ThesisPDF Available

"EDDEEC", "BEENISH" and "i-BEENISH" Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous WSNs

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

In past years there has been increasing interest in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSNs consist of large number of randomly distributed energy constrained sensor nodes. Sensor nodes have ability to sense and send sensed data to Base Station (BS). Sensing as well as transmitting data towards BS require high energy. Saving energy and extending network lifetime are great challenges. One of the major issue in WSN is development of energy efficient routing protocols. Clustering is an effective way to increase energy efficiency. Mostly heterogenous WSN protocols consider two or three energy level of nodes. In this thesis, I propose multiple novel clustering based routing techniques: Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (EDDEEC), BEENISH (Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogenous) and Improved BEENISH (i-BEENISH) for heterogeneous WSNs. EDDEEC scheme is based on dynamically changing Cluster Head (CH) selection chances with more efficiency in three level heterogeneous WSN. BEENISH and i-BEENISH consider four types of nodes; normal, advanced, super and ultra-super nodes based on their initial energy in WSN. In BEENISH, CHs selection is made on residual energy level basis of nodes. Where as, i-BEENISH adaptively and more efficiently changes the CH election probability of high energy nodes when their energy get lower. Finally, the simulation results show that EDDEEC, BEENISH and i-BEENISH perform better than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous WSNs containing varying heterogeneity level. The proposed protocols achieve longer stability, lifetime and more effective messages than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC).
Content may be subject to copyright.
i
“EDDEEC”, “BEENISH” and “i-BEENISH”
Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for
Heterogeneous WSNs
By
Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
Registration Number: CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
MS Thesis
In
Electrical Engineering
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad Pakistan
FALL, 2012
ii
“EDDEEC”, “BEENISH” and “i-BEENISH” Energy
Efficient Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous
WSNs
A Thesis presented to
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
In partial fulfillment
of the requirement for the degree of
MS (Electrical Engineering)
By
Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
Fall, 2012
iii
“EDDEEC”, “BEENISH” and “i-BEENISH” Energy
Efficient Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous
WSNs
A Graduate Thesis submitted to Department of Electrical Engineering as
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of M. S.
(Electrical Engineering).
Name
Registration Number
Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
Supervisor:
Dr. Nadeem Javaid,
Assistant Professor,
Center for Advanced Studies in Telecommunications (CAST),
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT),
Islamabad Campus,
December, 2012
iv
Final Approval
This thesis titled
“EDDEEC”, “BEENISH” and “i-BEENISH” Energy
Efficient Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous
WSNs
By
Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
has been approved
for the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad
External Examiner: __________________________________
(To be decided)
Supervisor: ________________________
Dr. Nadeem Javaid /Assistant professor,
Center for Advanced Studies in Telecommunications (CAST),
CIIT, Islamabad.
Head of Department:________________________
Dr. Raja Ali Riaz / Associate professor,
Department of Electrical Engineering,
CIIT, Islamabad.
v
Declaration
I Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi, CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB here
byxdeclare that I have produced the work presented inxthis thesis,
duringxthe scheduledxperiod of study. I also declare that I havexnot taken
anyxmaterial from anyxsource exceptxreferred toxwherever due that
amountxof plagiarism isxwithin acceptablexrange. If a violationxof HEC
rulesxon research hasxoccurred in thisxthesis, I shall be liablexto
punishablexaction under the plagiarismxrules of the HEC.
Date: ________________
____________________________
Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
vi
Certificate
It is certified that Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi, CIIT/FA11-REE-
001/ISB has carried out all the work related to this thesis under my
supervision at the Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad and the work fulfills the
requirements for the award of MS degree.
Date: _________________
Supervisor:____________________
Dr. Nadeem Javaid /Assistant professor,
Center for Advanced Studies in Telecommunications (CAST),
CIIT, Islamabad.
____________________________
Head of Department:
Dr. Raja Ali Riaz/Associate Professor,
Department of Electrical Engineering,
CIIT, Islamabad.
vii
DEDICATION
Dedicated to my family.
viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I am heartily grateful to my supervisor, Dr. Nadeem Javaid whose patient
encouragement, guidance and insightful criticism from the beginning to the
final level enabled me have a deep understanding of the thesis.
Lastly, I offer my profound regard and blessing to everyone who supported
me in any respect during the completion of my thesis especially my friends
in every way offered much assistance before, during and at completion
stage of this thesis work.
Mr. Muhammad Talha Naeem Qureshi
CIIT/FA11-REE-001/ISB
ix
List of Abbreviations
WSNs
Wireless Sensor Networks
LEACH
Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy
MEMS
Micro Electro Mechanical Sensor
EDDEEC
Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering
SEP
Stable Election Probability
DEEC
Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering
BEENISH
Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous
i-BEENISH
Improved Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super
Heterogeneous
CH
Cluster Head
BS
Base Station
DDEEC
Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering
EDEEC
Enhanced Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering
PEGASIS
Power Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems
HEED
Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Clustering
DC
Direct Communication
HEED
Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Clustering
x
List of Publications
[1] Qureshi. T. N, Javaid. N, Malik. M, Qasim. U, Khan. Z. A, On Performance Evaluation of
Variants of DEEC in WSNs, published in 7th International Conference on Broadband and
Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA-2012), Victoria, Canada,
2012.
[2] Tauseef Shah, Nadeem Javaid, Talha Naeem Qureshi, “Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware
(EESAA) Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol”, published in 15th IEEE International
Multi Topic Conference (INMIC’12), 2012, Pakistan.
[3] T. N. Qureshi, N. Javaid, Z. A. Khan, " Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy-Efficient
Clustering (EDDEEC) for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks ", submitted in, 10th IEEE
International Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services (WONS'13),
March 18-20, 2013, Banff, Canada.
[4] T. N. Qureshi, N. Javaid, Z. A. Khan, "BEENISH: Balanced Energy Efficient Network
Integrated Super Heterogenous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", submitted in, 10th IEEE
International Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services (WONS'13),
March 18-20, 2013, Banff, Canada.
[5] T. N. Qureshi, N. Javaid, Z. A. Khan, " ABEENISH: Adaptive Balanced Energy Efficient
Network Integrated Super Heterogenous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks ", submitted in
4th IEEE International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT-13),
June 25-28, 2013, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Typically, a wireless sensor network contains an important number of inexpensive power constrained sensors, which collect data from the environment and transmit them towards the base station in a cooperative way. Saving energy and therefore, extending the wireless sensor networks lifetime, imposes a great challenge. Clustering techniques are largely used for these purposes. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a clustering technique called a Developed Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. This technique is based on changing dynamically and with more efficiency the cluster head election probability. Simulation results show that our protocol performs better than the Stable Election Protocol (SEP) by about 30% and than the Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC) by about 15% in terms of network lifetime and first node dies.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided. Then, the communication architecture for sensor networks is outlined, and the algorithms and protocols developed for each layer in the literature are explored. Open research issues for the realization of sensor networks are also discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A surveillance area is to be monitored using a grid network of heterogeneous sensor nodes. There are two types of nodes; type 0 nodes which perform sensing and relaying of data within a cluster, and type 1 nodes which act as cluster heads or fusion points. A surveillance aircraft visits the area periodically, and gathers information about the activity in the area. During each data gathering cycle, the sensor nodes use multi-hopping to communicate with their respective cluster heads, while the cluster heads perform data fusion, and transmit the aggregated data directly to the aircraft. We formulate and solve a cost based optimization problem to determine the optimum number of sensor nodes (n 0), cluster head nodes (n 1) and the battery energy in each type of nodes (E 0 and E 1 respectively) to ensure at least T data gathering cycles. We observe that the number of cluster heads required, n 1, scales approximately as \({n_0}{1-\frac{k}{4}}\) where k is the propagation loss exponent.
Article
Full-text available
Networking together hundreds or thousands of cheap microsensor nodes allows users to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. We develop and analyze low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality. LEACH includes a new, distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large numbers of nodes, algorithms for adapting clusters and rotating cluster head positions to evenly distribute the energy load among all the nodes, and techniques to enable distributed signal processing to save communication resources. Our results show that LEACH can improve system lifetime by an order of magnitude compared with general-purpose multihop approaches.
Conference Paper
Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
Article
The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Article
Networking unattended sensors is expected to have a significant impact on the efficiency of many military and civil applications. Sensors in such systems are typically disposable and expected to last until their energy drains. Therefore, energy is a very scarce resource for such sensor systems and has to be managed wisely in order to extend the life of the sensors for the duration of a particular mission. In this paper, we present a novel approach for energy-aware management of sensor networks that maximizes the lifetime of the sensors while achieving acceptable performance for sensed data delivery. The approach is to dynamically set routes and arbitrate medium access in order to minimize energy consumption and maximize sensor life. The approach calls for network clustering and assigns a less-energy-constrained gateway node that acts as a cluster manager. Based on energy usage at every sensor node and changes in the mission and the environment, the gateway sets routes for sensor data, monitors latency throughout the cluster, and arbitrates medium access among sensors. We also describe a time-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and discuss algorithms for assigning time slots for the communicating sensor nodes. Simulation results show an order of magnitude enhancement in the time to network partitioning, 11% enhancement in network lifetime predictability, and 14% enhancement in average energy consumed per packet.
Conference Paper
Routing in ad-hoc networks is a difficult challenge that involves a tradeoff between efficiency and responsiveness. An ad-hoc network routing algorithm must adapt rapidly enough to topology changes to meet the performance demands of users, without over-utilizing network resources. This paper presents the (α,t) cluster framework which utilizes a distributed dynamic clustering strategy to organize nodes into clusters in which the probability of path failure due to node movement can be bounded over time. The objective of the clustering strategy is to achieve scalability and support robust, efficient routing subject to a wide range of mobility rates. Based on the (α,t) cluster scheme, routes within clusters are maintained on a proactive basis, whereas hierarchical routing between clusters is managed on a demand-basis. Simulation results show that the cluster organization can be effectively adapted to node mobility and that routing is both more robust and efficient than routing in fully proactive, reactive or fixed-hybrid schemes
Article
Topology control in a sensor network balances load on sensor nodes, and increases network scalability and lifetime. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed clustering approach for long-lived ad-hoc sensor networks. Our proposed approach does not make any assumptions about the presence of infrastructure or about node capabilities, other than the availability of multiple power levels in sensor nodes. We present a protocol, HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed clustering), that periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of the node residual energy and a secondary parameter, such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree. HEED terminates in O(1) iterations, incurs low message overhead, and achieves fairly uniform cluster head distribution across the network. We prove that, with appropriate bounds on node density and intra-cluster and inter-cluster transmission ranges, HEED can asymptotically almost surely guarantee connectivity of clustered networks. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed approach is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and supporting scalable data aggregation.
Conference Paper
The efficient subdivision of a sensor network into uniform, mostly non-overlapping clusters of physically close nodes is an important building block in the design of efficient upper layer network functions such as routing, broadcast, data aggregation, and query processing. We present ACE, an algorithm that results in highly uniform cluster formation that can achieve a packing efficiency close to hexagonal close-packing. By using the self-organizing properties of three rounds of feedback between nodes, the algorithm induces the emergent formation of clusters that are an efficient cover of the network, with significantly less overlap than the clusters formed by existing algorithms. The algorithm is scale-independent — it completes in time proportional to the deployment density of the nodes regardless of the overall number of nodes in the network. ACE requires no knowledge of geographic location and requires only a small constant amount of communications overhead.