPA steps. Analysis revealed three major themes about the lived experiences of sexual health among sexual minority girls in foster care: fear of being victimized and distrust within sexual relationships, self-protection from sexual relationship harm, and sexual health communication. Further research is warranted to investigate the sexual health experiences and needs of sexual minority girls in foster care, with particular sensitivity to the potential impact of past sexual victimization and abuse on their sexual health and wellbeing.
... The Office for Children, Youth and Family Affairs (Bufetat) in Norway has recommended that ASEBA should be used as a screening instrument in the context of open care institutions (Bufetat 2018). ASEBA is one of the most frequently used instruments to assess child psychopathology and shows good psychometric properties (Kornør and Jozefiak 2012;Heyerdahl, Kvernmo, and Wichstrøm 2004;Hanssen-Bauer et al. 2010;Baams, Wilson, and Russell 2019;Martín et al. 2020). ASEBA consists of questionnaires to be administered by the parents (Child Behaviour Checklist, CBCL), teacher (Teacher's Report Form, TRF) and children (Youth Self Report, YSR), aged 11 years and older. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite high levels of mental disorders among young people living in residential youth care (RYC) institutions, only a small percentage of these children receive help from mental health services. The aim of the present study is to explore the usefulness of an inter-agency collaboration model from the perspective of service providers, and to investigate factors that promote and hinder effective inter-agency collaboration around early identification and follow up of mental problems and disorders among youth in residential care. A purposive sample of 16 professionals in three RYC institutions and related child and adolescent mental health services and child welfare services that were involved in piloting the collaboration model was recruited. Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. The results suggest that the collaboration model promoted increased awareness on mental health issues and a greater systematic inter-agency collaborative effort in assessing and following up the mental health of children and adolescents in RYC institutions. However, there were major challenges related to central elements of the collaboration model; the conduction of the multidisciplinary meeting within the deadline of three weeks, and participation of child welfare services-providers at the multidisciplinary meeting. Further dissemination of the collaboration model merits further consideration of the choice of screening assessment battery due to the lack of participation from teachers and parents, the time limit of three weeks and measures to increase participation from the municipal child welfare services.
... Black or African American, Hispanic, and American Indian/ Alaska Native youth are disproportionately represented in the foster care system compared to the general population (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2019; U.S. Census Bureau, 2019), as are youth who are poor (Jonson-Reid et al., 2009), LGBTQ youth (Baams et al., 2019), and youth with disabilities (Slayter, 2016). Further, there is a long history of how the foster care system has engaged children and families on the basis of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. ...
Article
Youth with experience in foster care encounter complex institutionalized power and oppression relations in the foster care system. When youth emancipate out of the foster care system, they often do not experience the freedom or agency that the notion of emancipation implies. Such power and oppression relations can be further manifested in research processes and practice. This paper discusses how research related to youth with experience in foster care can be conducted in an emancipatory manner with researchers actively supporting the liberation of youth with experience in foster care through their scholarly contributions. The author uses personal positionality to reflect on past experiences transitioning out of foster care and participating in research design to inform the development of a reflexive guide to support the engagement of researchers in emancipatory research practices. The reflexive guide is comprised of a series of eight questions for researchers to consider when conducting research related to youth with experience in foster care.
... LGBTQ young persons confined to staying at home with unsupportive parents because of kindergarten through 12th grade [K-12] school closings or virtual operations, or forced to move home with unsupportive parents because of university closings or virtual operations), 3,6,11,12 thereby increasing their risk of family rejection, harassment, and victimization, and the associated negative mental 13 and physical health consequences. The concealment of LGBTQ identities also negatively affects mental health 26,27 ; LGBTQ young persons who are not out to their families at home may struggle with the inability to live authentically in their day-to-day lives and may fear being outed and the potential consequences (eg, homelessness, physical abuse). ...
... Research on SGMY in the child welfare system is often limited by small numbers of consenting participants because youth have concerns about disclosing their identities [32]. While in foster care, SGMY are often the victims of physical abuse, bullying, and harassment from caregivers and other youth [33], resulting in increased rates of post-traumatic stress and other mental health issues [34]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans*, or gender non-conforming, and/or have experiences in child welfare, with homelessness, and/or immigration have been particularly understudied. A qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understandings of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact the wellbeing of vulnerable SGMY. The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to: a) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline; b) better understand experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada; c) explore online and offline sources and processes of resilience for these SGMY; and d) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological approach. This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in a semi-structured interview that focused on their submitted photos and life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with six coders participating in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data. Data collection with thirty participants is completed, and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and commonly reported emotional catharsis from participating in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work towards integrating their online and offline experiences and identities into developing a sense of oneself as resilient. This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular arts-based research method, photo elicitation, which has potential utility for marginalized populations in an online era. The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
... Most of the research on SGM youth is focused on contextual factors in the school and family environment, meaning that other systems that SGM youth navigate require focused attention. For example, representative studies of California (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015) and the United States (Fish, Baams, Wojciak, & Russell, 2019) indicate that SGM youth are more likely to experience foster care, out-of-home placement, homelessness, and transitional housing. Although we currently know little about the pathways through which SGM youth enter foster care or out-of-home placements, available research shows that SGM youth are more likely to experience abuse and neglect by their parents (Baams, 2018;Friedman et al., 2011) and report being "pushed out" of their home into homelessness (Pearson, Thrane, & Wilkinson, 2017). ...
Chapter
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) young people are coming of age at a time of dynamic social and political changes with regard to LGBTQ rights and visibility around the world. And yet, contemporary cohorts of SGM youth continue to evidence the same degree of compromised mental health demonstrated by SGM youth of past decades. The authors review the current research on SGM youth mental health, with careful attention to the developmental and contextual characteristics that complicate, support, and thwart mental health for SGM young people. Given a large and rapidly growing body of science in this area, the authors strategically review research that reflects the prevalence of these issues in countries around the world but also concentrate on how mental health concerns among SGM children and youth are shaped by experiences with schools, families, and communities. Promising mental health treatment strategies for this population are reviewed. The chapter ends with a focus on understudied areas in the SGM youth mental health literature, which may offer promising solutions to combat SGM population health disparities and promote mental health among SGM young people during adolescence and as they age across the life course.
... Os resultados desse levantamento vão na direção de pesquisas internacionais que apontam que, em comparação com heterossexuais e/ou cisgêneros, pessoas LGBT+ são mais propensas a vivenciar desigualdades sociais, como insegurança alimentar, falta de moradia, moradias instáveis e pobreza (Baams et al., 2019;Whittington et al., 2020). Além disso, essas pessoas também apresentam mais problemas relacionados à saúde mental (Russell & Fish, 2016), o que poderia aumentar ainda mais suas vulnerabilidades médicas e psicológicas durante a atual crise pandêmica. ...
... Os resultados desse levantamento vão na direção de pesquisas internacionais que apontam que, em comparação com heterossexuais e/ou cisgêneros, pessoas LGBT+ são mais propensas a vivenciar desigualdades sociais, como insegurança alimentar, falta de moradia, moradias instáveis e pobreza (Baams et al., 2019;Whittington et al., 2020). Além disso, essas pessoas também apresentam mais problemas relacionados à saúde mental (Russell & Fish, 2016), o que poderia aumentar ainda mais suas vulnerabilidades médicas e psicológicas durante a atual crise pandêmica. ...
Book
Full-text available
O livro “Psicologia e Covid-19: Saúde, Desenvolvimento e Educação” traz um conjunto de textos de valor científico e, sobretudo, relevantes para a compreensão dos inúmeros impactos psicológicos observados ao longo da pandemia. Além disso, a obra busca não só tratar academicamente do assunto, com foco em estudantes, profissionais e pesquisadores da área, mas, também, comunicar em linguagem acessível o que a Psicologia estuda e provê como auxílio nesse horizonte de desafios cotidianos. Seja durante o intracrise – presente, seja para o pós-crise – futuro, espera-se que este livro possa contribuir com o estudo, a formação e a ação daqueles que se interessam pela dimensão psicológica da saúde na pandemia da Covid-19.
... Os resultados desse levantamento vão na direção de pesquisas internacionais que apontam que, em comparação com heterossexuais e/ou cisgêneros, pessoas LGBT+ são mais propensas a vivenciar desigualdades sociais, como insegurança alimentar, falta de moradia, moradias instáveis e pobreza (Baams et al., 2019;Whittington et al., 2020). Além disso, essas pessoas também apresentam mais problemas relacionados à saúde mental (Russell & Fish, 2016), o que poderia aumentar ainda mais suas vulnerabilidades médicas e psicológicas durante a atual crise pandêmica. ...
... Moreover, the damage done to LGBTQ+ youth is not limited to those who are forced into homelessness. Of children in the foster care system, 30.4% identify as LGBTQ+, and of those with unstable housing, 25.3% identify as LGBTQ+ (Baams et al. 2019). These rates, again, are disproportionately high, and they are correlated with poorer performance in school, increased victimization, and poorer mental health outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article argues for the necessity of a social group ontology in Confucian ethics. The heart of Confucian ethics is self-cultivation begun in familial relations. Social group categories can disrupt family structures in ways that can only be ignored at a high cost to the well-being of biological family members who do not share the dominant group identities. To make this disruption clear, I will articulate the challenge queer lives pose for classical Confucian self-cultivation. This discussion will give rise to an account of queer chosen kin and its compatibility with the existing Confucian role-relational ontology. The incorporation of social group identities and an account of the sociopolitical constitution of persons is necessary not only for the development of Confucian social and political philosophy, but also for illustrating the significant ways in which Confucianism can shape cross-cultural discussions of ethical self-cultivation.
... This study did not explicitly explore how foster youths' sexual orientation impacts their use of social media to build and maintain relationships, which should be further explored as preliminary research suggests sexual minority youth in foster care are at risk for sexual and other victimization experiences (Baams et al., 2019;Salerno et al., 2020;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015). Future research should also explore how foster youths' experiences vary by age and developmental stage as the benefits and risks of social media use when building intimate relationships may differ. ...
... Poverty figures extend to same-sex parents and single LGBTQ parents and their families, who are at least twice as likely to be living near the poverty line compared with their non-LGBTQ counterparts (Whittington et al., 2020). LGBTQ persons of color face even greater risk for social inequality (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Conron & Wilson, 2019;Movement Advancement Project & SAGE, 2017;Morton et al., 2018;Whittington et al., 2020). Ultimately, mental health burden among LGBTQ persons (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality) may be exacerbated by the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic trauma and its intersection with dimensions of social inequality (Galea, Merchant, & Lurie, 2020;Reger, Stanley, & Joiner, 2020;Whittington et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the wake of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the psychological consequences that will follow, it is critical to acknowledge and understand the unique vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) populations in order to provide equitable mental health intervention that reaches these highly at-risk groups. It is well established that LGBTQ persons face social disadvantages and mental health disparities, which may be exacerbated as a result of COVID-19 pandemic trauma and social isolation measures. This commentary highlights structural, social, and individual-level challenges among LGBTQ populations in the context of COVID-19 and proposes prevention recommendations to mitigate the psychological ramifications of COVID-19 pandemic-related trauma among LGBTQ persons.
... Youth who identify as LGBTQ+ are over-represented in the foster care system. While estimates vary, studies suggest that 15-30% of youth in foster care identify as LGBTQ+ compared to approximately 3-11% of those in the general population (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Detlaff, Washburn, Carr, & Vogel, 2018;Gates, 2011;Kann et al., 2016;Scannapieco, Painter, & Blau, 2018;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015). Using data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Fish, Baams, Wojciak, and Russell (2019) found that youth who reported experiencing any attraction to a member of the same sex were 2.43 times more likely than heterosexual youth to report foster care involvement. ...
Article
Full-text available
LGBTQ+ youth are over-represented in the foster care system. Child welfare systems across the country have been struggling with how to make their systems work better for the LGBTQ+ youth they serve. One strategy is developing foster caregiver trainings that bolster caregivers’ knowledge and support of LGBTQ+ youth in their care. This study has three aims: (1) to provide an overview of a module designed to support relationship building between LGBTQ+ youth in foster care and their caregivers, (2) to describe the theater testing procedure used to assess usability of the developed module with foster caregivers and adults, and (3) to share the results of the theater test. Overall, participants provided positive usability feedback about the module activities, as well as a wide variety of recommendations for strengthening the content for widespread use. Participants felt the module should be directed specifically toward caregiver skill development rather than toward both caregiver and youth support. This module represents one example of how materials focused on building foster caregivers’ knowledge and support have the potential to help LGBTQ+ teens who are over-represented in the foster care system.
... Research on SGMY in the child welfare system is often limited by small numbers of consenting participants because youth have concerns about disclosing their identities [33]. While in foster care, SGMY are often the victims of physical abuse, bullying, and harassment from caregivers and other youth [34], resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress and other mental health issues [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The experiences of resilience and intersectionality in the lives of contemporary sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) are important to explore. SGMY face unique experiences of discrimination in both online and offline environments, yet simultaneously build community and seek support in innovative ways. SGMY who identify as transgender, trans, or gender nonconforming and have experiences with child welfare, homelessness, or immigration have been particularly understudied. A qualitative exploration that leverages technology may derive new understanding of the negotiations of risk, resilience, and identity intersections that impact the well-being of vulnerable SGMY. Objective: The objectives of the QueerVIEW study were to (1) enhance understanding of SGMY identities, both online and offline, (2) identify experiences of intersectionality among culturally, regionally, and racially diverse SGMY in Ontario, Canada, (3) explore online and offline sources of resilience for SGMY, and (4) develop and apply a virtual photo elicitation methodological approach. Methods: This is the first study to pilot a completely virtual approach to a photo elicitation investigation with youth, including data collection, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Recruited through social media, SGMY completed a brief screening survey, submitted 10 to 15 digital photos, and then participated in an individual semistructured interview that focused on their photos and related life experiences. Online data collection methods were employed through encrypted online file transfer and secure online interviews. Data is being analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach, with six coders participating in structured online meetings that triangulated photo, video, and textual data. Results: Data collection with 30 participants has been completed and analyses are underway. SGMY expressed appreciation for the photo elicitation and online design of the study and many reported experiencing an emotional catharsis from participating in this process. It is anticipated that results will form a model of how participants work toward integrating their online and offline experiences and identities into developing a sense of themselves as resilient. Conclusions: This protocol presents an innovative, technology-enabled qualitative study that completely digitized a popular arts-based methodology—photo elicitation—that has potential utility for contemporary research with marginalized populations. The research design and triangulated analyses can generate more nuanced conceptualizations of SGMY identities and resilience than more traditional approaches. Considerations for conducting online research may be useful for other qualitative research.
... Being in foster care, and the instability associated with it, is a driver to becoming homeless: disproportionately high levels of young people experiencing homelessness have been in foster care (Edidin et al., 2012;Gattis, 2009;Snyder et al., 2016;Walls et al., 2007;Whitbeck et al., 2016). Due to higher levels of family breakdown, those with LGBTIQ+ identities are over-represented in foster care systems (Baams et al., 2019;Bidell, 2014;Ray, 2006;Ream et al., 2012;B. A. Robinson, 2018a;Rohde et al., 2001;Shelton, DeChants, et al., 2018;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015). ...
Thesis
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Internationally, people who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, Queer, and other minority gender and sexual orientation identities (LGBTIQ+) experience disproportionately high levels of homelessness. Despite this, no research has been undertaken on Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness in Aotearoa New Zealand. This thesis addresses this knowledge gap by utilising qualitative and quantitative methods, however, it is not an explicitly mixed methods PhD. The qualitative and quantitative strands remain separate; however, they can be used to create a more comprehensive understanding of LGBTIQ+ homelessness than if only one type of research method was used. For the qualitative strand, constructivist grounded theory was used to analyse eight semi-structured interviews; proposing that “Experiences of Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness are shaped by: multiple failures of support and intervention points; the necessity of survival restricting choice and agency; and the long-term effect of concealing identities and coping with shame, stigma, and trauma. Understanding experiences of Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness demands a focus on and across systems and institutions.” Learnings from an ultimately unsuccessful attempt at participatory video with the interview participants also contribute to the grounded theory. The quantitative strand uses the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure to analyse the government service usage of a cohort of formerly homeless women. It highlights the ways in which government support systems fail vulnerable people. Despite high rates of interactions with government services, these women still became homeless and needed Housing First support. These findings demonstrate how a similarly under-researched group of women experience poverty and homelessness, and provides an intersectional understanding of how LGBTIQ+ women can potentially experience homelessness. Experiences of Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness are diverse and multi-faceted. The phenomenon is produced by multiple systems of oppression and failures of government support systems. These experiences were characterised by; poverty, shame, stigma, instability, and poor mental wellbeing. There is a need for targeted support for Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness in Aotearoa New Zealand. Furthermore, this thesis highlights the importance of focusing on addressing the structural, systemic, causes of Takatāpui/LGBTIQ+ homelessness—over problematising the individual and their actions—to understand and address the phenomenon.
... Though the exact number of LGBTQþ youths in foster care is unknown due to lack of policies supporting data collection of sexual and gender identity information of youth in foster care (Field, 2018), researchers have estimated 2-3 times more children and youth in foster care (15.5-19%) self-identify as LGBTQþ (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019;Dettlaff & Washburn, 2018;Wilson, Cooper, Kastanis, & Nezhad, 2014). The adoption of policies that reject LGBTQþ family placements both conveys a injurious message to these youth and prevents them from being placed with parents who share their identities and could provide affirmative homes. ...
Article
Full-text available
LGBTQ+ people face multiple challenges to parenthood because of barriers such as discriminatory legislation and policies influencing foster parenting, adoption, and reproductive health services. This study documents these obstacles and examines their impact through a grounded theory analysis of interviews of LGBTQ+ prospective parents. Stressors included social isolation, unnecessary medicalization, prohibitive financial costs related to accessing social and medical services (sometimes across state lines), and being denied services, parental leave, and insurance coverage. Findings indicate that heteronormative attitudes and discrimination can lead to debilitating and enduring harm upon the economic, emotional, and relational well-being of growing LGBTQ+ families.
... Vulnerabilities among homeless youth may be just as relevant in these groups, if not more so. For example, prior sexual victimization, which is more common among SGM youth, may influence youths' choices to engage in survival sex (Baams et al., 2019). Furthermore, SGM youth of color may be even more likely to engage in survival sex as their access to essential resources may be impacted by intersecting forms of discrimination (Tyler, 2009). ...
Article
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This study examined how a diverse group of sexual and gender minority (SGM) homeless youth described and understood their victimization experiences occurring before they were homeless and those occurring after they were homeless and engaging in survival sex. In addition, the study explored how these youths manifested resilience when living on the street. The sample consisted of 283 racially/ethnically diverse youth between the ages of 15 and 26 years ( M = 19.6, SD = 1.28) living in a large U.S. city. Participants identified their gender as male (47%), female (36%), transgender (15%), or queer and other (3%) and their sexual orientation as bisexual (37%), gay (23%), lesbian (15%), heterosexual (13%), or queer and other (13%). Thirty-seven percent identified as Black, 30% as multiracial, 22% as Latino/a, 5% as White, and 5% as another race. Content and thematic analyses were used to conduct a secondary analysis of qualitative data. Four themes were identified: unsafe and unsupported at home; barriers to housing and employment stability; ongoing victimization and lack of protection; and unexpected opportunities for resilience. Findings demonstrated that participants experienced victimization related not only to their SGM identities but also to chaotic home environments. Once homeless and engaging in survival sex, youth experienced barriers to securing employment and housing as well as victimization by police and clients. These experiences frequently involved prejudice related to their intersecting identities. Despite encountering numerous challenges, participants described surviving on the streets by living openly and forming relationships with other youth. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
... L. Roberts, Rosario, Corliss, Koenen, & Austin, 2012) and discrimination and violence at school (Kosciw, Greytak, Bartkiewicz, Boesen, & Palmer, 2012), which has been associated with higher rates of mental health stress (Bouris, Everett, Heath, Elsaesser, & Neilands, 2016;Williams, Connolly, Pepler, & Craig, 2005) and substance use (Kilpatrick et al., 2000). Researchers confirm that LGBTQ youth are also disproportionately represented in child welfare systems (Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019) and among homeless youth (Morton, Samuels, Dworsky, & Patel, 2018), factors that have been linked to greater police interaction and juvenile system involvement (Ryan, Herz, Hernandez, & Marshall, 2007). Family rejection of LGBTQ youth has also been associated with the high prevalence of mental health symptoms (Ryan, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2009), and unmet health and social service needs are generally associated with young people's contact with the juvenile justice system as well as their length of involvement (Maschi, Hatcher, Schwalbe, & Rosato, 2008). ...
Article
Queer and trans youth of color are disproportionately imprisoned in U.S. juvenile detentionfacilities where they are especially vulnerable toexperiencing violence, isolation, neglect, anddiscrimination. While the figures of their overrepresentation are just emerging, regulation ofyouth sexuality and gender norms has been embedded in the logics of the juvenile court since itsinception.Pathwaysandpipelinesto incarceration have become popular metaphors in researchand advocacy to explain how failed safety nets andmultiple sites of punishment produce genderedand racialized patterns of criminalization; however, the overrepresentation of queer and transyouth of color has been virtually ignored within these conceptualizations. This article builds on aqueerantiprison framework in examining the experiences of formerly incarcerated queer andtrans youth of color in New York. Life history interviews were conducted as part of a largercommunity based participatory research (CBPR) project with 10 participants, ages 18–25.Findings expose the overlapping role of families of origin, foster and adoptive families, schools,and child welfare and juvenile justice systems, in aconstellation of exposures to interpersonal andstate violence. An alternative metaphor of a revolving dooris proposed, and implications for socialwork are addressed.
... The discrimination that LGBT people are exposed to has an important relationship with the heteronormative structure in society (Kara, 2020). The existence of heteronormativity (acceptance of heterosexuality as a social and natural norm or the cultural structure that includes this acceptance) manifests itself in all areas of society, excluding and marginalizing what is not itself (Baams et al., 2019). These structures that are felt in every period of life systematically continue, limiting LGBT people's access to education, healthcare, and social services, especially the right to life (Alpert et al., 2017;Biçmen & Bekiroğulları, 2014;Conron & Wilson, 2019). ...
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The study aims to measure the effects of emotion-based group work containing approaches from the intergroup emotions theory on LGBT people where live in Turkey to provide emotion regulation and improve psychosocial functioning. 20 LGBT people (10 participants in experimental group, 10 participants in control group) were included for group work. The Need for Affect Scale (NAS) was implemented to both groups before and after the group work. After the group work, significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups. It was observed that emotion-based group work was effective in increasing the expression and the experience of LGBT people’s positive emotions and improved their psychosocial functioning.
... In comparison, older youth are more commonly removed due to behavioral problems, substance use, and parental rejection of a child's LGBTQ + identity (Rosenberg & Abbott, 2019). Studies indicate that approximately 15-34% of youth in care identify as LGBTQ compared to 3-11% in the general population (Baams et al., 2019;Detlaff et al., 2018;Gates, 2011;Kann et al., 2016;Sandfort, 2019;Scannapieco et al., 2018;Wilson & Kastanis, 2015). There are also disproportionately more youth of color in foster care than in the general population. ...
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This exploratory, qualitative study evaluated the impact of the Critical Ongoing Resource Family Education Teen Edition (CORE-Teen) post-licensure foster parent training curriculum designed to support foster/kinship caregivers caring for youth ages 12–20 years in the foster care system. A pilot study of the curriculum was implemented in three states (Florida, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee). Five semi-structured focus groups (three groups received CORE Teen training and the other two did not) were conducted with a total of 61 foster parents to explore the differences in parenting knowledge and practices among foster parents trained in CORE Teen versus those who were not. A thematic content analysis of the transcripts from the focus groups revealed three themes: (1) understanding what is considered normal teen behavior; (2) understanding and managing teen trauma and mental health; and (3) recommendations for building foster parents’ skills to prepare for their role. Overall, CORE Teen-trained foster/kinship caregivers seemed to have deeper insight into normal teen behaviors, as well as how trauma and mental health challenges can underlie challenging behaviors. CORE Teen foster/kinship caregivers also seemed more satisfied with the training they had received to prepare them for caring for teens. The CORE Teen training curriculum offers promise for building the unique skills that foster/kinship caregivers need in order to effectively care for older youth in the foster care system.
... Currently, there are many children falling through the cracks in an overcrowded foster system. These children could use a loving family, particularly sexual and gender minority youth who experience higher rates of homelessness (Baams et al., 2019;Keisling & Sloan, 2018;Wilson et al., 2014). Knowing that same-sex families are seven times more likely to adopt or foster children (Goldberg & Conron, 2018), we owe it to our youth to provide a quality relationship with a caring family, no matter their family structure. ...
... Males were more likely than females to report their sexual orientation as 100% heterosexual . Studies have found LGBTQ foster youth to be more likely than their heterosexual peers to experience sexual abuse, greater placement instability, limited housing options, discrimination from caregivers, greater difficulty in achieving legal permanency, victimization, and mental health problems (Mitchell, Panzarello, Grynkiewicz, & Galupo, 2015;Maccio & Ferguson, 2016;McCormick, Schmidt, & Terrazas, 2017;Baams, Wilson, & Russell, 2019). ...
Technical Report
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What We Did For Wave 4 of the CalYOUTH Study, researchers surveyed 622 23-year-olds. This study follows up on surveys of the same young people when they were approaching the age of majority in California’s foster care system at age 17 and again when they were 19 and 21 years old. Similar to the previous interview waves, the study collected data on a wide range of youth outcomes in in areas such as physical and mental health, education and employment, and relationships and families. What We Found Wave 4 findings provide a rich description of how study participants are faring at age 23, when they have all been out of foster care for at least 2 years. Years after leaving care, most of these young adults look back favorably on their experience of care. It is important to acknowledge that despite the help they received from the foster care system, on average these young people are faring poorly compared to their age peers across many measures of well-being, including their educational attainment, employment, economic self-sufficiency, physical and mental health, and involvement with the criminal justice system. Our findings suggest that gender, race, and ethnicity condition these youths’ experiences, as they do for all young people in America. Finally, our findings also highlight the amazing resilience and enormous potential of young people transitioning to adulthood from foster care. Despite the histories of trauma that accompanied them into foster care and the challenges many of them faced since then, the CalYOUTH participants as a whole have much going for them. What It Means The consistency with which these youth express their appreciation for the help they received during their time in foster care should provide encouragement for the investments that government, the philanthropic sector, and the caring individuals who work in and with the public child welfare system have made in supporting the transition to adulthood for youth in foster care. The relatively poor average outcomes should not be simply attributed to their time in foster care, since they generally came into care from marginalized communities where many young people struggle during the transition to adulthood. In addition, these youth had often suffered long histories of trauma prior to entering care. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that more work can and should be done to improve supports for them during the transition to adulthood. In particular, our findings raise questions about the wisdom of abruptly curtailing services for these young people when they reach their 21st birthday. Our findings suggest that when COVID-19 is behind us, it will still be the case that many young adults in care could potentially benefit from ongoing support past their 21st birthday.
Article
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Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the role of public health nurses working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children in foster care in the San Francisco Bay Area. Background: LGBT youth are disproportionately represented in foster care and experience poor health and education outcomes. Foster care public health nurses (FCPHN) are in a unique position to address disparities with timely and appropriate referrals and advocate for policy changes. Design: An online survey was developed to describe FCPHN responsibilities in case managing LGBT children. Method: In all, 39 FCPHNs completed the survey. Results: Most FCPHN did not know the number of LGBT youth in their caseload and reported that there was no systematic method of collecting this data. Few FCPHN had received training in LGBT health issues. Conclusion: This study confirms reports from other studies regarding lack of systematic data collection to deliver appropriate services to LGBT youth. It reports FCPHN lack of training as well as their assessment of the most important needs of this population. Relevance to clinical practice: FCPHNs are in a unique position to advocate by promoting gender inclusive forms in child welfare agencies and addressing disparities in access to care.
Article
Black youth have been overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system for decades. This, coupled with disparities in treatment and outcomes, has forced all child welfare agencies to take note and influenced policy change, at the federal level. Recently, literature has begun to bring to light the existence of a substantial LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) foster youth population which is overrepresented and underserved. This article offers a comprehensive look at the LGBTQ foster youth population, its vulnerabilities, and its distinct needs. It further contributes to the existing body of literature by exploring the intersectionality of foster youth who identify as Black and LGBTQ.
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth are overrepresented among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH), and health disparities among LGBQ youth are well-documented. LGBQ youth are typically aggregated as a single sexual minority group; however, research suggests that bisexual youth may have greater mental health, substance use, and physical health risks relative to their gay and lesbian peers. In a probability sample of LGBQ YEH in Los Angeles County (n = 183), we examined subgroup differences in homelessness severity, depression, physical health, and substance use, focusing on differences between bisexual and gay/lesbian youth due to the small subsample of questioning youth. Indicators of homelessness severity were standalone outcomes, and also were integrated as control variables with gender, age, race/ethnicity, and education in multivariable models. Bisexual youth were more likely to have become unaccompanied homeless persons as minors (OR = 4.35, 95% CI 1.85–10.23), and to have not recently utilized emergency shelters or transitional housing at least once in the past month (OR = 6.41; 95% CI 2.41–17.03). Bisexual youth were more likely to have probable depression (OR = 4.06, 95% CI 1.41–11.68). Among sexual minority YEH, bisexual youth may be at elevated risk for depression, in addition to more severe homelessness.
Article
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Introduction In previous studies, it is estimated that sexual minorities (eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals) are overrepresented in the child welfare system. However, the numbers are unclear, and there are limited studies in this field. No systematic review of LGBTQ issues across a broader context (ie, youth, foster parents and service providers) of child welfare services exists. The overall objective of this scoping review is to systematically scope the existing research on LGBTQ issues in the context of child welfare services, including policy, practice, service providers and users’ perspectives. Methods and analysis The scoping review framework outlined by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) based on previous work by Arksey and O’Malley and Levac and colleagues will guide this review. In addition, the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation will be used throughout the process. We will search electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Idunn) and grey literature sources to identify studies that are appropriate for inclusion in this review. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the ‘Population–Concept–Context’ framework, two researchers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles considered for inclusion. Any qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method study of LGBTQ issues in the child welfare context will be described and synthesised using a thematic synthesis approach. Ethics and dissemination A scoping review is a secondary analysis of published literature and does not require ethics approval. This scoping review is meant to provide an overview of the existing literature, aiming to expand policy-makers’ and practitioners’ knowledge of LGBTQ issues in a child welfare context and identify research gaps that can be used as a basis for further research. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, a conference presentation and a presentation to the key stakeholders. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Article
Purpose: The LGBTQIA+ communities experience distinct health disparities and inequities in health outcomes. Healthcare providers must be conscious of these factors to facilitate optimal, person-centered care. This narrative briefly covers health disparities in the LGBTQIA+ community and posits strategies to promote inclusive care. Methods: Current literature and clinical best practices from several authoritative sources on LGBTQIA+-specific issues and gender-affirming care were reviewed. Sources included several LGBTQIA+-specific healthcare organizations, national healthcare provider organizations, and federal agency policy statements. Inclusive terminology and healthcare practices are included. Results: Healthcare providers must educate themselves on caring for gender- and sexual orientation-diverse populations to optimize the health status of these communities. It is essential that providers examine their own potential biases and maintain an openness to learning about LGBTQIA+ communities. Conclusions: Healthcare providers have a responsibility to not only understand issues specific to LGBTQIA+ individuals but also advocate for these groups. As nurses, we must continue to support public health policies that seek to end disparities and ensure health equity for all. Clinical relevance to the practice of rehabilitation nursing: Rehabilitation nurses are caring for more diverse populations than ever before and must understand how to provide compassionate, individualized care. Although this article focuses on the LGBTQIA+ community, the principles discussed are applicable across all populations.
Article
Chants of “love wins” ricocheted from the concrete streets of New York City up to my window. On June 26, 2015, the US Supreme Court narrowly ruled in Obergefell v Hodges that the Fourteenth Amendment requires all states to grant same-sex marriage licenses. With my identity tucked safely under the guise of an ally, I went out to the streets to celebrate, surrounded by posters, glitter, hope, and pride. I was handed a newspaper with the front page featuring the day’s slogan printed over a rainbow-filled crowd. I took 2. I purposely saved a copy to take with me back to Michigan, where I was not yet out to my medical school or family. But that landmark decision helped me decide that my time in the closet was up and that it was time to throw out cloaks of isolation, fear, and resentment. My eyes welled—love could look like me.
Article
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Purpose Sexual minority young adults report greater cigarette and cannabis use. Emerging evidence suggests this trend may extend to e-cigarettes. The current study evaluated the relationship between sexual identity and prevalence of e-cigarette, cigarette, and cannabis use and whether such associations differ by gender. Methods: Cross-sectional, regionally representative data of young adults (M[SD]age=20.02 [0.60] years; nheterosexual=1314; nbisexual=77; nlesbian/gay=28) from Wave III (2016) of the Southern California Children’s Health Study were analyzed in 2019. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with sexual identity as the predictor and product use (never, prior, infrequent past 30-day [1-2 days], frequent past 30-day [3-5+ days]) as the outcome in separate models by substance (e-cigarettes, cigarettes, cannabis). Results: Bisexual individuals were the highest-risk sub-group for nearly all outcomes, with over five times the odds of reporting frequent past 30-day use for e-cigarettes (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.68; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.80, 15.9), cigarettes (OR: 5.42; 95% CI: 2.37, 12.4), and cannabis (OR: 8.43; 95% CI: 4.40, 16.1) compared to heterosexual individuals. Although the sample size for lesbian/gay participants was small, bisexual (vs. lesbian/gay) participants also had greater odds of reporting prior use of nicotine products and frequent past 30-day cannabis use. A significant sexual identity × gender interaction emerged for lifetime cigarette use, wherein bisexual (vs. heterosexual) identity was only associated with greater odds of use for females (p<.01). Conclusions: Sexual minority-related disparities in substance use among young adults appear to generalize to e-cigarettes, with bisexual young adults exhibiting especially high profiles of risk.
Book
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Denne rapporten oppsummerer funnene fra prosjektet «Barnevern i et lhbti-perspektiv» som NTNU Samfunnsforskning og SINTEF har gjennomført på oppdrag fra Bufdir i perioden 2018-2020. Hovedmålet med prosjektet har vært å fremskaffe kunnskap som kan belyse hvordan lhbti-perspektivet ivaretas i barnevernet, med mål om likeverdige tjenester til barn og unge som bryter med normer for kjønn og seksualitet. Dette er et felt hvor det finnes lite kunnskap, både i forskningen og i praksisfeltet. Dette har nødvendiggjort en bred og eksplorativ tilnærming til problemstillingene i prosjektet og vi har benyttet ulike metoder for å sikre et bredt kunnskapsgrunnlag. Vi har laget en kunnskapsstatus på feltet, med fokus på forskning både internasjonalt og i Norge. Vi har også gjennomført kvalitative intervjuer med ungdommer i målgruppen, ansatte i kommunale barneverntjenester og institusjoner, nøkkelpersoner i relevante organisasjoner, samt likekjønnede fosterforeldre. I tillegg har vi gjort en kartlegging av omfang av skeive fosterforeldre i de ulike Bufetat-regionene og vi har gjennomført en breddeundersøkelse til landets barnevernledere og et utvalg ansatte.
Chapter
Children from every demographic have experienced sex trafficking; however, research has repeatedly shown that girls, children who identify as BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and people of color), and children who identify as LGBTQ2S+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, Two-Spirit, and other) are overrepresented among this population. Historically, the anti-trafficking field has referred to this overrepresentation by identifying gender, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation as individual risk factors. However, less attention has been paid to the identity trauma and historical trauma often experienced by these populations, or the role that systemic and internalized oppression (sexism, racism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and transphobia) plays in these children’s vulnerabilities. This chapter addresses gaps in current literature by discussing the role of trauma and oppression as risk factors for child sex trafficking and the disproportionate impact trauma and oppression have on girls, children who identify as BIPOC, and children who identify as LGBTQ2S+. It then examines the role that child-serving systems have played in responding to childhood trauma and the manner in which current responses may further contribute to the oppression of these populations and their overrepresentation among trafficked children. Finally, recommendations are made for how the anti-trafficking field and child-serving systems can move forward to address trauma and oppression, especially among overrepresented populations and provide better foundational prevention so that children are not trafficked in the first place.
Article
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Research on the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual and other forms of sexual identities and orientations (LGBTQIA+) youth in care has mainly examined their experiences from a risk-based approach, while few studies have explored their resilience experiences. Using in-depth interviews, the present study aims to illuminate the resilience experiences of 13 LGBTQIA+ young people in out-of-home care in the Netherlands. Four themes emerged from their narratives: relationships that support and empower; construction of a positive identity around their sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (SOGIE); community involvement and self-relying strategies. Our findings support the view of resilience as a complex process that shows at an individual, interpersonal and social level.
Article
This study explored workforce opinions toward LGBTQ youth and the LGBTQ community. A total of 1,196 child welfare employees answered a series of surveys measuring their attitudes, perception of climate, knowledge, and behaviors toward LGBTQ. Findings suggest that child welfare workers have adequate knowledge about the LGBTQ community and responses indicate the workforce has some potential to engage in supportive behaviors toward youth, but do not believe the child welfare climate is protective or supportive for LGBTQ youth and reported they “don’t know” how they feel about the LGBTQ population. Implications for practice and policy are presented.
Article
Objective This study explored how college freshmen, particularly those affected by health inequities, are affected by COVID-19 and whether they would use a university-created online wellness intervention for help. Participants Nine-hundred and eighty-nine freshmen at a large southeastern university. Method Students responded to an online survey regarding their anxiety, worry, number of life disruptions, perceived resilience and their use of the online intervention during the pandemic (June to mid-September 2020). Results During COVID-19, Latinx, Black, women and non-heterosexual students reported significantly greater worry, daily life disruptions than their non-Latinx, white, male and heterosexual counterparts. Women and non-heterosexual students also reported greater anxiety and less resilience. Additionally, Latinx students reported using the university’s online intervention for help during COVID-19 more than others. Overall, freshmen, especially Black and women students, reported the online intervention would help them with struggles. Conclusions Universities should identify unique worries faced by students during a health crisis and provide institutional support. Practical implications are discussed.
Book
Written through a constant exchange between LGBTQIA+ young people, researchers, professionals and foster families, this book offers a valuable tool to improve the practice with LGBTQIA+ youth at a personal, organizational, and policy levels. This book shows the powerful influence of relationships and networks for the LGBTQIA+ young person growing up in child protection and welfare systems. LGBTQIA+ youth need meaningful connections with individuals within their communities in order to be able to heal, learn, and be authentically themselves. Child welfare professionals have a crucial role in creating these connections and cultivating supportive environments, free of additional trauma, where LGBTQIA+ young people can feel valued and loved.
Article
Are empirical data and results of research by social scientists relevant to court decisions in foster care cases, and if so, how? How should they be brought to the court's attention? These questions arose in the context of Fulton v. City of Philadelphia (2021), a recent U.S. Supreme Court case that posed the question of whether a religiously based foster care agency could refuse to provide service to LGBTQ+ prospective foster parents on the grounds of religious beliefs, and still accept public funds. Empirical evidence is relevant to the evaluation of at least three propositions related to foster care that were raised in Fulton: (1) There is a need for qualified prospective foster parents; (2) LGBTQ+ adults are at least as likely as others to be interested in becoming foster parents and they are likely to become competent foster parents; and (3) If sufficient numbers of qualified prospective foster parents cannot be found, children are likely to suffer. Consideration of the evidence reveals that each of these three propositions is supported by factual evidence. In the United States today, there is a definite need for competent foster parents, and competence as a foster or adoptive parent is not associated with parental sexual orientation. Moreover, LGBTQ+ adults may be more likely to show interest in becoming foster parents, on average, than their heterosexual peers. If LGBTQ+ adults are not permitted to become foster parents, some children are very likely to remain without homes, and in this way, will suffer. If the best interests of children are to prevail, then child welfare agencies should search out, welcome, and support LGBTQ+ prospective foster parents, rather than turning them away. Ways of bringing the findings from research to the attention of the court are also discussed.
Article
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Sexual and gender minorities, for example, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, are overrepresented in the child welfare system and an increasing number of LGBTQ people are becoming foster parents. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the existing empirical research on the practices of child welfare services towards LGBTQ individuals (i.e., youth, carers and foster parents). The review followed the methodology framework outlined by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). The electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase,PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed and Idunn were searched to identify studies appropriate for inclusion. There were 45 studies that met the inclusion criteria;24 concerned LGBTQ youth, 10 encompassed foster parents, while nine had the ser-vice perspective as the primary focus. The studies originated from the USA (k=34), the UK (k=6), Australia (k=2) and the Netherlands (k=1). Of the included studies,28 were qualitative, 14 were quantitative, and three studies used mixed method approach. The findings indicate that LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in the child welfare system and that LGBTQ youth and foster parents often face stigma and discrimination. The results reveal a gap in the current knowledge about social workers' attitudes, knowledge and experiences regarding working with LGBTQ individuals.
Article
LGTBQ+ youth in foster care need unique support and acceptance; however, few case workers and caregivers receive specialized training. To address this, the Connecting: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Expression (SOGIE) eLearning was developed. This evaluation assesses whether attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding LGBTQ+ youth improved as a result of this training. Caregivers and child welfare professionals showed growth in many areas, including how important they felt it was to learn strategies and skills to support LGBTQ+ youth, as well as their confidence to care for LGBTQ+ youth. The Connecting: SOGIE eLearning is a promising tool for child welfare systems.
Article
Nondisclosure of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, asexual, or otherwise queer (LGBTQA) identities in the workplace is both common and stressful to those who do not disclose. However, we lack direct evidence that nondisclosure of LGBTQA identity affects worker productivity. In two surveys of LGBTQA-identified scientists, we found that those who did not disclose LGBTQA identities in professional settings authored fewer peer-reviewed publications-a concrete productivity cost. In the second survey, which included straight and cisgender participants as a comparison group, we found that LGBTQA participants who disclosed their sexual orientation had publication counts more like non-LGBTQA participants than those who did not disclose, and that all three groups had similar time since first publication given their academic career stage. These results are most consistent with a productivity cost to nondisclosure of LGBTQA identity in professional settings, and suggest a concrete need to improve scientific workplace climates for sexual and gender minorities.
Article
Background Research on the experiences of LGBTQIA+ youth in out-of-home care has mainly focused on these youth's adversities and the resulting negative impact on their wellbeing. Little is known about the ways through which LGBTQIA+ youth in out-of-home care are resilient to these adversities. To date, a review study on resilience in this population is lacking. Objective To map and synthesize the existing research on resilience among LGBTQIA+ children and youth in out-of-home care. Specific goals were to summarize and analyze 1) the general characteristics of the existing studies, and 2) the resilience resources found at the individual, relational, sociocultural, and ecological levels. Methods We carried out a scoping review examining empirical published academic literature. Results The 14 studies included in this scoping review indicated that resilience studies among LGBTQIA+ youth in out-of-home care are mainly qualitative, cross-sectional, US-based, and were centered on gay youth. Studies suggested that resilience resources were mostly focused at the socio/relational level (e.g., foster family acceptance) with fewer studies at the individual (e.g., LGBTQ positive identity), and community levels (e.g., LGBTQ centers). Importantly, no studies explored the interaction of resilience resources across these different domains. Conclusions Resilience among LGBTQIA+ youth in out-of-home care remains understudied and the results of this scoping review point to specific research gaps. Recommendations are provided for research, practice, and policy.
Article
Transgender and gender diverse children and youth experience significant health disparities and adverse health outcomes. Pediatricians have an opportunity to improve those outcomes by practicing gender-affirming care. This includes creating a welcoming environment through changes in office settings, intake forms, communication skills, language used, and support for families. Clinicians should be comfortable discussing social transition, puberty blockers, and gender-affirming hormone therapy with patients as needed. For clinicians caring for teenagers, adaptations in sexual health counseling and fertility counseling are necessary. Clinicians should also be aware of the trauma that has been historically inflicted by the medical and mental health system against people who identify as transgender/nonbinary, and that significant disparities exist even within this group along racial and gender lines. These aspects of caring for gender diverse youth are part of primary care pediatrics, and further education in these areas will improve access to care and health outcomes for these youth. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(2):e65-e71.].
Article
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The current study compared the abuse experiences of 108 sexual minority and heterosexual former foster youth who received scholarships through the Orphan Foundation of America. Participants used an anonymous online survey to answer questions regarding their history of physical and sexual abuse. All participants who reported a history of sexual abuse also completed the Trauma Related Beliefs questionnaire (TRB; Hazzard, 1993). Differences across sexual orientation were observed in sexual, but not physical, abuse rates and in the Self-Blame/Stigmatization subscale of the TRB. Specifically, sexual minority participants reported more incidents of sexual abuse, as well as higher scores on the TRB subscale, than did heterosexual participants. These results suggest that sexual orientation is relevant to the experience of abuse among children in the child welfare system.
Article
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Objective: Data from the United States indicate pronounced and persistent racial/ethnic differences in the rates at which children are referred and substantiated as victims of child abuse and neglect. In this study, we examined the extent to which aggregate racial differences are attributable to variations in the distribution of individual and family-level risk factors. Methods: This study was based on the full population of children born in California in 2002. Birth records were linked to child protective service (CPS) records to identify all children referred for maltreatment by age 5. Generalized linear models were used to compute crude and adjusted racial/ethnic differences in children's risk of referral, substantiation, and entry to foster care. Results: As expected, stark differences between Black and White children emerged in the rates of contact with CPS. Black children were more than twice as likely as White children to be referred for maltreatment, substantiated as victims, and enter foster care before age 5. Yet, there were also significant differences across racial/ethnic groups in the distribution of socioeconomic and health factors strongly correlated with child maltreatment and CPS involvement. After adjusting for these differences, low socioeconomic Black children had a lower risk of referral, substantiation, and entry to foster care than their socioeconomically similar White counterparts. Among Latinos, before adjusting for other factors, children of U.S.-born mothers were significantly more likely than White children to experience system contact, while children of foreign-born mothers were less likely to be involved with CPS. After adjusting for socioeconomic and health indicators, the relative risk of referral, substantiation, and foster care entry was significantly lower for Latino children (regardless of maternal nativity) compared to White children. Conclusions: Race and ethnicity is a marker for a complex interaction of economic, social, political, and environmental factors that influence the health of individuals and communities. This analysis indicates that adjusting for child and family-level risk factors is necessary to distinguish race-specific effects (which may reflect system, worker, or resource biases) from socioeconomic and health indicators associated with maltreatment risk. Identifying the independent effects of these factors is critical to developing effective strategies for reducing racial disparities.
Article
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This study compares participation in deviant subsistence strategies, street victimization, and lifetime prevalence of five mental disorders (conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse) among heterosexual males and females (n = 366) and gay, lesbian, and bisexual (n = 63) homeless and runaway adolescents from the first wave of a longitudinal study of homeless youth in four Midwestern states. The results indicate that gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents were more likely to have been physically and sexually abused by caretakers, we more likely to engage in risky survival strategies when on their own (including survival sex), were more likely to be physically and sexually victimized when on the streets, and were more likely to meet criteria for mental disorder than were their heterosexual counterparts.
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Children in foster care show elevated need for mental health services, and there is some evidence of greater unmet need among racial/ethnic minority youth compared to Caucasian youth. This paper reviews the evidence for racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use among children in foster care, including previously published data, as well as new, unpublished data, and examines the extent to which the disparities persist when the effects of other service use predictors are accounted for. Potential explanations for racial/ethnic disparities in service use are also explored, including cultural differences in help seeking and factors associated with decision-making processes in child protective service systems.
Article
Objectives: To identify patterns of childhood adversity in a sample of adolescents and assess disparities in these experiences for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents and by level of gender nonconformity. Method: By using the cross-sectional, statewide, anonymous 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, 81 885 students were included in the current study (50.59% male; mean age = 15.51). Participants were enrolled in grades 9 and 11 in a total of 348 schools. Results: Four patterns of childhood adversity were identified with sex-stratified latent class analyses (entropy = 0.833 males; 0.833 females), ranging from relatively low levels of abuse (85.3% males; 80.1% females) to polyvictimization (0.84% males; 1.98% females). A regression analysis showed that compared with heterosexual adolescents, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning adolescents were more likely to be classified into profiles characterized by polyvictimization (odds ratio [OR] 1.81-7.53) and psychological and/or physical abuse (OR 1.29-3.12), than no or low adversity. Similarly, compared with nontransgender adolescents, transgender adolescents were more likely to be classified into profiles characterized by patterns of polyvictimization (OR 1.49-2.91) and psychological and/or physical abuse (OR 1.23-1.96). A higher level of gender nonconformity predicted a higher likelihood of being classified into each adversity profile compared with the no or low adversity profile (OR 1.14-1.45). Conclusions: Sexual minority adolescents and adolescents with high levels of gender nonconformity are vulnerable to experience adversity. The disparities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents and adolescents with high gender nonconformity highlight the variation in patterns of childhood adversity that these youth are at risk of experiencing. The findings reveal the need for further research on the benefits and harm of screening for childhood adversity by physicians and pediatricians.
Article
This paper uses administrative data from fiscal years 2002–2013 from the state of Texas to estimate racial disparities in foster care placement. The mean predicted probability of foster care placement is 2.5 percentage points higher for Black children relative to White children, and there is not a statistically significant difference in the predicted probability of foster care placement between Hispanic children and White children. Results from non-linear Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions show racial disparities in risk factors for child maltreatment do not explain the disparity in foster care placement; rather it is racial disparities in the effects of risk factors that are the main contributors. Discerning the respective roles of racial disparities in maltreatment risk factors as compared to racially biased decision-making can help to inform solutions to racial disparities in foster care entry. This research can provide guidance as to what extent resources should be focused on alleviating poverty versus training child welfare workers to recognize and eliminate decision-making bias; of course these ought to be complementary undertakings.
Article
In this article, we address theories of attachment and parental acceptance and rejection, and their implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths’ identity and health. We also provide 2 clinical cases to illustrate the process of family acceptance of a transgender youth and a gender nonconforming youth who was neither a sexual minority nor transgender. Clinical implications of family acceptance and rejection of LGBT youth are discussed.
Article
In this article, we review theory and evidence on stigma and minority stress as social/structural determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We discuss different forms of stigma at individual (eg, identity concealment), interpersonal (eg, victimization), and structural (eg, laws and social norms) levels, as well as the mechanisms linking stigma to adverse health outcomes among LGBT youth. Finally, we discuss clinical (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) and public health (eg, antibullying policies) interventions that effectively target stigma-inducing mechanisms to improve the health of LGBT youth.
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Problem: Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence of these health-related behaviors compare with the prevalence of health-related behaviors among nonsexual minorities. Reporting period: September 2014-December 2015. Description of the system: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-related behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health-related behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. For the 2015 YRBSS cycle, a question to ascertain sexual identity and a question to ascertain sex of sexual contacts was added for the first time to the national YRBS questionnaire and to the standard YRBS questionnaire used by the states and large urban school districts as a starting point for their YRBS questionnaires. This report summarizes results for 118 health-related behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma by sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts from the 2015 national survey, 25 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results: Across the 18 violence-related risk behaviors nationwide, the prevalence of 16 was higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students than heterosexual students and the prevalence of 15 was higher among students who had sexual contact with only the same sex or with both sexes than students who had sexual contact with only the opposite sex. Across the 13 tobacco use-related risk behaviors, the prevalence of 11 was higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students than heterosexual students and the prevalence of 10 was higher among students who had sexual contact with only the same sex or with both sexes than students who had sexual contact with only the opposite sex. Similarly, across the 19 alcohol or other drug use-related risk behaviors, the prevalence of 18 was higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students than heterosexual students and the prevalence of 17 was higher among students who had sexual contact with only the same sex or with both sexes than students who had sexual contact with only the opposite sex. This pattern also was evident across the six sexual risk behaviors. The prevalence of five of these behaviors was higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students than heterosexual students and the prevalence of four was higher among students who had sexual contact with only the same sex or with both sexes than students who had sexual contact with only the opposite sex. No clear pattern of differences emerged for birth control use, dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Interpretation: The majority of sexual minority students cope with the transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood successfully and become healthy and productive adults. However, this report documents that sexual minority students have a higher prevalence of many health-risk behaviors compared with nonsexual minority students. Public health action: To reduce the disparities in health-risk behaviors among sexual minority students, it is important to raise awareness of the problem; facilitate access to education, health care, and evidence-based interventions designed to address priority health-risk behaviors among sexual minority youth; and continue to implement YRBSS at the national, state, and large urban school district levels to document and monitor the effect of broad policy and programmatic interventions on the health-related behaviors of sexual minority youth.
Article
Empirical research is needed to support ongoing efforts to improve services for sexual and gender minority youth in foster care. Further, data on the presence of sexual and gender minority youth within the child welfare system are needed to encourage counties that have not yet begun to engage in any efforts to address the unique needs and barriers to permanency for these youth. The current study reports on the findings of the Los Angeles Foster Youth Survey (LAFYS) which was designed to assess the proportion of youth placed in the Los Angeles County public child welfare system who are LGBTQ and to examine their experiences in communities, schools, and foster care. Findings indicate that approximately 19% of Los Angeles foster youth are LGBTQ. This proportion of youth is significantly higher than estimates of adolescent and young adult sexual and gender minority identification rates in the general population. Further, analyses also indicate that sexual and gender minority youth in this study are less satisfied with their child welfare system experience, are more likely to experience homelessness, are moved around to more placements, and are experiencing higher levels of emotional distress compared to their non-LGBTQ counterparts.
Article
The California Student Substance Use Survey marks a milestone in the state's efforts to monitor, understand, and prevent adolescent substance use and abuse. Chapter 1 presents the methodology. This survey follows a shift in California policy to a written parental consent requirement. Sample characteristics, consent procedures, and methods of data analysis are presented and discussed. Alcohol, still the most heavily used drug among teens, is presented and discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides data on "Illicit Drug Use." Data on prevalence, heavy use, cessation attempts, first drug use, problems, perceived harm, and perceived availability to teens are discussed in both chapters. Chapter 4, "Level of Involvement," covers the range of use. Chapter 5 provides information on prevention and intervention efforts. Chapter 6 discusses tobacco use and prevention. Chapter 7 provides conclusions and implications for prevention and intervention programs. Despite some fluctuations over the last decade, adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs remains as common among the actively consented sample in the current survey as that of the mid 1980s. An executive summary is included. Appendixes are: (1) "Supplementary Trend Tables"; (2) "The Effect of Active Consent on Response Rates"; (3) "Upper-Grade Survey Instrument." (EMK)
Article
Although the number of youth in foster care who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (GLBTQ) is not known, these youth have a range of unique placement and services needs that are often not well addressed. In a qualitative study conducted by Children's Rights and partnering legal organizations in New York City, the experiences of youth in congregate care settings (group and residential treatment centers) were examined, including the experiences of GLBTQ youth. Three key areas emerged as of concern for GLBTQ youth: the appropriateness of congregate care placements for them, the extent to which their service needs were being met, and the safety of GLBTQ youth in congregate care settings.
Article
We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.
Article
We examined specific family rejecting reactions to sexual orientation and gender expression during adolescence as predictors of current health problems in a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. On the basis of previously collected in-depth interviews, we developed quantitative scales to assess retrospectively in young adults the frequency of parental and caregiver reactions to a lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation during adolescence. Our survey instrument also included measures of 9 negative health indicators, including mental health, substance abuse, and sexual risk. The survey was administered to a sample of 224 white and Latino self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults, aged 21 to 25, recruited through diverse venues and organizations. Participants completed self-report questionnaires by using either computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper surveys. Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8.4 times more likely to report having attempted suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to report having engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse compared with peers from families that reported no or low levels of family rejection. Latino men reported the highest number of negative family reactions to their sexual orientation in adolescence. This study establishes a clear link between specific parental and caregiver rejecting behaviors and negative health problems in young lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Providers who serve this population should assess and help educate families about the impact of rejecting behaviors. Counseling families, providing anticipatory guidance, and referring families for counseling and support can help make a critical difference in helping decrease risk and increasing well-being for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth.
Article
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youngsters, aged 14-21 and living at home, were studied for patterns of disclosure of sexual orientation to families. Three-quarters had told at least one parent, more often the mother than the father. Those who had disclosed were generally more open about their sexual orientation than those who had not, and few of the nondisclosed expected parental acceptance. Those who had disclosed reported verbal and physical abuse by family members, and acknowledged more suicidality than those who had not "come out" to their families.
Article
A study was conducted with 45 self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (GLBTQ) youth and agency staff at the two known gay-affirming child welfare agencies in the United States: Green Chimneys GLBTQ Programs in New York City and Gay and Lesbian Social Services in Los Angeles, California. The study examined the question, "What are the challenges presented in ensuring permanency, safety, and well-being for gay and lesbian youth in a gay-affirming child welfare environment?" Guided by the framework outlined in the Child and Family Services Reviews National Standards, which support better outcomes for children and youth, the investigators sought to explore the challenges of ensuring permanency, safety, and well-being for this population, as these challenges were identified by the agency staff and youth who live and work in either of these two gay-affirming programs.
Article
An analysis of the current state of foster care and a discussion of specific measures for enhancing the accountability of the child welfare system and improving how children and families experience foster care.
Article
To investigate prevalence of mental disorder and comorbidity among homeless and runaway adolescents in small to medium sized cities in four Midwestern states. The study presents lifetime, 12-month prevalence, and comorbidity rates for five mental disorders (conduct disorder, major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse) based on UM-CIDI and DISC-R structured interviews from the baseline interviews of a longitudinal diagnostic study of 428 (187 males; 241 females) homeless and runaway adolescents aged 16-19 years (mean age = 17.4 years, SD = 1.05). The data were collected by full-time street interviewers on the streets and in shelters in eight Midwestern cities of various populations. Separate logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with meeting criteria for any disorder and two or more disorders. Lifetime prevalence rates were compared with rates for same-aged respondents from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Homeless and runaway adolescents were six times more likely than same-aged NCS respondents to meet criteria for two or more disorders and were from two to 17 times more likely to meet criteria for individual disorders than. Homeless and runaway adolescents in small and mid-sized Midwestern cities report significant levels of mental disorder and comorbidity that are comparable and often exceed that reported in studies of larger magnet cities.
Article
Providing stable housing for runaway and homeless youth is a major function of a transitional living program. This article introduces the focus of one program working with LGBTQ youth in New York City and discusses some issues to consider when working with this population. The article also presents data associated with young people's lives after discharge. In any discussion of outcomes, both reason for discharge and length of stay play important roles in whether or not an exit is safe. Regardless of these two elements, the places youth move to when leaving programs are crucial to their safety and well-being. The exit can be safe even when a young person is discharged early from a program. This article presents types of exits, as well as status of employment and school enrollment at exit. Some youth and staff-identified lessons gained in the program also are discussed in detail. Types of aftercare services sought by discharged youth are specified. This article also describes any differences in outcomes for youth with and without foster care experience.
Article
Needs assessments require staff with the necessary expertise to design the study, collect the data, analyze the data, and present results. They require money, time, and persistence, because the people one wishes to assess often are difficult to access. This article argues for the centrality of a well-done needs assessment when developing services for LGBTQ youth. Needs assessment methodology and adjunctive uses of the needs assessment data also are discussed. The authors present a needs assessment of LGBTQ youth living in out-of-home care in San Diego, California, as an example of the purpose, practicality, and power of a comprehensive needs assessment. The needs assessment identified several issues, as well as additional data supporting the project's necessity. The data also identified the most significant obstacles youth face in accessing housing and supportive services. Through the data collection process, non-LGBT housing providers better understood their need for additional training, and housing and city leadership communities obtained and spread knowledge of the project.
Article
This article reports on results of a one-day public health survey conducted in six states by homeless youth providers to measure and compare risk factors between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) homeless youth and non-LGB homeless youth. This article intends to inform the child welfare field on existing gaps in services and areas where more training and technical support is necessary in providing services to homeless LGB youth. The findings point to substantial differences within the homeless youth sample and demonstrate that in addition to the public health risks young people face merely by being homeless, the risks are exacerbated for those who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. The article informs child welfare providers and policymakers about the substantial vulnerability of LGB youth beyond that of non-LGB homeless youth and the need to fund programming, training, technical assistance and further research to specifically respond to the complex needs of this population.
Article
This article describes the Model Standards Project (MSP), a collaboration of Legal Services for Children and the National Center for Lesbian Rights. The MSP developed a set of model professional standards governing the care of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in out-of-home care. This article provides an overview of the experiences of LGBT youth in state custody, drawing from existing research, as well as the actual experiences of youth who participated in the project or spoke with project staff. It will describe existing professional standards applicable to child welfare and juvenile justice systems, and the need for standards specifically focused on serving LGBT youth. The article concludes with recommendations for implementation of the standards in local jurisdictions.
Article
Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance abusing homeless youth. Results suggest that GLB youth have greater HIV risks and that these risks are greater among bisexual females. In examining the predictors of sexual health risks, survival sex emerged as the most significant. Survival sex was high among females regardless of their sexual orientation and also among gay males. Implications of these findings suggest that a greater emphasis needs to be paid to preventive interventions among this population.
Article
This study examines the possible role of race/ethnicity in the decision to remove children from their caregivers and place them in foster care following a substantiated allegation of maltreatment. The population in this study is 137,300 (50,066 White, 65,392 Hispanic, and 21,842 Black) children who had at least one substantiated child maltreatment referral between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000. We employed logistic regression analyses to determine the effect of the ethnicity of a child with a substantiated allegation on placement into foster care. We find that Black children in California are more likely than White or Hispanic children to be removed from their caretaker and placed in foster care, even when other factors (e.g., age, reason for maltreatment, neighborhood poverty) are taken into account.
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