Weight-related self-monitoring involves tracking one’s weight, physical activity, and/or dietary intake. Millions of individuals engage in weight-related self-monitoring, with college students among the most likely users. Despite widespread weight-related self-monitoring, there is little research evaluating its consequences. Of particular concern is the potential for weight-related self-monitoring to increase eating disorder risk. The aims of this dissertation were to: 1) understand how undergraduate and graduate college students use methods of dietary self-monitoring and self-weighing with one another, and examine whether certain patterns of weight-related self-monitoring methods are associated with eating disorder risk, 2) examine how college freshmen use technology-based weight-related self-monitoring, and determine how patterns of technology-based weight-related self-monitoring are associated with eating disorder behaviors, and 3) identify the extent to which technology-based dietary self-monitoring increases eating disorder risk among female undergraduate students. Aim 1 drew from a large cohort of students from 12 universities across the United States and used latent class analysis to identify patterns of weight-related self-monitoring. Methods of weight-related self-monitoring that were assessed included knowing nutrition facts, knowing calorie facts, counting calories, and self-weighing. Eating disorder risk was measured using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Results of Aim 1 suggest differences in patterns of weight-related self-monitoring by gender. Among females, four patterns were identified: “no weight-related self-monitoring”, “all weight-related self-monitoring” methods, “knowing nutrition/calorie facts”, and “self-weigh only”. For females, all patterns of weight-related self-monitoring were associated with higher eating disorder risk compared to “no weight-related self-monitoring”. Among males, three patterns were identified: “no weight-related self-monitoring”, “all weight-related self-monitoring” methods, and “all weight-related self-monitoring but calorie counting”. Among males, only those represented by the “all weight-related self-monitoring” pattern demonstrated elevated risk for eating disorders. For Aim 2, latent class analysis was again used to identify patterns in use of the following weight-related self-monitoring tools: apps for a specific diet or exercise plan, wearable fitness tracker, online fitness tracker, online food journal, self-weighing, and a weight tracking app. Three patterns of technology-based weight-related self-monitoring were identified among females: “no weight-related self-monitoring”, “all weight-related self-monitoring”, and “food and exercise self-monitoring”. Those categorized by the “all weight-related self-monitoring” pattern were more likely to engage in eating disorder behaviors than those in the “no weight-related self-monitoring” pattern. Among males, three patterns were also identified: “no weight-related self-monitoring”, “all weight-related self-monitoring”, and “exercise self-monitoring”. There were no relationships between these patterns and eating disorder behaviors among males. Finally, for Aim 3, undergraduate female students were randomly assigned to either monitor their eating for 30 days using the MyFitnessPal app or continue to be naïve to dietary self-monitoring. Eating disorder risk was measured using the EDE-QS at baseline and post-intervention. No difference in eating disorder risk was seen between groups at post-intervention, suggesting that participating in a 30-day trial of dietary self-monitoring did not affect eating disorder risk among undergraduate females. Overall, findings from this dissertation indicate that specific patterns of weight-related self-monitoring are associated with concurrent eating disorder risk, particularly among women. Assessing methods of weight-related self-monitoring among young adults may be useful to identify individuals at elevated risk for eating disorders. However, a short-term trial of dietary self-monitoring among college women naïve to dietary self-monitoring did not increase eating disorder risk immediately post-intervention. Future research is needed to understand whether there are any specific sub-populations for whom weight-related self-monitoring is problematic.