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Histomorphology and Histochemical Study of Esophagus and Stomach in Grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) In Iraq

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  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - University of Baghdad

Abstract

Histomorphology of the esophagus and stomach of wild adult grey Iraqi mongoose were studied. Fourteen samples were collected from orchards near the Tigris River. Target organs topography, shape, and their blood supplywere described. Histological sections were stained with routine H&E stain, Masson’s trichrome stain for collagen fibers and Verhoffe’s stain for elastic fibers, combined PAS + Alcian blue for mucin type detection. Anatomically, the esophagus was narrow muscular folded tube, (13) cm length extends dorsally to trachea at larynx level than turn gradually to left side. It was situated to the right of thoracic aorta at tracheal bifurcation. One cm length of abdominal part penetrates the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. The stomach of was simple, J shape. The stomach had middle constriction divided the stomach into two compartments. Inner stomach surface showed eight longitudinal folds in different length. Left gastric branch of celiac artery supplied both visceral and parietal surface ofstomach thatcontinued to ventral margin of the esophageal-gastric junction to form right artery.Histologically, themucosa of upper esophagus was stratified squamous epithelia.The keratinization was decreased gradually toward the stomach. The muscularis mucosa was thin scattered interrupted smooth muscles bundles. Esophageal mucous glands were restricted only in esophageal stomach junction. Tunica muscularis was skeletal, mixed and smooth muscle fibers in cranial, middle and caudal region respectively. The stomach lined bysimple columnar epithelia without goblet cells. The gastric pits in cardiac region were deep and bounded by the thick band of stratum compact. The fundic and pyloric gastric pits were shorter than cardiac pits.The gastric glands had a large numbers of pyramidal parietal cells, chief cells, G cells and large unknown clear cells. These were simple tubular glands more coiled towards pylorus,secretion with neutral mucin was located superficially and that with both neutral and acid mucin were located deeply.
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.9 /Issue 52 / February / 2019 International Bimonthly ISSN: 0976 – 0997
16458
Histomorphology and Histochemical Study of Esophagus and Stomach
in Grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) In Iraq
Hussein Bashar Mahmood1 and Khalid.K.Kadhim2*
1Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Karbala, Iraq.
2Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
Received: 01 Nov 2018 Revised: 05 Dec 2018 Accepted: 09 Jan 2019
*Address for Correspondence
Khalid.K.Kadhim
Department of Anatomy and Histology,
College of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Baghdad, Iraq.
This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.
Histomorphology of the esophagus and stomach of wild adult grey Iraqi mongoose were studied.
Fourteen samples were collected from orchards near the Tigris River. Target organs topography, shape,
and their blood supplywere described. Histological sections were stained with routine H&E stain,
Masson’s trichrome stain for collagen fibers and Verhoffe’s stain for elastic fibers, combined PAS + Alcian
blue for mucin type detection. Anatomically, the esophagus was narrow muscular folded tube, (13) cm
length extends dorsally to trachea at larynx level than turn gradually to left side. It was situated to the
right of thoracic aorta at tracheal bifurcation. One cm length of abdominal part penetrates the
diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. The stomach of was simple, J shape. The stomach had
middle constriction divided the stomach into two compartments. Inner stomach surface showed eight
longitudinal folds in different length. Left gastric branch of celiac artery supplied both visceral and
parietal surface ofstomach thatcontinued to ventral margin of the esophageal-gastric junction to form
right artery.Histologically, themucosa of upper esophagus was stratified squamous epithelia.The
keratinization was decreased gradually toward the stomach. The muscularis mucosa was thin scattered
interrupted smooth muscles bundles. Esophageal mucous glands were restricted only in esophageal
stomach junction. Tunica muscularis was skeletal, mixed and smooth muscle fibers in cranial, middle and
caudal region respectively. The stomach lined bysimple columnar epithelia without goblet cells. The
gastric pits in cardiac region were deep and bounded by the thick band of stratum compact. The fundic
and pyloric gastric pits were shorter than cardiac pits.The gastric glands had a large numbers of
pyramidal parietal cells, chief cells, G cells and large unknown clear cells. These were simple tubular
glands more coiled towards pylorus,secretion with neutral mucin was located superficially and that with
both neutral and acid mucin were located deeply.
ABSTRACT
RESEARCH
ARTICLE
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
Vol.9 /Issue 52 / February / 2019 International Bimonthly ISSN: 0976 – 0997
16459
Keywords: Histomorphology, histochemical, gastric glands, esophagus, stomach, grey mongoose.
INTRODUCTION
Mongooses (Herpestidae) are small, wide spread carnivores occupying various habitats from Africa to Southeast
Asia [1]. The genus Herpestes contains 10 species and is considered the oldest genus within the order Carnivora [2].
The Indian gray mongoose or common grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) is a species of mongoose mainly found
in southern Asia mainly India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia. This omnivorous scavenger
preys on rodents, snakes, birds’ eggs and hatchlings, lizards and variety of invertebrates [3]. Generally, esophagus
divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts. Desorption of its course was mentioned in different types of
animals [4]. The esophagus in canine and feline begins cranially at the cranial esophageal sphincter and continues to
the esophageal hiatus at the diaphragm. Anatomy of stomach was studied in different typs of animals.The simple
stomach had glandular region only in cat[5]. The stomach of domestic ruminants classified in to compound
(multilocular), the rumen, reticulum and omasum (non-glandular region) while, abomasum, was comparable to the
glandular stomach of the other simple stomached domestic mammals.
Compound stomach andcharacterized by the presence of a diverticulum surmounting the fundus in pig. Horse
stomach is simple and divided into two regions; glandular and non-glandular[6]. Similar finding is reported
inhamster and rodent’s stomach [7] respectively. Arterial blood supply of cat stomach is contributions from five
major sources [8]. Theoesophagus is lining by a stratified squamous epithelium,may be keratinized depending on
animal's diet [9]. [10]who stated that themuscularis mucosa is, however, absent cranially whileesophageal mucous
glands are present and the tunica muscularis is smooth or skeletal muscle, depending on the species. The tunica
muscularis is different, its skeletal muscle fibers gradually transfers to smooth muscle fibers caudally in dog.While
itsrepresented by two layers of muscle fibers, inner layer ispredominant striated muscle in Rock rats [11]. The fore-
stomach of rat is lined by stratified squamous epitheliumor only the non-glandular forestomach [12]. Gastric glands
are located in sub mucosa of fore stomach and lamina propria of posterior part of the stomach in Caspian pony [13].
In rat, the cardiac glands are branched simple tubular [14]. In canines, the pyloric glands occupied the thickness of
mucous membrane [15]. The pyloric glands are simple branched coiled tubular glands and relatively shorter
compared to other gastric glands [16]. There is paucity of information regarded the Histomorphology of the digestive
organs of Iraqi grey mongoose. So this research was designed to provide basic knowledge about esophagus and
stomach in this wild animal.
MATERIALS & METHODS
Fourteen healthy grey mongooses of both sexes were used in this study. The average body weight was (350 ±23.3)
gm. The average body length was (54±5.7) cm,The relative length of the esophagus and stomach to the body length
was (18%,6%)cm respectively (Fig,1). The animals were caught from orchards near Tigris Rivers. The animals
euthanized by intra muscular administration of diazepam (1mg/1kg) combined with ketamine HCL (30Mg, 1Kg)[17].
Longitudinal incision at ventral aspect of neck, chest and abdomen was done to viewed esophagus and stomach. The
morphological parameters of the target organs included shape, length, weight and relation with other organs. Length
were recorded in centimeter (cm) using a calibrated scale. The weight was recorded in gram (gm) using the sensitive
electronic balance. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, sections (5µm.) thickness of three
regions of esophagus (cranial, middle and caudal) and from stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions) were
taken. Sections were stained with routine H&E, Masson’s trichrome stain for collagen fibers and Verhoffe’s stain for
elastic fibers, combined PAS + Alcian blue (PH 2.5) for Neutral and acid mucin[18]. The thickness of the tunica
mucosa, submucosa and muscularis were recorded. The collected data were represented by mean ± standard
deviation. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20 at (P<0.05).
Hussein Bashar Mahmood and Khalid.K.Kadhim
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Vol.9 /Issue 52 / February / 2019 International Bimonthly ISSN: 0976 – 0997
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RESULTS
Esophagus
Anatomically, the esophagus was narrow amusculo-membranous folded tube, which extends from the pharynx to
the stomach. It’sdivided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts. In cervical region, the esophagus bounded
ventrally by the trachea, dorsally by the cervical vertebrae, and laterally by the common carotid artery. It’s curved
into left side at the thyroid gland region at second ring of trachea, but it returned to left side at thoracic inlet. In
thoracic region the esophagus become dorsally to tracheal bifurcation (Fig 2) and crossed dorsally through
mediastinum then extended in right side of descending aorta (Fig,3). Abdominal part of esophagus was very short
about (1) cm, penetrating the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus, then become wide and thick. The esophagus
connects with stomach by esophageal opening. The cross section of esophagus appeared folded. The mean length of
the fresh esophagus was (13±0.8) cm. The relative length of the organ to the body length was 18% cm.
The stomach was a hollow, muscular, large dilatation organ located caudal to the diaphragm, which intervenes
between the esophagus and small intestine, in hypochondrial region. Cranially, occupied space between lobes of
liver, caudally, bounded with jejunum and cecum, dorsally contact with spleen and part of left kidney, ventrally was
bounded partially with caudrate lobe of liver. In right side bounded with caudal duodenal flexure while bounded by
part of costal arch in left side. The stomach was simple( J) shaped, had light narrowing that divided stomach into two
sac. Stomach had two opening cardiac and pyloric, two surface parietal and visceral, two curvatures lesser and
greater and two extremity. The lesser curvature was very short connected by omentum that extend to small intestine,
while the greater curvature very broad and contact with spleen which slightly extend dorsally (Fig, 4). Internally, the
stomach can divided into three main sites, including the cardiac region (around the superior opening of the stomach)
connected with the esophagus; it was thicker and rougher than other regions (Fig, 5). The fundus (the body) greater
portion of the stomach and the pyloric region (connect with duodenum).In pyloric region, there were pyloric antrum
as a depression connected with stomach body and the pyloric canal which continues to the duodenum. The internal
surface characterized by present numerous of longitudinal folds, these folds appeared high and greater in size in
fundic region and decrease gradually toward cardiac and pyloric region. However, there was no clear line of
demarcation between these regions (Fig, 6).
Blood supply
The main artery that supplies stomach was the celiac artery. It had three branches; (first) the common hepatic artery
that supplies the liver. (Second) left gastric branch for stomach, this branch gives many of short vessels distribution in
both visceral and parietal surface of stomach. (third) the left gastric artery divided into two divisions; cranial and
caudal part, the cranial part of left gastric artery was supplied left surface while the caudal part was continued to the
lesser curvature near the esophageal-gastric junction to supply right side (Fig,7). Histologically,the sections of
esophagus showed some differences among cranial, middle and caudal part. However, all those regions were
consisted of four basically layers; mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and adventitia (Fig, 8). The mucosa in the cranial
region was keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; the epithelium was composed of (8-12) cell layers (Fig.9).
While it was about (6-8) cell layers in middle region which had less keratinized layers (Fig.10). However, at the
caudal region, the epithelium was composed of (4-6) cell layers but there was no keratinization of the outer layer (Fig.
11). The lamina propria represented by connective tissue fibers and scattered by lymphatic tissue. In the caudal
region of esophagus, the collagen bundles extended to the stomach formed the (stratum compact), this layer of
collagen was appeared as stripe extend a long of caudal region of esophagus and continued to stomach wall.At the
esophageal stomach junction, there were simple tubular serous and mucous esophageal glands, these glands located
in lamina propria and few number extended into submucosa, these glands were located at the site of epithelial
changed from squamous to the columnar epithelia (Fig,12,13). The muscularis mucosa was thin and consisting of
Hussein Bashar Mahmood and Khalid.K.Kadhim
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scattered interrupted smooth muscles bundles but become thick in middle region of esophagus. The submucosamade
up of loose connective tissue rich by collagen fibers intermingled by few of elastic fibers. No glandswere observed in
esophagus. Thickness of submucosa in cranial, middle and caudal region of esophagus was (144, 131, 104) µm
respectively. The tunica muscularis, was distributed as inner circular and outer longitudinal laminae, it was striated
muscle fibers in cervical region (200) µm in thickness, mixed in middle region with (170) µm thickness and smooth
fibers in caudal region with (315) µm thickness. Adventitia, this tunica contains loose connective tissue, elastic fibers
and blood vessels (Table,2), (Fig,14,15,16).
The stomach wall represented by four basic layers; mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The stomach was
simple glandular, had three glandular regions, cardiac, fundic and pyloric region. Each region had some
characteristics feature differsthan the other region (Fig,17).Gastric mucosa was lined by typically simple columnar
epithelia without goblet cells (Fig, 18). The thickness of mucosa was (565, 722, 700 µm) in cardiac, fundic and pyloric
region respectively.In cardiac region, the gastric pits were extended deeply; however, it was shorter in fundic and
pyloric regions. The depth of gastric pits in cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions was (504, 148, 198) µm respectively.
The mucosa of stomach contain high and low folds, the mean of thickness about (565, 722, 700) µm in three region
respectively (Table,3) (Fig,19,20,21). The mucosa of all parts of stomach was supported by thick stripe of collagen
fibers (stratum compactum) and two to three layers of thick smooth muscle fibers of muscularis mucosa extend
between these networks of collagen fiber (Fig 22). In general, the gastric glands in cardiac region were simple short
coiled glands, lined by columnar cells had elongated nuclei were located in base of glands.
There were numerous of parietal cell distributed randomly among epithelium. In addition to high numbers of chief
cells can be seen (Fig,23). The fundic region featured by thick lamina propria, simple tubular glands, the cells of these
glandsarranged as longitudinal cords, the amount of connective tissue between the glands were reduced because the
glands were tightly packed. There was large number of parietal cells in fundic region that distinguished from other
cells as chief and clear cells by their bright acidophilic staining andlarge spherical or ovoid shaped with round nuclei.
The chief cells were dark pyramidal or cuboidal shape basally positioned, there were number of clear cells which
appear spindle or elongated in shape were located in base of laminea propria (Fig, 24, 25). In pyloric region, the
lamina propria was consisted of two types of simple coiled gastric glands, there are a numbers of G cells can be
distinguished in pyloric region located in base of pyloric glands which appear asfried egg-like, bright color had
rounded nucleus centrally positioned (Fig,26,27). Submucosa was loose connective tissue, rich by collagen,
elasticfibersand blood vessels (Fig,28,29). No glands were seen in this lamina, thickness of Submucosa in three region
was (151, 150, 101)µm respectively. Serosa was lined by simple squamous and consisted of network of collagen and
elastic fibers (Table,3). Histochemical observation reveled to positive reaction of the gastric bits and mucous neck
cells to PAS stain which appeared magenta in color (Fig,30). The superficial gastric glands appear magenta color due
to the presence of neutral secretions while the deep glands that located in base of mucosa appearance mixed purple
blue and red color due to the secrete acid and neutral (Fig,31).
DISCUSSION
There is scarcity of morphological details of the digestive system the grey mongoose in Iraq. The esophagus in grey
mongoose appeared as a narrow amusculo-membranous folded tube.The walls of the esophagus in feline are
protected from damage by hard food by presence of longitudinal folds, this allows for expansion as the food travels
down to the stomach[19].In current study, the cervical region of the esophagus passed dorsally to the trachea at
second ring of trachea but before entering the thoracic cavity turn to left side of trachea. However, it was noticed that
the esophagus is deviated slightly to the left around the cervical region in rat, cat and dog[20]. But seemed followed
similar course that of other animals [21]. The stomach in grey mongoose was (J) in shaped, this is similar to rabbit
stomach [22]in rabbits. While its (C) shaped in dog, cat and in pigs [6]. Externally, Mongoose stomach hadnarrowing
in its middle part, this constrictionmay be consider as a kind of adaptation for this animal to resist shortage in
Hussein Bashar Mahmood and Khalid.K.Kadhim
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seasonal food. However, this is unlike any stomach in all species of animals.[23]whostated that the great differences
between carnivores and herbivores are seen in these organs.This result were different as well as for that reported in
laboratory animals such as rat, guinea pig and hamster, by presence of a limiting ridge between glandular and non-
glandular regions [7]. The stomach of grey mongoose was simple type (glandular) or monogastric.Therefore, it
seemed like carnivores stomach [24,25]. While it is classified as a compound (glandular and nonglandular
chambers)or multilocular in ruminants [7].[26]who stated that the stomach of pig and horse where these have
compound monogastric stomachwhile, the rat and hamster stomach have simple stomach but have separated non
glandular chamber. In the current study, the internal surface of grey mongoose stomach had longitudinal
folds,thesefolds extended in all regions of the stomach.Higher foldswerefound in fundic region. These folds may be
occurred when stomach is empty, in addition, the presence of these folds may be allowed to more distention of
stomach after consumed large amount of food in short time as a gluttonous predator animal.However, the stomach of
tayra has longitudinal cord to grind up and digest food because the carnivores and especially wild animal need
compact organs for digestion[27]. Whereas, the stomach of other animals like hamster and rabbits have no folds at all
[7,26].
Histologically,mongoose esophagus had basically four layers as in all other animals; the keratinization of epithelia
was appeared clearly a long esophagus regions. However,the degree of keratinization was reduced gradually
towards stomach. The keratinization of esophageal mucosa of gray mongoose was more in its cranial part may be for
natural of mongoose's diet, as the rats, mice, snack and rabbits, may be due to consumed hard types of food.
However, the degree of keratinisation of the oesophagus depends on the animal's diet [9].The presentstudy revealed
that the muscularis mucosa was thin, scattered interrupted smoothmuscles bundles.However, in dog and rock rat, its
restrict as smooth muscle fibers in caudal region of esophagus only [28,29].Whereas there is no muscularis mucosain
Giant African rat [9,29].
In this study, the epithelial layer of the caudal part of esophagus had rested on the stripe of collagen fibers (stratum
compactum).This structure firstly registered by [30] who find the stratum compactum present in sub-glandular
mucosa of stomach in carnivores only.Another report mentioned that the stomach mucosa of canineis lackingto
stratum compactum [31].In mongoose, The tunica muscularis of thecranial region of esophagus had striated skeletal
fibers and changed to mixed (skeletal and smooth) fibers in middle region then become smooth fibers in the last part
near cardiac region.These results were similarto dog esophagus[9].The mongoose is a wild animal and in need for
fast swallowed of food. This is described by [32]who stated the rate of passage of swallowed food is faster in the
striated than in the smooth muscles.In current study, the esophageal glands were restricted onlyat esophagus-
stomach junction.The gray mongoose is considered carnivoresand its food not need lubrication to facilitate their
passage.Some carnivores species lack or had less numbers of esophageal glands due to food regurgitation reflex don’t
accrue[33].Conversely, these esophageal glands are importantin herbivorous animal to facilitate rough food passage
[34].
The stomach in gray mongoose was lined by simple glandular mucosa for its three regions cardiac, fundic and
pyloric.Similar observation was reported in in ferret and dog[35].However, in herbivorous animals, in addition to a
glandular region, there is a non-glandular region lined with stratified squamous epithelium [36]. The stomach
mucosa of grey mongoose was thrown into folds giving it a rumen like appearance. These observations are seen in
rat stomach[37]. The cardiac region of grey mongoose characterized by presence of simple columnar epithelia
withoutgoblet cells and the gastric pits were extended deeply and occupied on the thick lamina propria which is in
correspondence with that in dog[38]. Nevertheless, there are a distinct keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of
fore stomach of in rats, mouse, hamster and gerbil [39]. In this study,numerous of clear cells, irregular or spindle
greater cellswere located closely with chief cells in glandular area,these cells were negative for H&E and combined
AB+PAS. These cells may be havingcertain function in mongoose stomach secretion. Similar to these cells were
mentioned in guinea pig stomach, as irregular cells contact with chief cells more than parietal cells which secrete the
histamine during too much concentration of acidity [40]. The cardiac glands of mongoose stomach were short simple
Hussein Bashar Mahmood and Khalid.K.Kadhim
Indian Journal of Natural Sciences www.tnsroindia.org.in ©IJONS
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coiled glands. Which wassimilar to that mentioned in monkeys and most of domesticanimals[41] and in Caspian
pony [42,43]. The mucosa of fundic region of grey mongoose stomach resting on thick layer of lamina muscularis and
stripe of collagen fibers (stratum compactum), this was similar tocanine stomachs[30].Thisdense fibrous membrane
may bestrength stomach wall and give protection from perforations in carnivores[44].The fundic glands of
mongoosestomach were simple tubular gland with large numbers of parietal cells;this result indicates that mongoose
stomach had high efficiencyto digest hard food.[45] who stated the described that the carnivores and omnivores
would be expected to have higher stomach acidities than herbivores. In this study, the epithelial cells of pyloric
region showed high simple cylindrical cells, arranged regularly and compactly with basal nucleus. These cells in this
region had highly mucous secretion as reported in rat, horse and dog[37,46,47).The cardiac pits in in stomach were
deeper than in other regions of the stomach in domestic animals while, the pyloric pits were shorter[48]. In the
present study, the lamina propria of pyloric regionhad short and long simple coiled gastric gland that represented by
two zones dark and light respectively. Similar observation is reported in pyloric region of dog stomach [16].
However, it’slong coiled tubular glands in stomach of domestic animals [49] histochemical reaction of thestomach
mucosa in gray mongooseafter AB+PAS stainshowedthat epithelial cells and mucous neck cells of gastric pits had
neutral muco-polysaccharides.While the other parts of the gastric glands showed moderate neutral mucin reaction
due to acidic secretion of parietal cells. The presence of neutral muco-polysaccharidesis important to protect the
stomach wall against acid digestion[50].In cat, the gastric glands showed moderate to strong reaction to PAS-AB
stain(38). In conclusion, the histomorphological observations of the esophagus and stomach in gray mongoose
showing too much similarity to carnivorous species in which its belong.
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Table 1.Measurements of lengths and weight for target organs
Title Mean &SD absolutely Relatively
Length animal 53± 5.09 cm -----------
Weight of animal 351±12.7 gm
----------
Length of Esophagus 13± 0.8 cm
18%
Length of Stomach 4± 0.5 cm
6%
Table ( 2 ) Mean thickness of mucosa, sub mucosa, muscularis and adventitia in cranial, middle and caudal
regions of esophagus of the grey mongoose.
Organ
Mucosa
submucosa
Tunica muscularis
Esophagus\cranial 102 ±12.5 144 ±18.1 200±31.09
Esophagus\Middle 70±18.2 131±17.7 170±28.8
Esophagus\caudal 80±15.2 104±13.9 315 ±26.3
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Table .3. Mean thickness of gastric pit, mucosa, sub mucosa, muscularis and serosa of cardiac, fundic and pyloric
regions of stomach of the grey mongoose.
Organ Gastric pit mucosa submucosa
Tunica
muscularis Tunica serosa
Cardiac region 504 ±39.09 565 ±38.6 151 ±21.1 300±20 201 ±13.4
Fundic region 148 ±13.4 722 ±24.2 150±16.3 440±21.6 145 ±17.1
Pyloric region 198 ±13.4 700±31.6 101 ±13.4 195 ±13.4 98 ±13.4
Fig.1. Show the ratio the length of stomach
andesophagus to the length of animal (cm). The
numbers represent the mean ± standard
divisions
Chart .1. Chart representing the mean thickness of
mucosa, sub mucosa, muscularis and adventitia of
cranial, middle and caudal region of esophagus of
the gray mongoose
Chart.2. Chart representing the mean thickness of gastric pit, mucosa, sub mucosa, muscularis and
serosa of cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions of stomach of the gray mongoose
L.animal
L.esophagu
L.stomch
7
1
6
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Mucosa
Sub-M
Muscular
Adventitia
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Cardiac fundic Pyloric
Gastric
pit
Mucosa
Sub-M
Muscular
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Fig. 2. Esophagus of gray mongoose (E) showing the esophagus passes between common carotid artery (A) and
left side to trachea (T).
Fig. 3. Esophagus course thought thoracic cavity passes in right side of thoracic aorta.
Fig.4.Stomach of grey mongoose (J) shape, bounded by liver cranially, right kidney and cranial flexure in right
side and small intestine and cecum caudally.
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Fig.5.Internal surface of stomach explained junction area between esophagus and stomach
Fig .6. Internal surface of stomach showing cardiac, Fundic, pyloric antrum and pyloric canal.
Fig .7.Blood supply of digestive stomach by celiac artery which divided in three branches
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Fig.8. Esophagus (cervical region)of grey mongoose showing A- mucosa,B-submucosa,C-tunica muscularis and
D-tunica adventitia. H&E stain.40X
Fig.9. Cranial part of esophagus lined by stratified squamous keratinized (yellow arrow), muscularis mucosa
had interrupted muscles bundles (black arrow).H&E stain.400X
Fig.10. Tunica mucosa of middle part of esophagus explained interrupted bundle of smooth muscle (yellow
arrows). H&E stain.100X
Fig.11. Caudal part of esophagus lined by stratified squamous very-delicate of keratine.H&E stain.400X
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Fig.12. Gastro-esophageal junction showing transition of epithelia from stratified squamous (red arrow) to
simple columnar (black arrow), esophageal glands in submucosa (yellow arrows).Masson’s trichrome.40X.
Fig.13. Gastro-esophageal junction showing the serous glands (black arrow), mucous glands red arrows) in
submucosa. Masson’s trichrome.100X
Fig.14. Tunica muscularis in cranial part of esophagus showing striated muscle (yellow arrows). H&E stain.
400X
Fig.15. Esophagus (mid region) showing: Tunica muscularis had mixture of striated muscles (black arrows) and
smooth muscles (yellow arrows). H&E stain.400X
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Fig.16. Esophagus(caudal region) Tunica muscularis in caudal part of esophagus had smooth muscles fibers
(yellow arrows). H&E stain. 400X
Fig.17. Stomach (cardiac region)of gray mongoose explained four basic layers, M- tunica mucosa, S submucosa,
Mr-tunica muscularis and Sr-Serosa.H&E stain.40X
Fig.18. Stomach (cardiac region)of grey mongoose showing, simple columnar epithelia without goblet cell
(black arrows) contains elongated nuclei (yellow arrows) H&E stain.400
Fig,19. Cardiac region of stomach showing gastric pits (black arrows) and simple gastric glands (yellow
arrows).H&E stain.100X
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Fig.20.Fundic region of stomach explained gastric pits oval in shape (black arrows) and the simple tubular
gastric glands in lamina propria appeared as a cords (yellow arrows). H&E stain. 100X.
Fig, 21. Pyloric region of stomach explained shape of gastric pits (yellow arrows) and stratum compactum
extend in to pyloric region (black arrow). H&E stain. 100X
Fig. 22. Fundic region showing, mucosa resting on the thick layer of stratum compactum (black arrows) and two
strip of muscular mucosa (yellow arrows). H&E stain.100X
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Fig,23. Cardiac region of stomach showing, simple columnar epithelia (red arrows) and simple short coiled
gastric glands (yellow arrows). H&E stain.400X
Fig.24. Fundic region showing, rounded-pyramidal parietal cell (yellow arrows) and great spindle- shape of
clear cell (blue arrow). H&E stain.400X
Fig. 25. Stomach (fundic region) of grey mongoose show chief cells (yellow arrows) and clear cell black
arrow).H&E stain. 400X
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Fig,26 Pyloric region showing two types of gastric glands, deep mucous glands (black arrows) and superficial
serous glands (yellow arrows). H&E stain. 100X.
Fig,27. Pyloric region of stomach showing, gastric glands (yellowarrows) and G-cell as fried egg-appearance
(black arrows).H&E stain.400X
Fig.28. Stomach of grey mongoose showing collagen fibers in lamina propria and submucosa appeared blue in
color (yellow arrows) and smooth muscle fibers red in color (black arrows).Masson’s trichrome stain.40X
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Fig.29. Stomach (cardiac region) of gray mongoose showing, elastic fibers in submucosa and serosa black color
(black arrows), stratum compactum red in color (blue arrows) and smooth muscle yellow in color (yellow
arrows). Verhoeff's stain.100X
Fig.30.Fundic region showing red color of gastric pits (yellow arrows) and interstitial space red secretions
(black arrows).Ab+PAS stain.100X.
Fig. 31. Cardiac region showing gastric glands, superficial glands magenta in color (yellow arrows) and deep
glands small in size and purple in color (black arrows). Ab+PAS stain.100X.
Hussein Bashar Mahmood and Khalid.K.Kadhim
... It is the only part of the gastrointestinal tract that does not have metabolic, digest and absorb function. The esophagus is divided into three parts: cervical, thoracic, and abdominal [8,9] . The entire gastrointestinal tract shows that the esophagus has four histological layers. ...
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