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A REVIEW OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM (REISHI): A MIRACULOUS MEDICINAL MUSHROOM

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Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum is a type of fungus which grows on dead and deciduous trees. Ganoderma lucidum has a vast history of utilization as a supplement for propelling life span and the advancement of a healthier life in Asian region i.e. in China, Japan and Korea. All Traditional Chinese Medicine specialists believe that Ganoderma lucidum is the most highlighted one amongst the most powerful available adaptogens. Adaptogens are the herbal supplements that have capability of developing the body's impenetrability to stress and offer some assistance with defeating all the troubles and difficulties which are against health and this process is done in the most rapid and fast fashion. Ganoderma products are widely spread in America in the latest couple of years, practically as they have been surely believed and utilized in traditional medicine system of China for an extensive period.
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

INTRODUCTION
        
      
       
Ǥǡ
     Ǥ ȏͳȐ
        
     Ǥ Ganoderma
lucidumǡ       ǡ    
ǤGanoderma lucidum

       
  Ǥ ȏʹǡ ͵ȐGanoderma lucidum 
 Dz   dzǤ Ganoderma lucidum  
         
 ǡ ǡ  ǡ ǡ  Ǥ
Ganoderma lucidum       

      ǤǤ  ǡ  
ǤȏͶȐ
Ganoderma lucidum     
    Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum 
       
    ǡ    
 Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum   
ȋȌǡͷͲͲͲ
Ǥ
        Dz  
dzǤȏͷȐ

Ganoderma lucidum      
    Ǥ  
      
 ̵      
       
          
    Ǥ   
         ǡ

ͳǡǡǦ͹ͷ͸ͲͲǡǤ
ʹǡǡǦ͹͸ͲͺͲǡǤ
Ǧǣͳ̷Ǥ
ȗ
       
Ǥȏ͸Ȑ
   ǡ   
ǡ
         
Ǥ        ʹͳ 
ǡ
Ganoderma lucidum ȋ   Ȍ   
Ǥȏ͸Ȑ
CLASSIFICATION
ǣ
ǣ
ǣ
ǣ
ǣ
ǣ
ǣGanoderma lucidum. ȏ͹Ȑ
BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
      Ganoderma
lucidum      ͻͲΨ   
ǢͳͲΨ
        
     ͳͲǦͶͲΨǡ  ʹǦͺΨǡ
͵ǦʹͺΨǡ͵Ǧ͵ʹΨͺǦͳͲΨǤ
  ǡ ǡ ǡ ǡ
ǡ ǡ ǡ     
ͳͲΨǤ
ȏͺȐ
    ǡ 
ǡ  ǡ ǡ ǡ ǡ
ǡ     
 Ganoderma lucidumǤ      
Ǥ 
  Ǥ ǡ  
  
Ganoderma lucidum. ȏͻǡͳͲȐ
DERIVATION OF NAMES
Ganoderma lucidumdz       
ǡ
    ǡ   
  Ǥ       
A Review of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi): A Miraculous
Medicinal Mushroom
Najeeb Khatian1, Muhammad Aslam1, 2*
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum           Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum
  
ǤǤ
ǡ
  Ǥ        Ganoderma lucidum
    
Ǥ
̵     
            
           Ǥ    
 ǡ      
Ǥ
1
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

Ganoderma lucidum
        
Ǥ
Ǥ
ǡǤ
       Ǥ  
ǡ   
Ǥȏ͸Ȑ
HISTORY
     ǡ  
         ǡ 
ǡ ǡ ǡ  ǡ
ǡ ǡ ǡ  
ǦǤȏͳͳǦͳ͵Ȑ
CULTIVATION AND HABITAT
       
    ȋǡ ǡ Ȁǡ ǡ
  Ȍ       
Ǥ
      Ǥ
Ganoderma lucidum   ȋȌ 

 Ǥǡ
      ǡ ǡ
ǡǤ
ǤȏͻȐ
       
      Ǥ    
   Ǥ     ͵ͲǦ
͵ͶιǤȏͳͶȐǡ
    ͵͹ι      
Ganoderma lucidum  
͹ǦͺȀǤȏͳͷȐ
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES
Anxiolytic Activity
  et alǤǡ ȏͳ͸Ȑ     Ganoderma
lucidum      Ȁ  
     Ǥ  Ȁ 
  
  Ȁ Ǥ    
        
Ganoderma lucidum
       
       Ȁ ǡ   
 Ǥ  
    
 Ǥ        
 Ganoderma lucidum    
Ǥ
Antidepressant Activity

etalǤǡȏͳ͹Ȑ    Ǥ
       Ganoderma
lucidum   Ǧ   
    Ǥ    ȋȌ 
   ȋȌ     
   Ǥ  
     
  Ǥ     Ganoderma
lucidum       
Ǥ
Antitumor Activity
 Ganoderma
lucidum        
Ǥ   
 Ganoderma lucidum     
       
ȋǦ͹ͻͲͳȌȋͷ͸ʹ
͸ͲȌǤǡGanoderma lucidum
    ͳͺͲ  ʹʹ
   Ǥ     
   Ganoderma lucidum 
   Ǧ Ǥ ȏͳͺǡ
ͳͻȐ        
  
  Ǥ ȏʹͲȐ    
    Ganoderma lucidum
   
   Ǥ   
ǤȏʹͳȐ
Hypoglycemic Activity
   
   Ganoderma lucidumǤ  

 Ganoderma lucidum  
 Ǥ    
    
ǤȏʹʹȐ
Ganoderma lucidum   
Ǥȏʹ͵Ȑ
Activity against Topical Sarcoidosis
     
       Ganoderma
lucidum        
Ǥ      
       
      Ganoderma
lucidum  Ǧ  
Ǥ         
  
      
ǤȏʹͶȐ
Antihyperlipidimic Activity
      Ganoderma lucidum 
ǡ  
   Ganoderma lucidumǤ   
Ganoderma lucidum 
   Ǥ   
Ganoderma lucidum 
ǦǤȏʹͷȐ
2
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

Anti-Obesity Activity
       
      Ǧ
Ǥ       
     Ganoderma lucidum  
         
     ǡ

ȋȌǤȏʹ͸Ȑ
Anti-Inflammatory Activity
       Ganoderma
lucidum   ǦǤ

     Ganoderma lucidum. 

      Ǥ 
      Ǧʹ  
Ǧʹͳǡ
ǦȽǡ Ǧ͸  Ǧ͹  Ǥ  
  Ganoderma lucidum  Ǧ
Ǥȏʹ͹Ȑ
Hepatoprotective Activity
  ǡ     
    
Ganoderma lucidum       
ǤGanoderma lucidum ȋͳͲͲɊȀȌ  
       
ǤȏʹͺȐ
Mucoprotective Activity in Acute Gastric Ulcer
  ǡ       
Ǥ
 Ganoderma lucidum Ǥ 
       

Ganoderma lucidum ǤȏʹͻȐ
Anticancer Activity
      Ganoderma
lucidum       Ǥ
Ganoderma lucidum      
  ǡ ȏ͵ͲȐ Ǧ ǡȏ͵ͳȐ
 
ǡȏ͵ʹȐǡȏ͵͵ȐǤȏ͵ͶȐ
Immunomodulator Activity
      Ganoderma 
  Ǥ ǡ
       Ganoderma lucidum

   Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum
      
 Ǧǡ
Ǥȏ͵ͷȐ
Anti Anemic Activity
        
  ǡ     Ganoderma
lucidum  Ǧ   
Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum    
     ͵ͲͲ Ȁ  ͺͶ Ǥ   
        
  ǯǤ  ǯ    
 ǯ Ǥ 
       
Ǥ    ȋȌ  
        
      Ǥ  
         
    
       Ganoderma lucidum
 Ǥ     
ǯ
       Ǥ 
   
  Ganoderma lucidum Ϊ   
Ǥȏ͵͸Ȑ
Anti-Androgenic Activity
 Ganoderma
lucidum      Ǥ 
      Ǥ 
  Ganoderma lucidum    
ǤǦ
   Ǥ 
      Ǥ  
     
    Ǥ    
       

Ǥȏ͵͹Ȑ
Antioxidant Potential
Ganoderma lucidum    
    ʹʹǦ  
     
Ǥȏ͵ͺȐ
        
ǦǤȏ͵ͻȐ
Prebiotic Potential
   Ganoderma lucidum    
Ganoderma lucidum 
        Ǥ
  Ganoderma lucidum   
 Ganoderma lucidum
         
ǤȏͶͲȐ
Ganoderma lucidum
      

        
    ǡ      
     
   Ǥ     
      
     ǡ
3
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

ǡ   Ǥ
ǡͳʹǡ
ǤȏͶͳȐ
Urinary Tract Protective Activity
       
    ȋȌǡ   
      Ǥ 
         
ǡ͸
     Ganoderma lucidum 
Ǥ        
    Ǥ ͷǦ  

         
      Ǥ
ȏͶʹȐ
  Ganoderma lucidumǤ   
        
Ganoderma lucidum
  Ǧ      
        
   ȋȌǤ    
 Ganoderma lucidum    
ǤȏͶ͵Ȑ
Activity against Fibromyalgia in Women
  ǡ ǡ  
ǡ     
     Ǥ
Ganoderma lucidum 
ǤǦ   
 ǤGanoderma lucidum 
 ͸ ͶʹǤ 
Ǥ
    Ganoderma lucidum  
 ǡ 
  Ǥ Ganoderma
lucidum 

ǤȏͶͶȐ
Activity against HIV
    
  ͵ͷ     Ǥ
   ȋȌ  
Ǥ ȏͶͷȐ
   Ganoderma lucidum   
      
     Ganoderma lucidum
   ǡǢ 
Ganoderma lucidum     
  ǦǦͳ  Ǥ   
       
  Ganoderma lucidumǡ  
   ǦǦͳ Ǥ  
      Ǧ ǡ
 ȋGanoderma lucidumȌ   
ǦǦͳǤȏͶʹȐ
CONCLUSION

 Ǥ       
   Ǥ    
ǡ
 Ǥ
   
   Ǥ    
      
       
    Ǥ  
         
Ǥ
       
 Ǥ   

Ǥ       
      
    Ǥ    

        
Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum     
Ǥ 
 Ganoderma lucidum    
      Ǥ
       
    Ganoderma lucidum
         
         
Ganoderma lucidum
     Ǥ  Ǧ
 
      
     ǡ ǡ
ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ
    Ganoderma lucidum 
ǡ ǡ Ǧ   

     
Ǥ     Ganoderma
lucidum 

  
  Ǥ    

        
         
ʹͲͲͲǤ
REFERENCES
ͳǤ ǦǡǡǡǤ
Ǧ     
ȋ̵̵ȌǣǤ
ǡͷͷȋͳȌǣ͹ͷǦͺ͵ǡʹͲͲͶǤ
ʹǤ  ǡ   ǡ   ǡ ǡ   Ǥ
Ganoderma lucidumǣ    Ǥ
ǡͳͲȋͺȌǣ͹ͳ͹ǦͶʹǡʹͲͲͻǤ
͵Ǥ   Ǥ   ǣ ǡ 
ǡ     Ǥ 
ǡͳʹȋͳȌǡʹͲͳͲǤ
4
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

ͶǤ Ǧ ǡ  ǡ   ǡ   Ǥ Ganoderma
lucidum ȋ  Ȍǣ   Ǥ 
ǣǤ ʹ Ǥ 
Ȁ Ƭ Ǣ   ȋȌǡ ʹͲͳͳǤ 
ͻǤ ǣ
ǣǣȀȀǤǤǤǤȀȀͻʹ͹ͷ͹ȀǤ
ͷǤ   ǡ  ǡ  ǡ   Ǥ
       
  ȋȌǤ 
ǡ͹ȋ͸Ȍǣ͹ͲͳǦʹͶǡʹͲͲ͹Ǥ
͸Ǥ ǡǡ ǡ Ǥ   
     Ǥ 
ǡ͹ͳȋͳȌǣͳǦͷǡʹͲͳͷǤ
͹Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǡǡ
ͳͻ͸ʹǤ
ͺǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ ǣ
      Ǥ
ǡ͵ͷȋͲͶȌǣͷͷͻǦ͹ͶǡʹͲͲ͹Ǥ
ͻǤ   ǡ  Ǥ     
Ǥǡͳͻͻ͹Ǥ
ͳͲǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ 
  Ganoderma lucidum  Ǧ
      
ǣǤǦ 
ǡʹͲͳʹǣͳǦͺǡʹͲͳʹǤ
ͳͳǤ ǡǤGanoderma lucidumȋǤǣǤȌǤǤ
ȋȌ Ϋ   
Ǥ     ǡ
ͳȋʹȌǡͳͻͻͻǤ
ͳʹǤ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum
Ǧ
      Ǥ   
ǡʹͳȋʹȌǣͳͳͻǦʹ͵ǡʹͲͳͶǤ
ͳ͵Ǥ ǡǡǤGanoderma
lucidum   Ǧ 
Ǥ ǡ ͳʹȋͻȌǣ͸ͳ͵ͷǦ
ͶͷǡʹͲͳͳǤ
ͳͶǤ ǡǡǡǡǤȀ
 Ganodermalucidum ȋǤ Ǥǣ ǤȌ 
ȋȌ     
Ǥ     ǡ
͸ȋͶȌǡʹͲͲͶǤ
ͳͷǤ ǡǡǡǡǡǤȀ
Ganoderma lucidum ȋǤǣ ǤȌ Ǥ Ǥȋ ǡ 
Ȍ       ʑǤ
ǡͶȋͶȌǡʹͲͲʹǤ
ͳ͸Ǥ  ǡ  ǡ   Ǥ Ǧ  
 GanodermalucidumȋȌǤ
ǡͷȋ͸Ȍǣͷ͹Ǧ͸ͲǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
ͳ͹Ǥ  ǡ  Ǥ Ǧ   
  Ganoderma lucidum ȋȌ  Ǥ 
ǡ͸ȋͷȌǣͷͷǦͺǡʹͲͳ͹Ǥ
ͳͺǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ 
  Ganoderma atrum   ʹ͸ Ǧ
Ǥǡͳ͵͸ȋ͵ǦͶȌǣͳʹͳ͵ǦͻǡʹͲͳ͵Ǥ
ͳͻǤ ǡǡǡǡǡǡǡ
 Ǥ ǡ     Ganoderma
microsporumǡǦ
Ǥǡ͹ȋͺȌǣͺ͹͵ǦͺʹǡʹͲͳͳǤ
ʹͲǤ ǡǡǡǡǡǡǡòǡǡ
ǡ Ǥ 
       Ganoderma lucidumǤ
ǡͻȋͳͲȌǣͳͳ͹ͷǦͺʹǡʹͲͲͻǤ
ʹͳǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ   Ǥ   
      Ǥ 
ǡͳʹȋͷȌǣ͵ͷ͹ͳǦͺǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
ʹʹǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ
ǡ
   Ganoderma lucidum  
 Ȁ     Ǥ  ǡ
ͺȋ͹Ȍǣ͸ͺ͵͵ʹǡʹͲͳ͵Ǥ
ʹ͵Ǥ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ
  Ganoderma lucidum
    ǡ  
ȽǦǤǡͳʹͲǣ͸Ǧͳ͸ǡʹͲͳ͹Ǥ
ʹͶǤ   ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ
  Ǥ     
 Ganoderma lucidum ȋ ȌǤ
ǡ͸ȋͳȌǣͳͲͷǦͻǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
ʹͷǤ ǡÀǦǡǡ Ǧǡ
Ǧ×ǡ ǡ  ǡ ± ǡ  ǡ
Ǧ ǡ   Ǥ 
      
ͷ͹Ȁ͸Ǥǡͳͳȋ͹ȌǣͲͳͷͻ͸͵ͳǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
ʹ͸Ǥ ǡǡǡǡǡǡ
ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   Ǥ ǣ
       
     Ǥ 
ǡͺǣͳ͸ͳ͵ͲǡʹͲͳ͹Ǥ
ʹ͹Ǥ   ǡ  ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   Ǥ Ǧ
       
         ǦɈ
ǤǡͳͳͶǣͳʹͷǦ͵͸ǡʹͲͳͷǤ
ʹͺǤ ǡ   ǡ   ǡǤ 
    Ganoderma lucidum ȋ Ȍ
       ȋµÖȌ
 Astragalus membranaceus ȋµÀȌǤ  
ǡ͵ȋʹȌǣͳͳͲǦͺǡʹͲͳ͵Ǥ
ʹͻǤ ǡ   Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum  
       Ǥ  
ǡͳ͹ȋ͵ȌǣͶͲǡʹͲͳͶǤ
͵ͲǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ Ganoderma lucidum 
       
Ǧ
Ͷ͵ǤǡͳͶȋͳȌǣͶ͵Ͷǡ
ʹͲͳͶǤ
͵ͳǤ  ǡ ǤǦͺ  

 ʹǦ  Ǥ  ǡ
͵͹ͷȋʹȌǣ͵ͶͲǦͺǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
͵ʹǤ Ǧ ǡǦ ǡǦ ǡǦ
ǡǦǡǦǡ
ǡÀǦǤGanoderma lucidum
ǡ 
    Ǥ  
ǡ͹ȋͷȌǣͷͲͲǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
͵͵Ǥ ǡǡǡǡǡǡǡǡ
 ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ     
Ǧ    Ganoderma
lucidum Ǥ   
ǡ͵͵ȋʹȌǣʹͺͻǦͻͻǡʹͲͳͶǤ
͵ͶǤ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ 
     Ǧ  
Ganoderma lucidum    in-vitro  in-vivoǤ
ǡͷͲȋͷȌǣͳͷͶͳǦͷͶǡʹͲͳ͹Ǥ
͵ͷǤ ǡǡǤ
    Ǧ  
Ǥǡ͵ǣͳ͵ͷǡʹͲͳʹǤ
͵͸Ǥ ǡ ǡ ǡǡǡ ǡ
 ǡ   ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ 
  Ganoderma lucidum  Ǧ 
   ǣ   Ǧ
5
ǣǤʹͲͳͺǡͶ
ȏͲͻ͹͸Ǧ͵ͺͲͷȐ
ʹͲͳͺʹ͸Ͷͷʹ̹ȋȌ
ͳ͹ȀͲͺȀʹͲͳͺǡǤǤ

Ǥ Ǧ   
ǡʹͲͳͷǤ
͵͹Ǥ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ  Ǧ

 Ganoderma lucidumǤ  Ƭ  ǡ
ͳͷȋͳͶȌǣͶͻ͸͸Ǧ͹ʹǡʹͲͲ͹Ǥ
͵ͺǤ   ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   Ǥ   
Ganoderma lucidum   Ǧ 
   ʹȀǦͳǤ  
ǡͳͻȋͳȌǣͷͻǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
͵ͻǤ Ǧ ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  Ǥ
ǡ      
   Ganoderma lucidumǤ   
ǡͷʹȋͷȌǣʹͻ͸͸Ǧ͹͵ǡʹͲͳͷǤ
ͶͲǤ ǡǡǡǡǡǡ
ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   ǡ   Ǥ ǣ
       
     Ǥ 
ǡͺǣͳ͸ͳ͵ͲǡʹͲͳ͹Ǥ
ͶͳǤ ǡÀǦǡǡ Ǧǡ
Ǧ×ǡ ǡ  ǡ ± ǡ  ǡ
Ǧ ǡ   Ǥ 
      Ganoderma
lucidumͷ͹Ȁ͸Ǥǡͳͳȋ͹ȌǣͲͳͷͻ͸͵ͳǡʹͲͳ͸Ǥ
ͶʹǤ ǡǡǡǡǡ
 Ǥ  ʹͲͲͲ   Ganoderma lucidum  
  Ǥ ǡ ͳͳͶǣͷ͸Ǧ͸ͷǡ
ʹͲͳͷǤ
Ͷ͵Ǥ ǡǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ  ǡ
 Ǥ Ganodermalucidum   
    
Ǥǡͷǣͳ͸ͻͳͲǡʹͲͳͷǤ
ͶͶǤ   ǡ  ǡ À Ó  ǡ À
À  ǡ   ǡ  ǡ   Ǥ 
      
Ǥǡ͵ʹȋͷȌǡʹͲͳͷǤ
ͶͷǤ ǡǡǦǡǡ
Ǥ         
Ȃ Ǥ     
ǡ͵ȋ͹ȌǣͷͳͷǦʹʹǡʹͲͳ͵Ǥ
Cite this article as:ǡǤ
  
Ganoderma lucidum
 ȋȌǣ  
 Ǥ  ǣ
ǡʹͲͳͺȋͶȌǣͳǦ͸ǡʹͲͳͺǤ
6
... Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., also known as Ling Zhi, Reishi, Mannentake is a medicinal, wooddegrading basidiomycete with numerous pharmacological effects in addition to its key role in the environment as decomposer in nutrient cycle. G. lucidum is considered as "the king of herbs" which grows on the decaying and dead logs of deciduous trees like willow, oak, sweet gum, maple, elm and coniferous trees (larix, picea and pinus) (Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018). The most important pharmacologically active constituents of G. lucidum are triterpenoids and polysaccharides. ...
... Today, G. lucidum-based products have been generally divided into three types of products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and spore powder (Zhou et al., 2012;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018). G. lucidum mycelia, spores, and fruiting bodies-derived drugs, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements as beverages, teas, powdered extracts, capsules, oral liquids, and chewable tablets (Hyde et al., 2010;Taofiq et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2016) are currently available and widely spread on the world market especially in China, Japan and North America (Lindequist et al., 2005;Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011;Boh, 2013;Rathore et al., 2017;Reis et al., 2017;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2019). In addition, various in vivo and clinical studies have shown that the extracts, spore preparations and dietary supplements of G. lucidum have no or little side effects (Boh, 2013;Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zeng et al., 2018). ...
... G. lucidum mycelia, spores, and fruiting bodies-derived drugs, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements as beverages, teas, powdered extracts, capsules, oral liquids, and chewable tablets (Hyde et al., 2010;Taofiq et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2016) are currently available and widely spread on the world market especially in China, Japan and North America (Lindequist et al., 2005;Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011;Boh, 2013;Rathore et al., 2017;Reis et al., 2017;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2019). In addition, various in vivo and clinical studies have shown that the extracts, spore preparations and dietary supplements of G. lucidum have no or little side effects (Boh, 2013;Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zeng et al., 2018). Since there has been an increasing interest in G. lucidum, it was aimed to give recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of this species in this review. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., known as “Lingzhi” in China or “Reishi” in Japan, is a well-known medicinal mushroom and traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for the prevention and treatment of bronchitis, allergies, hepatitis, immunological disorders and cancer. G. lucidum is rarely collected from nature and mostly cultivated on wood logs and sawdust in plastic bags or bottles to meet the demands of international markets. Diverse groups of chemical compounds with pharmacological activities, isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum are triterpenoids, polysaccharides (β-D-glucans), proteins, amino acids, nucleosides, alkaloids, steroids, lactones, lectins, fatty acids, and enzymes. The biologically active compounds as primarily triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic effects and antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antiangiogenic activities. Several formulations have been developed, patented and used as nutraceuticals, nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals from G. lucidum’s water or ethanol extracts and rarely purified active compounds. As the result of clinical trials, various products have commercially become available as syrup, injection, tablet, tincture or bolus of powdered medicine and an ingredient or additive in dark chocolate bars and organic fermented medicinal mushroom drink mixes such as green teas, coffees, and hot cacaos. This review has intended to give and discuss recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of G. lucidum.
... Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., also known as Ling Zhi, Reishi, Mannentake is a medicinal, wood-degrading basidiomycete with numerous pharmacological effects in addition to its key role in the environment as decomposer in nutrient cycle. G. lucidum is considered as "the king of herbs" which grows on the decaying and dead logs of deciduous trees like willow, oak, sweet gum, maple, elm and coniferous trees (larix, picea and pinus) (Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018). The most important pharmacologically active constituents of G. lucidum are triterpenoids and polysaccharides. ...
... Today, G. lucidum-based products have been generally divided into three types of products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and spore powder (Zhou et al., 2012;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018). G. lucidum mycelia, spores, and fruiting bodies-derived drugs, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements as beverages, teas, powdered extracts, capsules, oral liquids, and chewable tablets (Hyde et al., 2010;Taofiq et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2016) are currently available and widely spread on the world market especially in China, Japan and North America (Lindequist et al., 2005;Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011;Boh, 2013;Rathore et al., 2017;Reis et al., 2017;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2019). In addition, various in vivo and clinical studies have shown that the extracts, spore preparations and dietary supplements of G. lucidum have no or little side effects (Boh, 2013;Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zeng et al., 2018). ...
... G. lucidum mycelia, spores, and fruiting bodies-derived drugs, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements as beverages, teas, powdered extracts, capsules, oral liquids, and chewable tablets (Hyde et al., 2010;Taofiq et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2016) are currently available and widely spread on the world market especially in China, Japan and North America (Lindequist et al., 2005;Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini, 2011;Boh, 2013;Rathore et al., 2017;Reis et al., 2017;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zhao et al., 2019). In addition, various in vivo and clinical studies have shown that the extracts, spore preparations and dietary supplements of G. lucidum have no or little side effects (Boh, 2013;Hapuarachchi et al., 2016a, b;Khatian and Aslam, 2018;Sohretoglu and Huang, 2018;Sudheer et al., 2018;Zeng et al., 2018). Since there has been an increasing interest in G. lucidum, it was aimed to give recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of this species in this review. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., known as “Lingzhi” in China or “Reishi” in Japan, is a well-known medicinal mushroom and traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for the prevention and treatment of bronchitis, allergies, hepatitis, immunological disorders and cancer. G. lucidum is rarely collected from nature and mostly cultivated on wood logs and sawdust in plastic bags or bottles to meet the demands of international markets. Diverse groups of chemical compounds with pharmacological activities, isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum are triterpenoids, polysaccharides (β-D-glucans), proteins, amino acids, nucleosides, alkaloids, steroids, lactones, lectins, fatty acids, and enzymes. The biologically active compounds as primarily triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic effects and antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antiangiogenic activities. Several formulations have been developed, patented and used as nutraceuticals, nutriceuticals and pharmaceuticals from G. lucidum’s water or ethanol extracts and rarely purified active compounds. As the result of clinical trials, various products have commercially become available as syrup, injection, tablet, tincture or bolus of powdered medicine and an ingredient or additive in dark chocolate bars and organic fermented medicinal mushroom drink mixes such as green teas, coffees, and hot cacaos. This review has intended to give and discuss recent knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological compositions, therapeutic and side effects, clinical trials, and commercial products of G. lucidum.
... (Ganodermataceae, Agaricomycetes), is known as the "King of Herbs" in Chinese traditional medicine. 1 The hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antiobesity, antidepressant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects of this mushroom have been proven in many animal and clinical studies. [2][3][4][5][6] The mycelium, basidiomes, and spores of Ganoderma spp. ...
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... G. lucidum is considered as "the king of herbs" which grows on the decaying and dead logs of deciduous trees like willow, oak, sweet gum, maple, elm and coniferous trees. The most important pharmacologically active constituents of G. lucidum are triterpenoids and polysaccharides, flavonoids, and alkaloids, amino acids, steroids, oligosaccharides, proteins, mannitol, vitamins B1, B2, B6, choline, and inositol [42][43][44][45][46]. Beside these major compounds, the elemental analysis showed the presence of several vital minerals in G. lucidum fruit bodies. ...
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