Chapter

Valuing biological diversity: issues and overview

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Already in the early stages of biodiversity valuation research, Pearce (2001) complained that most valuation studies claiming to provide value estimates of biodiversity actually had valued biological resources, not their diversity (see also Turner et al., 2003;Christie et al., 2006). Nunes et al. (2003) and Christie et al. (2004) have reached similar conclusions in their overview of suitable valuation approaches and monetary value estimates for different aspects of biodiversity (genetic and species diversity, single species, multiple species, natural habitats, biological resources, ecosystem functions and services). ...
... The classification was specifically designed for the purposes of the review. It has been inspired by classifications proposed by Nunes et al. (2003) and Pearce (2001), but it deviates from them, first, in that it is based on a more rigorous definition of biodiversity (see section 4), and second, it was inductively adapted during the process of reviewing the valuation studies so as to enable the full attribution of all studies to the respective categories. As a result, the following attribute categories were identified: ...
... After a rather slow start during the 1990's, when only a few attempts to identify the economic value of biodiversity took place, after 2000 the number of studies conducted each year more than doubled. This rise in the wake of the new millennium coincides with the publication of David Pearce's complaint about the lack of studies valuing diversity and not biological resources (Pearce, 2001). In many papers no information about the year the studies had been conducted could be found. ...
Article
Biodiversity is a highly complex and abstract ecological concept. Even though it is not one physical entity, it influences human well-being in multiple ways, mostly indirectly. While considerable research effort has been spent on the economic valuation of biodiversity, it remains to be a particularly challenging 'valuation object'. Valuation practitioners therefore have to use proxies for biodiversity, many of which are very simple (single species, habitats). This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of biodiversity valuation studies with special emphasis on biodiversity valuation in order to depict the state-of-the-art in this research field. It develops evaluation criteria so as to identify best-practice applications and shows that the field of biodiversity valuation studies is rather heterogeneous regarding both valuation objects and valuation methods. On the basis of our evaluation criteria and best-practice studies we suggest that to account for the complexity and abstractness of biodiversity, multi-attribute approaches with encompassing information provision should be used that emphasise the roles biodiversity plays for human well-being.
... Valuing what? As noted by Pearce (2001), one of the difficult issues in placing an economic value on biodiversity is determining exactly what the object of value is. In this regard, he makes a distinction between biological resources (genes, species or ecosystems) and biological diversity (the variability of biological resources). ...
... In this regard, he makes a distinction between biological resources (genes, species or ecosystems) and biological diversity (the variability of biological resources). Many valuation studies to date are on biological resources with little attempt to value diversity (Pearce, 2001), which could partly be due to its complexity. Moreover, the scope of the valuation (as local public goods, as national public goods, or as international public goods) and the level of diversity considered (ecosystem, species or genetic diversity) have to be specified. ...
... It is always important to bear in mind that economic valuation of environmental resources is not about valuing the total stock of resources but computing value at the margin (Pearce, 2001). Once the object of value is specified, valuation is meant to enumerate, quantify and monetize (whenever possible) the benefits of biological resources and/or their diversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper highlights the need for and the conceptual challenges/issues in exercising biodiversity impact assessment (BIA), a subject hardly considered in most environmental impact assessment (EIA) activities so far. The paper attempts to lay the foundation for how future assessments can address biodiversity impacts more explicitly. The paper shows how development interventions and projects meant to take care of peoples' livelihoods are impacting on biodiversity. It presents the possible directions BIA has to focus in integrating externalities to inform decision making on the feasibility of development interventions. This is in essence to prevent, reduce and offset any adverse impacts (on biodiversity) of future development interventions. Addressing biodiversity valuation issues and identifying the appropriate methods to quantify the impacts will remain imperative in future endeavours to evaluate biodiversity impacts.
...  Metodika oceňování okrasných rostlin na trvalém stanovišti (Bulíř, 2013), která vychází z Kochovy metody používané v Německu a Rakousku, kde je uznávána soudy pro náhrady škody na okrasných rostlinách (Ibid.),  metoda "CTLA -Guide for Plant Appraisal" využívaná v USA jako oficiálně schválený nástroj pro územní plánování (Cullen, 2007) -z této metody vychází také metodiky používané ve Slovinsku pro oceňování v lesnictví (Nižaradzeová, 2009),  nebo metoda "CAVAT -Capital Asset Value for Amenity Trees" používaná ve Velké Británii (Neilan, 2017 Nákladové ocenění se používá jak pro odhad ekologické újmy ke kompenzaci (Kolařík a kol., 2018), tak pro aproximaci celospolečenské hodnoty dřevin (Pearce, 2001). Celospolečenská hodnota dřeviny zahrnuje hmotné i nehmotné přínosy -např. ...
... zadržování vody, sekvestrace uhlíku, působení na mikroklima či estetickou hodnotu dřeviny. Nákladové ocenění jako metoda aproximace celospolečenské hodnoty dřeviny (Pearce, 2001) nemusí plně zachycovat všechny aspekty celospolečenské hodnoty dřeviny a je pak pouze jejím spodním odhadem. Například Peper a kol. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pro oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les se v ČR velmi často využívá tzv. Metodika oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les AOPK ČR, a to zejména za účelem kompenzace ekologické újmy vzniklé při kácení či poškození dřevin. Příspěvek v úvodu shrnuje východiska této metodiky, která je založena na nákladovém ocenění. Podstatná část textu příspěvku představuje výsledky revize a aktualizace cen výpěstků stromů používaných v nákladovém způsobu oceňování. Diskutujeme vývoj charakteristických cen rostlinného materiálu pro různé skupiny taxonů a velikostní kategorie stromů. Výsledky revize cen budou využity pro úpravu nastavení cenové úrovně dřevin v příští aktualizaci Metodiky AOPK ČR. Development of prices of tree nursery products in the context of woody plants appraisal Summary The Methodology of woody plants appraisal by Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic is a tool frequently used for assessment of plants growing out of forest, and in particular for compensation of environmental damage in case of plant felling or plant damage. The article briefly explains the foundation in cost-based assessment, and presents the results of revision of selected cost items in detail. We discuss the development of characteristic prices of plant material for taxon groups and size categories of trees. The results will be applied in the next revision of Methodology of NCA CR.
... This approach has been strongly criticised by economists (e.g. Pearce 2001, Bockstael 2000. The removal of all forests, for example, would involve the loss of a major life support system. ...
... The study of Pearce (2001) summarises data from various sources, on economic values of different forest goods in temperate forests. For this study, the comparison of values is even more challenging, because of the wide range between the estimated values and the different data sources. ...
... At this historic event, signatory countries bound themselves to promote biodiversity conservation and enhancement (SCBD 2005, Sands 2003). However, valuing the benefits of biodiversity enhancement is a complex process, as there are numerous aspects to consider, such as the number of species per unit area, species interactions, habitat diversity and variation between species (Pearce, 2001;Nunes et al., 2003;Christie et al., 2004;Montgomery et al., 1999). In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. ...
... In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. This absence of market benefits has led to the development and refinement of several non-market valuation techniques (Pearce, 2001;Christie et al., 2006;Nunes and van den Bergh, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
The value of biodiversity enhancement in New Zealand was estimated from a survey sample of 457 residents. We determined the willingness of respondents to financially support biodiversity programs on private and public lands, as well as determining which factors influence this willingness-to-pay. Our data indicates that an average respondent was willing-to-pay $42 (2007 NZD) annually in their rates (taxes) to support a government initiated private land biodiversity programme and $82 (2007 NZD) annually to support a biodiversity programme on public lands.
... Environmental valuation techniques can provide useful evidence to support such policies by quantifying the economic value associated with the protection of biological resources. Pearce (2001) argues that the measurement of the economic value of biodiversity is a fundamental step in conserving this resource since dthe pressures to reduce biodiversity are so large that the chances that we will introduce incentives [for the protection of biodiversity] without demonstrating the economic value of biodiversity are much less than if we do engage in valuationT. OECD (2001) also recognises the importance of measuring the economic value of biodiversity and identifies a wide range of uses for such values, including demonstrating the value of biodiversity, in targeting biodiversity protection within scarce budgets, and in determining damages for loss of biodiversity in liability regimes. ...
... A general comment on much of the existing biodiversity valuation literature is that it mostly does not value diversity itself, but rather focuses on individual species and habitats (Pearce, 2001). In this section, we review a number of key studies that have attempted to measure the economic value of different elements of biodiversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Policy makers have responded to concerns over declining levels of biodiversity by introducing a range of policy measures including agri-environment and wildlife management schemes. Costs for such measures are relatively easy to establish, but benefits are less easily estimated. Economics can help guide the design of biodiversity policy by eliciting public preferences on different attributes of biodiversity. However, this is complicated by the generally low level of awareness and understanding of what biodiversity means on the part of the general public. In this paper we report research that applied the choice experiment and contingent valuation methods to value the diversity of biological diversity. Focus groups were used to identify ecological concepts of biodiversity that were important and relevant to the public, and to discover how best to describe these concepts in a meaningful and understandable manner. A choice experiment examined a range of biodiversity attributes including familiarity of species, species rarity, habitat, and ecosystem processes, while a contingent valuation study examined public willingness to pay for biodiversity enhancements associated with agri-environmental and habitat re-creation policy. The key conclusions drawn from the valuation studies were that the public has positive valuation preferences for most, but not all, aspects of biodiversity, but that they appeared to be largely indifferent to how biodiversity protection was achieved. Finally, we also investigate the extent to which valuation workshop approaches to data collection can overcome some of the possible information problems associated with the valuation of complex goods. The key conclusion was that the additional opportunities for information exchange and group discussion in the workshops helped to reduce the variability of value estimates. DEFRA
... Society needs to make difficult decisions regarding its use of biological resources. farmland through agri-environmental policy (Hanley and Shogren, 2001 ). Environmental valuation techniques can provide useful evidence to support such policies by quantifying the economic value associated with the protection of biological resources. Pearce (2001) argues that the measurement of the economic value of biodiversity is a fundamental step in conserving this resource since dthe pressures to reduce biodiversity are so large that the chances that we will introduce incentives [for the protection of biodiversity] without demonstrating the economic value of biodiversity are much less than i ...
... A general comment on much of the existing biodiversity valuation literature is that it mostly does not value diversity itself, but rather focuses on individual species and habitats (Pearce, 2001). In this section, we review a number of key studies that have attempted to measure the economic value of different elements of biodiversity. ...
Article
Abstract Government,policy ,has ,responded ,to concerns ,over declining ,levels of biodiversity ,on UK farmland,by introducing,a range,of agri-environmental,measures.,Costs for such,measures are relatively easy to establish, but benefits are less easily estimated. Economics can also help guide the design of biodiversity policy, by eliciting information on different attributes ofbiodiversity. In this paper we report on a research ,project funded by DEFRA which applied,the contingent,valuation,and,choice,experiment,methods,to valuing biodiversity,on farmland, and its attributes. Focus groups were used to identify relevant attributes (such as rarity, endangered status, and familiarity), and to discover how best to overcome the lack ofknowledge,which ,most ,people ,have ,regarding what ,biodiversity ,is and ,why,it matters. Results from both contingent valuation and choice experiments are them presented, comparing,samples,for Cambridgeshire,and,Northumberland.,The choice,experiment,uses a fractional factorial design to combine characteristics of familiar species, endangered status, ecosystem functioning and cost. The contingent valuation study looks at habitat recreation,and ,habitat ,improvement. ,We also ,investigate ,the ,extent ,to which ,workshop approaches,to data,collection,can,overcome,some of,the,possible,information,problems,in this instance, by testing out the effects of allowing for information exchange and group discussion,on peoples' choices,over biodiversity policy options.
... At this historic event, signatory countries bound themselves to promote biodiversity conservation and enhancement (SCBD 2005, Sands 2003). However, valuing the benefits of biodiversity enhancement is a complex process, as there are numerous aspects to consider, such as the number of species per unit area, species interactions, habitat diversity and variation between species (Pearce, 2001;Nunes et al., 2003;Christie et al., 2004;Montgomery et al., 1999). In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. ...
... In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. This absence of market benefits has led to the development and refinement of several non-market valuation techniques (Pearce, 2001;Christie et al., 2006;Nunes and van den Bergh, 2001). ...
... Environmental valuation techniques can provide useful evidence to support and justify conservation policies by quantifying the economic value associated with the protection of biological resources. Pearce (2001) argues that the measurement of the economic value of biodiversity is a fundamental step in conserving this resource since "the pressures to reduce biodiversity are so large that the chances that we will introduce incentives for the protection of biodiversity without demonstrating the economic value of biodiversity are much less than if we do engage in valuation". Rege (1999b) pointed out that the need to value the economic diversity of AnGRs to justify their conservation and to guide policy makers in finding optimal conservation strategies. ...
... Instead of a change in the survival probability that can be archived by a conservation programme, the extinction probability ( z ) will be calculated for the purpose of this study. z is 1 minus the survival probability (Weitzman, 1993;Pearce, 2001) and here it is calculated for the present situation of a breed, not taking into account a possible change induced by a conservation programme (see Chapter 7.3.1). ...
... At this historic event, signatory countries bound themselves to promote biodiversity conservation and enhancement (SCBD 2005, Sands 2003). However, valuing the benefits of biodiversity enhancement is a complex process, as there are numerous aspects to consider, such as the number of species per unit area, species interactions, habitat diversity and variation between species (Pearce, 2001;Nunes et al., 2003;Christie et al., 2004;Montgomery et al., 1999). In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. ...
... In addition, the market benefits from biodiversity improvement cannot be readily observed. This absence of market benefits has led to the development and refinement of several non-market valuation techniques (Pearce, 2001;Christie et al., 2006;Nunes and van den Bergh, 2001). ...
Research
Full-text available
University of Waikato Working Paper 08/07
... Biyolojik çeşitlilik ve orman kaynaklarının çıktılarının değerini "toplam ekonomik değer" çerçevesinde tahmin etmeye yönelik araştırmalar son 20-25 yılda, özellikle Rio süreci (1992) sonrası hızla artmış, buna paralel olarak tıbbi bitkilere yönelik değer belirleme çalışmaları, hem lokal, hem de ulusal düzeyde ivme kazanmıştır. ABD, Meksika, Belize, Batı Ekvator Kostarika, Madagaskar, Tanzanya, Sri Lanka ve Türkiye'de ulusal düzeyde değer belirleme çalışmaları yapılmıştır (Kengen, 1997;CBD, 2001;Pearce, 2001). Lokal araştırmalara örnek olarak ise, Kamerun Korup yağmur ormanı ile Türkiye Termessos Milli Parkında yapılan araştırmalar verilebilir (Ruitenbeek, 1989;Bann, 1998;Bann ve Clemens, 1998). ...
... Ayrıca, toplam değerlerin üretilecek ilaçların sayısına bölünmesi ortalama bir değer verir. Ancak birkaç araştırmada ortalama değerlerin yanıltıcı olduğu ve bitkisel materyalin ek bir biriminin değerinin, yani marjinal değerinin hesaplanması gerektiği ifade edilmiştir (Simpson et al., 1994;Simpson and Craft, 1996;Pearce, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Forests as medicinal plant resources have direct use, option, bequest and existence values in the framework of total economic value. Related to potential pharmacological benefits of forests estimation of option values can provide useful information for realizing sustainable forest ecosystem management and efficient resource allocation. Various methods have been developed to estimate the pharmacological option values of biological diversity resources since 1980. One of them is P&P model was developed by Pearce and Puroshothaman (1992) and used in some case studies on forest valuation at national and local level in Turkey, Mexico and tropical forests. In this article the P&P model is discussed regarding conceptual framework and practical aspects, especially from the point of view of its basic approach named rent capture.
... Putting the tangible benefits of agricultural production and some of the more intangible values into the same context, dollars, allows for a closer examination of the conflicting issues and values. Pearce (2001) has suggested that there are so many pressures to clear and develop land that it is difficult to imagine how policies will be put in place that seek to preserve habitat and slow the rate of biodiversity loss without demonstrating the economic value of what is to be preserved. ...
... The starting point for many literature reviews is the definition that emerged with the Convention on Biological Diversity that defines biodiversity "as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexities of which they are part" (United Nations Environment Programme, 1992, p. 4). Pearce (2001) pointed out that there is an extensive literature on the economic value of endangered species and species as biological resources. Further an increasing awareness has emerged across a number of literatures regarding the values associated with biodiversity as a store of genetic material (Lockwood, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
The report summarises the results of a non-market valuation study of Habitat and Agriculture in the Upper South East (Upper SE) of South Australia. A non-market valuation technique known as choice modelling was used to elicit values in the form of willingness to pay from people in the Upper SE, Adelaide and the rest of the State. The regional and state-wide preferences for the habitat improvement provide one more piece of information relating to the difficult issues around the configuration of the cleared and uncleared landscape in the Upper South East of South Australia.
... Environmental valuation methods can provide useful evidence in support of habitat conservation policies by quantifying the economic value associated with protecting biological resources. [12] argues that measuring the economic value of biodiversity is a fundamental step in preserving a specific natural resource since the pressure to reduce biodiversity is so great that the chances of us introducing incentives [to protect biodiversity] without demonstrating the economic value of biodiversity are far less if we did an assessment. By assigning monetary values to biodiversity, the benefits associated with biodiversity can be directly compared with the economic value of using alternative resources, which, therefore, can and should be used to analyze the costs and benefits of (large) public and private projects [13]. ...
... Non-use value -is the value that people assign to economic goods (including public goods), even if they never had and will never use them. The meaning of not using as a category may include: the meaning of the parameter, the meaning of will and the meaning of existence [12]. ...
Thesis
This study seeks to put value on the River Nzoia ecosystem by exploring the theoretical foundations of nonmarket valuation methods. The study was conducted in Bungoma and Kakamega counties of the western part of Kenya. A research questionnaire was designed and structured in such a way that it could collect the socioeconomic data, information on household environmental attitudes and other information that was necessary to achieve the objective of the study. The responses to the questionnaire were analysed (using logistic regression) to evaluate the TEV and to identify factors affecting household willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of the Nzoia River. Several functional forms of the Logit and WTP models of the open type were established, of which WTP functions were evaluated. The results obtained from the sample data representing 103 households gave the annual estimate income from the Nzoia river ecosystem within Bungoma and Kakamega County as Kshs. 10,761,600. The study revealed that the surveyed household could generate maximum annual revenue of KES 1,644,000 from the sale of livestock and livestock products. Translating the crop harvest (sugarcane, maize, cassava, fruits, beans, groundnuts and vegetables) into economic value, the study revealed that the surveyed household could generate maximum annual revenue of KES 2,126,800 through the sale of food crops and up to KES 1,281,800 by selling fruits and vegetables in the local markets. On average, the households along the River Nzoia water ecosystem were willing to pay on average KES 524 per month for the river Nzoia conservation program. In respect to factors influencing willingness to pay, it was noted that the demographic factors, socioeconomic factors and the institutional factors provided, to some extent, consistent drivers of Willingness to Pay for the conservation of river Nzoia waters.
... Forests contribute more than any other terrestrial ecosystems to climate relevant cycles and processes, at local, national, and global level. Forests also provide essential ecosystem services, like carbon storage, hydrological protection, air and water purification, improvement of urban and peri-urban living conditions and amenity values such as aesthetic enjoyment and recreation (Costanza et al., 1997;Pearce, 2001). Despite substantial efforts to support the preservation and sustainable use of forest biodiversity, in many industrialized countries, forests are often isolated patches embedded in an anthropogenic matrix, mostly represented by agricultural and built-up areas, which are the dominant elements of the landscape. ...
Article
The study investigated the effects of human-induced landscape patterns on species richness in forests. For 80 plots of fixed size, we measured human disturbance (categorized as urban/industrial and agricultural land areas), at ‘local’ and ‘landscape’ scale (500 m and 2500 m radius from each plot, respectively), the distance from the forest edge, and the size and shape of the woody patch. By using GLM, we analyzed the effects of disturbance and patch-based measures on both total species richness and the richness of a group of specialist species (i.e. the ‘ancient forest species’), representing more specific forest features. Patterns of local species richness were sensitive to the structure and composition of the surrounding landscape. Among the landscape components taken into account, urban/industrial land areas turned out as the most threatening factor for both total species richness and the richness of the ancient forest species. However, the best models evidenced a different intensity of the response to the same disturbance category as well as a different pool of significant variables for the two groups of species. The use of groups of species, such as the ancient forest species pool, that are functionally related and have similar ecological requirements, may represent an effective solution for monitoring forest dynamics under the effects of external factors. The approach of relating local assessment of species richness, and in particular of the ancient forest species pool, to land-use patterns may play an important role for the science-policy interface by supporting and strengthening conservation and regional planning decision making.
... This approach has been strongly criticised (e.g. Pearce, 2001;Bockstael, 2000;Turner, 2003). For example, the removal of all forests would involve the loss ...
... Especially because of dissents in thinking of value and valuation [1] problems exist. Problems with the willingness to pay approach [2], which gives, usually, only vague priority settings [3], are manifold and new approaches are needed. Economists [4] prefer individualistic approaches of cost-benefit-analyses and they see limited tasks for experts (ecologists), though reality is different. ...
Article
The paper deals with the problem of finding re-lative values for species in the case of biodiversity conservation in a cultural landscape. We use the concept of shadow prices to derive flexible functional forms that allow us to conduct an in-teractive and internal valuation process. The paper is organi-zed such as that (1) the theory of shadow price derivation is presented in a framework of programming. (2) We obtain qua-dratic objective functions for participant in the valuation pro-cess. (3) Quasi demand and supply functions are derived from which we can simulate a market. (5) The special role of ecolo-gists as experts and potential managers of a landscape is ad-dressed and (6), or finally, a balanced solution on values, value oriented management, and species prevalence is provided.
... The estimation of both the use values and non-use values, i.e. estimating the total economic value in monetary terms, of agro-biodiversity is an important prerequisite for conservation planning (Pearce, 2001). Provided that farmers only consider the direct benefit of farming and due to the public goods nature of agrobiodiversity resources, application of an appropriate valuation method that help capture the total economic value of the resource is required in order to express it in monetary terms. ...
... On first glance, there seem to have been a great many studies estimating the economic value of biodiversity (Pearce, 2007). Following Pearce (2001), it must be noted that what most of these studies valued was biological resources rather than the variety of life (biodiversity). This distinction, made clear by Nunes and Van den Bergh (2001), allows one to categorise studies into those valuing particular biological resources, such as genes, species, habitats or ecosystems existence, and those valuing biological diversity of these resources. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper attempts to improve current understanding of the economic value of biodiversity. Instead of the prevailing approach of using only one indicator of biodiversity (typically, species richness) we provide evidence that it is possible to value changes in a number of attributes which describe complex characteristics of biodiversity, based on ecological knowledge. The attributes used include structural, species and functional diversity. The empirical application is a choice experiment study conducted in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland: our study is therefore also one of the first to cast light on the value of biodiversity protection in Eastern Europe. Interestingly, respondents valued passive protection regimes resulting in preservation of natural ecological processes. In addition, the respondents seemed to be concerned with the means, and not only the results of protection programmes.
... Many human activities have detrimental effects on biodiversity, and demonstrating biodiversity's economic value can help fight the many pressures faced by biodiversity (Pearce 2001). The economic value of biodiversity goes beyond marketable use values such as timber production or wildlife viewing, including non-use values such as existence value and bequest value (Pearce & Moran 1994;Tisdell & Nantha 2007; summarized in Remoundou et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities may have detrimental effects on biodiversity, and appropriate economic valuation of biodiversity can provide additional motivation to protect it. To date, there are no estimates of visitor values for landscape and wildlife changes in the North Pennines (UK) and very few studies have explored competing influences of landscape and biodiversity in public preferences. Contingent valuation estimates of visitor values for the North Pennines landscape and biodiversity, as expressed in voluntary contributions, were used to assess the importance of different factors in influencing these valuations. Policy-linked scenarios were developed, each representing the outcome of a particular policy direction such as grouse-moor specific subsidies, back-to-nature subsidies, or a ban or decline in red grouse shooting. The influence of management information provision was tested and economic values were elicited for a number of alternatives. Landscape and biodiversity were both found to be important in preference formation. In particular, respondents highly valued a mosaic landscape with increases in blanket bog and the associated increases in rare and threatened birds and mammals. Notably, significant negative valuations were obtained for some of the scenarios presented. Provision of land use information did not significantly influence visitors' valuations, a surprising result given the controversial nature of one of the primary land uses, namely red grouse shooting.
... Working from this perspective, trying to avoid giving biodiversity flows of values more appropriately attributed to biological resources on the one hand and, on the other hand, a series of non-classifiable utility flows, is 17 On the contrary, for some authors, this is a fundamental passage by which to preserve biodiversity (Pearce, 2001). 18 In other words, it is frequently forgotten that biodiversity represents 'the degree of diversity in nature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Management of forests takes place in the institutional framework of forest enterprises and requires a variety of information. The core instrument of in- formation supply is the accounting system. It provides the basis for decisions and internal controlling, and it is needed for reporting to external stake- holders on economic and social aspects of the forestry operation. Forestry accounting also has major deficiencies; periodic changes in forest assets are insufficiently recorded, and other achievements, especially with respect to the environment, are not shown adequately. Many approaches have been proposed over time to consider changes in forest assets, but none of them has been accepted in practice. Whereas there are hardly any legal regula- tions concerning forest asset records in external accounting, it is indispens- able for internal accounting to have correct records and examine if targets have been reached. With regard to the environmental benefits that cannot actually be assessed with a monetary system, so-called performance reports and sustainability reports that show primarily physical factors are being examined. On a higher level these performance reports are partially com-
... The non-use values of genetic material, on the other hand, are neither reflected in the economic performance of farms nor in the market prices of products and are generally not linked to tangible benefits (bequest value, existence value, philanthropic value, quasi-option value). The sum of use and non-use values is referred to as the "Total economic value" (TEV) of local breeds (Pearce andTurner, 1990, Pearce, 2001) which reflects their overall contribution to the economy, environment and society and points towards the need to protect them. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Local breeds are endowed with numerous advantages in terms of adaptability to specific conditions and the sustainable utilization of resources. Nonetheless, their role is neglected when their multiple societal, economic and environmental contributions are not properly acknowledged and interest is focused only on productivity issues. This paper explores the role of local breeds and the development of effective conservation strategies and relevant policy measures. The paper focuses on the reasons behind the underestimation of the values with which local breeds are endowed and discusses how economic development, policies and market competition have rendered many of these breeds in danger of extinction. The development of a new paradigm of conservation strategies, which could also be extended to breeding programs, is presented here, which incorporates ICT, new technologies and innovations. It is concluded that using proper measures and achieving synergies between actors and measures, local breeds can be protected in order to continue supporting multifunctional production systems and local short value chains.
... A general comment on much of the existing biodiversity valuation literature is that it mostly does not value diversity itself, but focuses rather on individual species and habitats (Pearce 2001). In this section we review a number of key studies that have attempted to measure the economic value of different elements of biodiversity. ...
... A review of the literature suggests that poor understanding and lack of appreciation of the importance and monetary benefits of these ecosystems' services in sustaining livelihoods, and the overall economy is one of the factors hampering better management of these landscapes and associated ecosystem services (Sharma et al 2015). Accordingly, valuation of the services generated by these mountain ecosystems is necessary to enhance our understanding of the importance of ecosystem services (Daily et al 2000;TEEB 2009), create support for ecosystem conservation (Kumar 2005), improve management mechanisms (Huang and Upadhyaya 2007), provide a framework for decision-making (Pearce 2001;Bateman et al 2010), and extend justice and equality to ascertain the distribution of these values in the society (Pagiola 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The high-elevation mountain ecosystems in the Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges encompass enchanting landscapes, harbor unique biodiversity, and are home to many indigenous pastoral societies that rely on ecosystem services for their survival. However, our understanding of the value of ecosystem services to a household economy is limited. This information is essential in devising sustainable development strategies and thus merits consideration. In this preliminary study, we attempted to assess and compare the value of selected ecosystem services of the Khunjerab and Qurumbar National Parks (KNP and QNP) in the Karakoram–Pamir in northern Pakistan using market-based and value transfer methods. Our results indicated that the economic benefits derived from the 2 high-elevation protected areas were US$ 4.6 million (QNP) and US$ 3.8 million (KNP) per year, translating into US$ 5955 and US$ 8912 per household per year, respectively. The monetary benefits from provisioning services constituted about 93% in QNP and 48% in KNP, which vividly highlights the prominence of the economic benefits generated from the protected areas for the welfare of disadvantaged communities. Together with the regulatory and cultural services valued in this study, the perceived economic impact per household per year was 10–15 times higher than the mean household income per year. Considering the limited livelihood means and escalating poverty experienced by buffer zone communities, these values are substantial. We anticipate that communities' dependency on resources will contribute to increased degradation of ecosystems. We propose reducing communities' dependency on natural resources by promoting sustainable alternative livelihood options and recognizing ecosystem services in cost–benefit analyses when formulating future policies.
... Pour autant, l'estimation économique a également été utilisée pour estimer la valeur de la totalité des biens et services d'un écosystème à un instant donné (ex : Costanza et al., 1997). Cette approche a été fortement critiquée (Bockstael, 2000 ;Pearce, 2001 ;Turner, 2003). Par exemple, la suppression de toutes les forêts impliquerait la perte d'un système d'entretien de la vie majeur, et pas seulement des possibilités de loisirs. ...
... Pour autant, l'estimation économique a également été utilisée pour estimer la valeur de la totalité des biens et services d'un écosystème à un instant donné (ex : Costanza et al., 1997). Cette approche a été fortement critiquée (Bockstael, 2000 ;Pearce, 2001 ;Turner, 2003). Par exemple, la suppression de toutes les forêts impliquerait la perte d'un système d'entretien de la vie majeur, et pas seulement des possibilités de loisirs. ...
... This approach has been strongly criticised (e.g. Pearce, 2001;Bockstael, 2000;Turner, 2003). For example, the removal of all forests would involve the loss ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
REPORT Building the Mediterranean future together Methods and tools for socio-economic assessment of goods and services provided by Mediterranean forest ecosystems April 2014 Optimising the production of goods and services by Mediterranean forests in a context of global changes
... Therefore, conservation of biological diversity is indispensable essentially to enable direct use and sustainability function of it for well-being of current and future generations (Brundtland 1987). Economic valuation of biological resources is an effective way of measuring benefits people receive through which the levels of environmental investment could be gauged (Christie et al. 2006a, b). 1 It is also considered an important step towards conservation of biodiversity even in scarce budgets (Pearce 2001;OECD 2001). Valuation techniques can facilitate quantifying the economic values linked with the protection of these resources encouraging public institutional authorities as well as relevant organisations to embrace richness and conservation, socio-economic, cultural and ethical values of biodiversity in the development pertinent to various incentive measures (UN 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study seeks to estimate household's willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation in Dachigam National Park, which houses the last viable population of Asiatic Black Bear and the Hangul (which is the only surviving sub-species of red deer in the world). A survey based on choice experiment method was carried out at Dachigam National Park, an area that is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. A set of attributes, such as endangered species, national park area and research and education opportunities the park holds, have been selected to substantiate the analysis. In order to estimate willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary variable involving an increase in water rates was also incorporated. Willingness to pay for the selected attributes per household ranges from Rs. 109.48 to Rs. 138.48 for enhancing population of endangered species, Rs. 48.54 to Rs. 82.36 for improvement in park area and Rs. 67.21 to Rs. 101.35 for increasing research and education opportunities the park holds. Findings that the study present can be used as an indicator of economic importance of biological resources for their better management and conservation that can help in ensuring sustainable utilization of these natural resources.
... Fourth, a lack of relevant data on people's WTP tends to inhibit planners and government officials from designing programmes and approaching stakeholders in conservation efforts. Pearce (2001) stated that environmental valuation techniques help to place a value on changes in the status of natural resources including wetlands, so that necessary conservation policy can be taken into account, which would otherwise be dominated by financial benefits of land use conversion. Literature also shows that there is a lack of information on the economic values of almost all of the wetlands and this is true for GLC as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands comprise an important ecosystem but are under threat in developing countries due to increasing human encroachment. Community-based conservation is an approach for sustainable management of the wetlands near settlements. This study investigated willingness to pay of local people for community-based conservation activities and the variables affecting it in the Ghodaghodi Lake Complex, Nepal. A sample of 217 households residing near the lake complex was surveyed. The result showed that households were willing to pay for community-based conservation activities, at an average of NPR 378 (US$5.4) per annum. The age of the household head, wetland income, agricultural income and prior experiences on participation in conservation activities positively affected household’s willingness to pay. Government expenditure of at least the amount of willingness to pay estimated by this study for the community-based conservation activities would be economically and environmentally justified.
... All these protected forest areas are surrounded by human settlements and even sometimes these settlements are available within the territory of the forests, specifically in the buffer zone [12]. This surrounding human population majorly depends on the forests for several forests products such as wild fruits, root vegetables, mushroom, fodder, firewood and timber [13][14][15][16]. Besides these direct services, the forests are also serving the society and environment by some other indirect benefits such as, catchment protection [16][17][18] flood control [19][20][21][22], ground water recharge [23][24][25], sequestration of ambient carbon [26][27][28][29], soil protection and enrichment through nutrients fixing & cycling [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] as well as generation of revenue by way of tourism [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Himalayan Terai forests are the major habitat for a variety of terrestrial biodiversity, with distinct extents of ecosystems, abundance and distribution of species and coverage of protected areas. This lowland region is mainly characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, Sal forests, wetlands, and swamps. The Terai eco-region, shared by India and Nepal, is one of the prominent areas of India from a biodiversity point of view. It is situated along the foothills of the central Himalaya, in the north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, with a forest covers of ca. 10,000 km 2 in India. The Terai eco-region contains dense forests, savannahs and grasslands, providing critical habitats for many endangered large mammals, including tigers, elephants and rhinoceroses. Currently, the forest of this region is losing its biodiversity because of natural and anthropogenic factors. Because of the high agricultural productivity of the Terai areas, rising aspirations for better living conditions, development activities, industries and road & rail networks, the degradation and fragmentation of these forests have increased in recent years. This paper presents key issues and management strategies for the conservation of the Himalayan Terai forests of India, along with some suggestions to overcome the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances.
... Valuation will also play an important role in decision making and prioritization in resource allocation, distribution, and management. On the other hand, Pearce (2001) argues that measuring the economic value of ecosystem services is a fundamental step in conserving the biological resources. The role of environmental valuation methodologies in policy formulation is increasingly recognized by policymakers. ...
... A number of publications have estimated the ecosystem functions and services per hectare (e.g. Pearce 2002;Seidl and Moraes, 2000;Pearce 2001;Costanza et al 1997). 3 Care will be taken to use multiple sources for such estimates to avoid potential biases in any particular study. ...
Article
Healthy land ecosystems are essential to sustainable development, including food security and improved livelihoods. Yet, their key services have usually been taken for granted and their true value underrated, leading to land degradation becoming a critical global problem. This pattern of undervaluation of lands is about to change in view of the rapidly rising land prices, which is the result of increasing shortage of land and high output prices. Despite the urgent need for preventing and reversing land degradation, the problem has yet to be appropriately addressed. Policy actions for sustainable land management are lacking, and a policy framework for action is missing. Such a framework for policy action needs to be supported by evidence-based and action-oriented research. The Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) initiative seeks to develop such a science basis for policy actions to address land degradation. The purpose of this methodological paper is to provide with sound and feasible standards for ELD assessment at global and national levels. Only if some basic standards are identified and adhered to, comparative assessments can be conducted between countries and useful aggregation of findings, based on these case studies, can be achieved. Therefore, using the Total Economic Value (TEV) framework, the paper identifies minimum core standards that need to be adhered to in all country case studies to generate comparable material for international assessment and ELD policy guidance. It also identifies additional and desirable areas of information and analyses that would add value to the country case study material. The proposed framework is also intended as a forward-looking agenda which can guide future research.
... This school of thought suggests that the biodiversity resources degrade primarily because of the non-existence of market and negative externality (Sadmo 2015;Perrings et al. 1992). It argues that valuation techniques can provide useful insights to support policy initiatives by quantifying the economic value of the resources and to devise exchange rule associated with the protection of biological resources (Costanza et al. 1997;Pearce 2001;Bräuer 2003;Kumar 2005;Barbier 2007;McAfee and Shapiro 2010;Hahn et al. 2015). This understanding has been complemented by the institutional economists as establishing a formal property rights regime can efficiently manage the natural resources where the absence of property rights results in resources degradation (Ostrom 2000;Vatn 2009Vatn , 2010Ituarte-Lima et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter attempts to (a) identify the drivers of biodiversity degradation of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh, (b) present an alternative understanding on the measures for sustainable utilisation and conservation of resources and (c) suggest actions and policy alternatives to reverse the process of degradation and to move towards transformative harmonious human–nature interactions. While it is documented that the size of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh reduced and several floral and faunal species of the forest have been facing threat of extinction, the causes of continuous and unabated loss of the resources of this forest region have not been rigorously demonstrated. By challenging the mainstream approaches, the chapter theoretically and empirically exhibits that the exclusion of indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) in the conservation and management process has contributed to the losses of biological diversity and suggests that the IPLCs have been practising several unique production methods based upon their traditional knowledge which can significantly contribute to the sustainable management of resources through symbiotic human–nature relationships. Following multiple evidence base (MEB) approaches, it is found that human sociality-based conservation practice positively impacts on resilient indicators and helps achieve Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
... The CM has been widely used in valuing biodiversity with most studies focusing on a single species (Pearce 2001;Hanley et al. 2003;Grilli, Notaro, and Campbell 2018). These studies use the CM to assess individuals' WTP for nature conservation and fewer studies have focused on public budget reallocation (e.g. ...
Article
Little is known about citizens’ judgment of nature conservation actions financed by public funds. The present work contributes to this topic with empirical evidence coming from a Choice Modeling (CM) study designed in an innovative mode. Using the participatory budget format, a CM exercise elicited respondents’ choice between the allocation of public funds for nature conservation actions versus other actions (e.g. social or economic interventions). The case study comprises an EU-LIFE project managed by a Portuguese municipality. Results highlight the importance of awareness of and accessibility to environmental goods, as those that are more willing to pay use the area for leisure activities and have a greater knowledge about it. In addition, we suggest that CM can be used as a tool to uncover citizens’ preferences regarding public budget allocation which can contribute to a democratization of decision making at this level.
Technical Report
Full-text available
It was investigated to what extent valuation and monetarization, the so-called TEEB approach, is useful for generating opportunities for further greening of the CAP after 2020. Two regions were involved: Salland and the Veenkoloniën (peat colonies). During meetings important ecosystem services were identified and discussed. In-depth interviews were conducted. As a desk study using all available data key ecosystem services were mapped and quantified. Opportunities for appreciation and redemption were explored. The results of the desk study were presented and discussed with the regions, with whom opportunities for marketing and redemption of ecosystem services were discussed. Causes of mismatches between demand and supply of ecosystem services and market failure were identified. With these results as input, promising opportunities for further greening of the CAP were developed, using a theoretical framework developed for this purpose. Reflexive monitoring was conducted given the exploratory nature of the study .
Article
We model “Payment for Ecosystem Services” as a public management of biodiversity (BD) provision where citizens and land users have only a limited understanding of the ecology. Ecosystem services (ESS) can be nutrient recycling, pollination, pest control, etc. and they are linked to BD which is the focus of management. A typical problem in nature valuation is that, although there might exist an eventual vehicle for payment (land use), the underlying ecology might be very complex. To solve this problem we suggest an approach in which ecosystem management is conducted by ecologists who possess the knowledge of pertinent functional relationships between species prevalence and ESS provision. Farmers are compensated based on priority setting and suitability of land as a specific acquisition. Valuation (of species) is presented as a simulation (of a market-like process), i.e. balancing value revelations, based on shadow prices of providers (farmers), users (citizens) and ecologists. We address conflicts with ecologists as managers, farmers as profit maximizers, and citizens as utility retrievers. It is primarily a conflict between managers who argue ecologically for preferred species and land users who have limited knowledge: the conflict is solved by balancing interests. Our approach calibrates interest functions and it allows for quasi-market coordination and public management.
Article
Full-text available
It is important for humans to live in harmony with ecosystems. Evaluation of ecosystem services (ES) may be helpful in achieving this objective. In Japan, forest ecosystems need to be re-evaluated to prevent their degradation due to lack of forest management.In order to evaluate the effects of forest management on forest ES, we developed a process-based biogeochemical model to estimate water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems (BGC-ES). This model consists of four submodels: biomass, water cycle, carbon–nitrogen (CN) cycles, and forest management. The biomass submodel can calculate growth of forest biomass under forest managements.Several parameters of the model were calibrated using data from observations of evapotranspiration flux and quality of stream flow in forests. The model results were compared with observations of runoff water from a dam catchment site and with carbon flux observations.Our model was coupled with a basin-level GIS database of forests. Evaluations under various forest management scenarios were carried out for forests in a basin contained in the Ise Bay basin (Chubu region, Japan), where plantations (artificial forests) seemed to have degraded from poor forest management.Comparing our simulation results with those of forests without management in the basin, we found that the amounts of absorbed carbon and runoff were larger in managed forests. In addition, the volume of harvested timber was larger and its quality (diameter) was better in managed forests. Changes of ES within the various scenarios were estimated for their economic value and were compared with the cost of forest management.
Article
Full-text available
The Borana cattle in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya have unique traits that make them suitable for the harsh environment in the lowlands and have long formed a part of their livestock-keepers' cultural identity. However, genetic erosion of this important cattle breed has been occurring at an accelerating rate for the last few decades. Conservation initiatives for the Borana breed are required and in this context, this study provides empirical evidence for the high economic value of the Borana breed and its different subtypes, measured by their distinct attributes. This evaluation, firstly, strengthens conservation justification and provides guidance regarding cost-efficient conservation approaches and, secondly, provides a better understanding of breeding values. The analysis presented is based on a choice model (CM) with 370 local livestock-keepers. The results of the CM indicate that the preferences for some cattle attributes (in particular for cultural traits such as body size and horn conditions) and Borana subtypes vary largely between Kenya and Ethiopia and that high monetary values are placed on adaptive traits, fertility and traction suitability. We further conclude that it is most cost-effective to conserve in-situ the Ethiopian Borana subtype in Ethiopia and the Somali Borana subtype in Kenya.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the economic value of selected ecosystem services of Corbett Tiger Reserve, India. The direct cost was derived from secondary sources, and indirect and opportunity costs through socioeconomic surveys. For recreational value the individual approach to travel cost method was used, and to assess carbon sequestration the replacement cost method was used. The maintenance cost of the reserve was estimated as US $2,153,174.3 year-1. The indirect costs in terms of crop and livestock depredation by wild animals ranged from US $2,408 to US $37,958 village-1 over a period of 5 years. The dependence of local communities was for fuel wood (US $7,346 day-1), fodder (US $5,290 day-1), small timber, and other nontimber forest products. The recreational value of the reserve was estimated as US $167,619 year-1. With the cost per visitor being US $2.5, the consumers' surplus was large, showing the willingness of visitors to pay for wildlife recreation. The forests of the reserve mitigate carbon worth US $63.6 million, with an annual flow of US $65.0 ha-1 year-1. The other benefits of the reserve include US $41 million through generation of electricity since 1972. The analysis reveals that, though the benefits outweigh costs, they need to be accrued to local communities so as to balance the distribution of benefits and costs.
Chapter
Massive population declines and species extinction have characterized the 20th and early 21st centuries. These local and global phenomena do not only involve the loss of particular species, habitats, and ecosystem services; they also result in a general reduction in biotic diversity. Ecological research has long indicated the importance of biodiversity within and across ecosystems. However, capturing the economic value of biodiversity remains a challenge. Biodiversity is a multidimensional public good; it encompasses the diversity of genes, species, functional groups, habitats, and ecosystems. A large empirical literature in biology and ecology indicates that biodiversity has a stabilizing effect on ecosystems—the higher the biodiversity within a given ecosystem type, the more well-functioning (productive, stable, and resilient) is the ecosystem. However, the economic importance of biodiversity goes beyond this stabilizing effect. The multidimensionality and complexity of the biodiversity concept has resulted in a multitude of approaches to its economic valuation. While the theoretical and conceptual literature has focused on biodiversity as insurance and as a pool of options, empirical studies have been much more diverse. Given the public-good nature and complexity of biodiversity, stated preference methods are particularly common. The focus on biodiversity valuation has fostered many important theoretical and methodological developments. Many estimates exist of the willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation in different countries across the world; however, relatively few studies have been conducted in developing countries despite the considerably higher biodiversity levels there as compared with the better-covered developed countries. Valuation of biodiversity is a controversial subject, and the economic, predominantly anthropocentric approach has been criticized frequently. However, non-anthropocentric accounts of biodiversity value are problematic for their own reasons; an important question is whether biodiversity has intrinsic value and, if yes, whether this can be captured within the economic perspective. Valuation of biodiversity remains a vibrant topic at the intersections of disciplines such as ecology, environmental ethics, and economics.
Chapter
The State of West Bengal has an uncountable number of ponds and occupies 7.45% of the total water resources of India. Apart from small ponds, the State also has large ponds, known as Dighi and Beel. These large ponds serve as rainwater reservoirs, which find extensive use during the post-monsoon and the summer seasons. In Sundarbans, since there are no large ponds or natural lakes, the small ponds are crucial for domestic agriculture and allied activities. These water bodies are the only source of surface water in the Sundarbans. The demand for fresh water is increasing day by day due to the population growth in the region. Freshwater storage is the primary ecosystem service of the ponds because these water bodies provide substantial provisioning and Supporting services and very few cultural and regulating services. Due to changes in the agricultural activity in Sundarbans, the provisioning services (irrigation, fish farming, and domestic purposes) are declining day by day. Low awareness of ecosystem services and extreme weather events are the main reasons for the decrease in the social benefits from these ponds. So to protect the only source of freshwater ecosystem services, it is high time to assess the value of the services. Apart from ecosystem services evaluation, various stakeholders (fisher, agricultural farmer, and pond user) engagement is essential to know the importance of different ecosystem services.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper is an attempt at placing monetary values to services provided by the ecosystem to at the scale of a conservation landscape in order to demonstrate the importance of ecosystem conservation from an economic perspective. With the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) in the Indian state of Uttarakhand being the study area, the paper considers nine ecosystem services which include water for agriculture, water for hydropower (for the Ramganga Kalagarh project only), nature tourism (for Corbett Tiger Reserve, Ramnagar Forest Division and adjoining areas only), religious tourism (for Haridwar and Rishikesh only), drinking water, micro-climate regulation, carbon sequestration, firewood, and fodder. With 2005 as the reference year, the sum of the values of the ecosystem services was calculated asINR 227.52 billion (US$3.5 billion) in 2005-06.. The value of these services was INR 390 billion (US$6 billion) in 2015-16 and INR 344 billion (US$ 5.29 billion) in 2011-12, using Wholesale Price Index of the new series with 2004-05 as the deflator. These are conservative estimates, given that only nine ecosystem services in the form of provisioning, regulating, and cultural services have been taken into account. Supporting services have been left out to avoid double counting. The nine ecosystem services yield 19% more value than the total income of the study region based on the estimates of district level average incomes. In other words, the population in TAL obtains 19% more benefits (when monetized) than what it earns from occupations (or the economic sector). The community, especially the poor will therefore lose out a substantial amount of their "GDP" or incomes provided by the ecosystem if these services are destroyed or disrupted through land use change or other factors. This loss (and potential compensation) is usually not taken into account when planning and executing economic development strategies for the region. If properly accounted for (and this paper includes only a partial accounting), the costs of conventional development planning would outweigh the benefits of maintaining ecosystem services. 5
Book
While biodiversity loss is an ecological phenomenon, it also has further dimensions – political, social and, last but not least, economic. From the economic perspective, the rapid loss of biological diversity can be viewed in two ways. First, the consequence of this deterioration process is a loss of options and an increase in scarcity of the environmental ‘good’, biodiversity. Second, economic activity and the structure of global and local economic institutions have frequently been identified as the major drivers of biodiversity loss. In economic terms, this constitutes a market failure – market-based economic activities lead to processes which undermine the long-term stability of these very activities. This book provides an ecological economic perspective on the value of diversity in ecosystems. Combining insights from various sub-disciplines of ecology and environmental/ecological economics, the author constructs a conceptual framework which identifies the ways in which biodiversity influences human well-being and offers a novel, unifying perspective on the economic value of biodiversity. This framework demonstrates that biodiversity’s economic value mainly results from uncertainty about the future, regarding both supply of and demand for ecosystem services, and interconnections between ecosystems. The book goes on to identify suitable methods for economic valuation of biodiversity and discusses the currently underdeveloped and underused approach of deliberative monetary valuation. Combining a strong theoretical framework with practical examples, this book will be of great interest to students and researchers of ecological economics, ecosystem services, environmental values and environmental and resource economics.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.