ArticlePDF Available

Phytochemical profiling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of spinach (spinacia oleracea l.) Leaves. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientific Research 2018;4(1):24-27

Authors:
  • Delta Pharma Limited.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of major phytochemicals and the anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanolic extract of the plant Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Phytochemical analysis of Spinacia oleracea L. displayed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannin types of compounds. The anti-oxidative effect was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging activity method. The methanolic extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is found to have no antioxidant activity. The IC 50 of the extraction is 211081.58 µg /ml. In case of anti-diabetic activity test good anti-diabetic activity was observed. Mice treated with extract Group (250 mg/kg) showed decrease (from 21.7 mM ± SEM to 14.1mM ± SEM) (p<0.05) in blood glucose concentration at 120 min and extract group (500 mg/kg) showed decrease (from 24.9 mM ± SEM to 14.3 mM ± SEM) (p<0.05) at 120 min compared with Standard Group (from 25.6 mM ± SEM to 11.2mM ± SEM) at 120min.
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientic Research Volume 4 Issue 1, February 2018
Citation: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen et al. (2018), Phytochemical proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Spinach
(Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Int J Pharm Sci & Scient Res. 4:1, 24-27
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and
Scientic Research
Phytochemical proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity
of methanol extract of spinach (spinacia oleracea l.) Leaves
Research Article Open Access
24
Ohidul Islam1, A.K. Azad2, M. Mustafezur Rahman2, A. Khorshed Alam1, M. Khairuzzaman1, Jannatun Ferdous1, Marirul Islam1,
Sharif M. Shaheen*2
1Department of Pharmacy, Bangladesh University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Department of Pharmacy, Daodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Corresponding author: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen
Department of Pharmacy, Daodil International University,
Dhaka, Bangladesh.
E-mail: smshaheen2001@yahoo.com; sharif.ph@diu.edu.bd
Copyright: ©2018 Sharif Mohasmmad Shaheen et al. This is an
open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, dis-
tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited
Citation: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen et al. (2018), Phytochemi-
cal proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity
of methanol extract of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Int J
Pharm Sci & Scient Res. 4:1, 24-27
Received: December 26, 2017
Accepted: January 06, 2017
Published: March 07, 2018
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of major phytochemicals and the anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanolic
extract of the plant Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Phytochemical analysis of Spinacia oleracea L. displayed the presence of alkaloids, saponinsand
tannin types of compounds. The anti-oxidative effect was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging activity method. The methanolic extract
of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is found to have no antioxidant activity. The IC50of the extraction is 211081.58 µg /ml. In case of anti-diabetic
activity test good anti-diabetic activity was observed. Mice treated with extract Group (250 mg/kg) showed decrease (from 21.7 mM ± SEM to
14.1mM ± SEM) (p<0.05) in blood glucose concentration at 120 min and extract group (500 mg/kg) showed decrease (from 24.9 mM ± SEM to
14.3 mM ± SEM) (p<0.05) at 120 min compared with Standard Group (from 25.6 mM ± SEM to 11.2mM ± SEM) at 120min.
Phytochemical Prolining, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, DPPH, Alloxan, Carrageenan
Keywords:
ISSN 2471-6782
Introduction
Considerable portion of current diseases are caused due to the ‘oxidative
stress’ which results in enormous amount of free radicals, causing tumor,
atherosclerosis and cardiovascular illnesses (Braca et al., 2002). Cells of
the human body ensure themselves against harm caused by free radicals
by catalysts such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol and glutathione (Braca et
al., 2016). Cell reinforcement supplements are imperative to battle oxi-
dative harm. That is why much consideration has been taken towards the
improvement of ethnomedicine with solid cell reinforcement properties
with low cytotoxic effects.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which cur-
rently affects more than 100 million people all over the world and the
number of affected people is increasing due to aging, increasing preva-
lence of obesity and physical inactivity (Nair et al., 2006; Sarah et al.,
2004; Safdar et al., 2004; Umara et al., 2010). According to recent studies,
approximately by the year 2030, 438 million people all over the world are
expected to have diabetes (Mojekwu et al., 2011; Noor et al., 2008; Reh-
man et al., 2011). The worldwide cost to control diabetes and associated
complications exceeds $100 billion per year and complications are far
less common and less severe in people who have well controlled blood
sugar levels (Chattopadhyay, 1999; Sokeng et al., 2001).The treatment
of diabetes with synthetic drugs is generally not preferred because of
its high cost and side eects, for this reason, it is necessary to develop
alternative medicines of plant based origins with anti-diabetic proper-
ties (Emmanuel et al., 2010; Tanko et al., 2008).
Spinacia oleracea L. (Spinach) is a leafy green vegetable that came orig-
inally from southwestern Asia and is now grown in most parts of the
world. Its leaves, which are broad and smooth and about ten inches
long, Spinach, especially raw, is a very good source of folic acid, Spin-
ach leaves sare rich in vitamin C and E, which are antioxidant. These are
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientic Research Volume 4 Issue 1, February 2018
Citation: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen et al. (2018), Phytochemical proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Spinach
(Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Int J Pharm Sci & Scient Res. 4:1, 24-27
supposed to lower risks of heart disease, stroke and cancer. The high
amount of vitamin A in spinach may protect against eye degeneration.
The potassium helps prevent and regulate high blood pressure. The
plant is carminative and laxative. Inexperiments it has been shown to
have hypo-glycemic properties. The aim of this study was to determine
the presence of major phytochemicals in methanolic extract of Spinaci
oleracea L. leaves and to investigate its anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic
eects.
Materials and methods
Plant Materials
Spinacia oleracea L. leaves were collected from Mahammadpur, Town-
hall Kacha Bazar, Dhaka and the plant authentically was conrmed
form the Bangladesh National Herbarium,
Drying and Grinding
The collected plants were separated from undesirable materials or
plants or plant parts. They were dried in the sun for one week after
cutting into small pieces. The plant parts were ground into coarse
powder with the help of a suitable grinder. The powder was stored in
an airtight container and kept in a cool, dark and dry place until analy-
sis commenced.
Preparation of Plant Extract
About 300 gm of powdered sample was taken in a clean, at-bot-
tomed glass container and soaked in 1500 ml of 90% methanol. The
container with its contents was sealed and kept for a period of 10 days
accompanying occasional shaking and stirring. The whole mixture
then underwent a coarse ltration by apiece of clean, white cotton
material. Then it was ltered through whatman lter paper. The l-
trate was kept in an open space to evaporate the solvent thus crude
extract was obtained. Fine powders of the owering plant of Spinacia
oleracea L. leaves are dissolved in 90% methanol and then evaporation
the solvent.
Phytochemical Screening
Phytochemical studied of methanolic extract of plant material extract
was carried out for preliminary chemical investigation for the direction
of practical pharmacognosy text book (Trease and Evans, 1983; Mo-
hammed Ali, 2012; Abdul Ghani, 2005).
Antioxidant tests (Proctor, 1989; Hennekens et al., 1994; Clarkson,
1995)
Stock solution of the plant extract was prepared in methanol (10mg/
ml) from which a serial dilution was carried out. At rst 6 volumetric
asks are taken to make 6 dierent types of concentration 1, 5, 10, 50,
100 and 500 μg/ml. Test tubes and volumetric asks are rapped with
foil paper. In 6 volumetric asks serial dilution of extract is done and
marked them respectively.2ml of sample from each concentration and
2 ml of 0.004% DPPH solution is taken with the help of pipette in 6 test
tubes respectively.
2ml of sample from each concentration and 2 ml of 0.004% DPPH solu-
tion is taken with the help of pipette in 6 test tubes respectively. Then
solution is kept in dark place for 30 minutes with raping each test tube
with foil paper. In another test tube 2ml 0.004% DPPH & 2ml methanol
is taken to prepare blank solution. Then absorbance is taken by UV
Spectroscopy. The percent of inhibition is calculated by using follow-
ing formula
Drugs and chemicals
Carrageenan was purchased from Otto chemicals, India. The standard
drug Diclofenac-Na was purchased from Square Pharmaceuticals Lim-
ited of Bangladesh. Acetic acid, methanol and other chemicals sup-
plied from laboratory of Bangladesh University were analytical grade.
Experimental animals
Eight week-old Swice albino mice (27-30g) purchased from Jahan-
girnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh and were housed in animals
cages under standard environmental conditions (22-25°C, humidity 60-
70%, 12 hr light: 12 hr dark cycle). The mice were feed with standard
pellet diet taken from, Jahangirnagar University Dhaka. The animals
used in this study were cared in accordance with the guidelines on
animal experimentation of our institute.
Method for Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in diabetic mice
After fasting 16hr, diabetes was induced into mice by in intra-perito-
neal injection (i.p.) of alloxan monohydrade (90 mg/kg) disolved in sa-
line. After 48hrs, plasma glucose levels were measured by glucometer
(Tyson, Taiwan) using a blood sample from tail-vein of mice. Mice with
blood sugar higher than11.5 mmol/l were considered as diabetic. All
the mice were divided into 4 groups, each group containing 5 mice.
The divided groups are NC (normal control), DC (diabetic control),
STD (diabetic mice receiving Metformin), ME (diabetic mice receiv-
ing methanolic extract). The mice were fasted over-night and next
day blood samples were taken from all groups of animals to estimate
fasting blood glucose level (0 min). All mice received 1gm /kg glucose.
Without delay extract and were given per oral and three more blood
samples were collected at 30, 90 and 120 minutes intervals and blood
glucose level was estimated in all the experiments by using glucome-
ter (Hossain et al., 2011).
Result and discussion
Phytochemical Screening
Phytochemical screening of Methanolic Extract of Spinaciaoleracea
L.leaf is displayed in Table-1
25
Table 1: Results of Phytochemical Screening
Note: (+) = Indicates the presence and (−) = Indicates the absence of the tested group.
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientic Research Volume 4 Issue 1, February 2018
Citation: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen et al. (2018), Phytochemical proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Spinach
(Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Int J Pharm Sci & Scient Res. 4:1, 24-27
Result of Anti-oxidants test
DPPH scavenging assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity
Table 2: % Inhibition of Ascorbic acid and Spinacia oleracea L.
Fig 1. Anti-oxidant activity of Ascorbic acid and Spinacia oleracea L
Table 3: IC50 values of the extracts of Ascorbic Acid and Spinacia oleracea
The IC50 of Spinacia oleracea L. is 211081.58μg/ml, whereas IC50 of Ascorbic Acid is 14.15μg/ml.
26
Results of Hypoglycemic Activity
Table 4: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) of Spinacia oleracea L. leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic (mM/L) in mice
Experimental data were presented as mean ± SEM. By using the Dunnett test signicant differences (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001) between the
means were determined compare to control group where n=04. For statistical evaluation IBM-SPSS software version 20 was utilized.
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Scientic Research Volume 4 Issue 1, February 2018
Citation: Sharif Mohammad Shaheen et al. (2018), Phytochemical proling and evaluation of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Spinach
(Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Int J Pharm Sci & Scient Res. 4:1, 24-27
Discussion
This study demonstrated the ndings of Phytochemical studies, anti-
oxidant and anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Spinacia
oleracea L. leaves by severel in vivo and in vitro method. Phytochemical
observations have revealed the presence of several phytochemicals
including alkaloids, saponins, and tannins.
The reducing power of a compound may act as a momentous indicator
of its potential antioxidant activity (Pal R et al., 2011). Samples with
elevated reducing power are better capable to donate the electron
and free radical from stable substance by accepting the donated
electrons, resulting in the termination of radical chain reaction (Deori
M et al., 2014).
The experiment showed with IC50 of the extract is 211081.58μg/
ml, whereas IC50 of Ascorbic acid is 14.15μg/ml. When the IC50 value
of extract compared with the standard ascorbic acid it seems a
large value. Which unfortunately poses that, the extract oers no
antioxidant activity (Wasim M et al., 2015). But, the extract presents
a great positive eect on mice with alloxen induced disturbance in
glucose tolerance.
Alloxan is a popular diabetogenic agent hydrophilic in nature and
chemically unstable pyrimidine derivative, which harms pancreatic
β-cells because it can generate toxic free oxygen radicals during redox
cycling in the presence of reducing agents such as glutathione and
cysteine ( Wasim M et al., 2015).
Experimental data were presented as mean ± SEM. By using the
Dunnett test signicant dierences (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001)
between the means were determined compare to control group
where n=04. For statistical evaluation IBM-SPSS software version 20
was utilized.
Conclusion
Phytochemical analysis of Spinacia oleracea L. displayed the
presence of alkaloid, saponin and tannin types of compounds. The
results stated above showed that the methanolic extract of Spinacia
oleracea L. possessed no antioxidant eect and very good anti-
diabetic properties. However, this can’t be conrmed without further
higher and specic tests. So, further researches should be conducted
to get information about these activities.
Conict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conict of interest.
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to Bangladesh University for providing the
space for research and necessary lab equipments.
References
1. Abdul Ghani. Practical Phytochemistry, 1st ed., Dhaka: Parash
Publishers; 2005: 412-418.
2. Braca A, Sortino C, Politi M, Morelli I, Mendez J. Antioxidant
activity of avonoids from Chattopadhyay RR. Possible mechanism
of antihyperglycemic eect of Azadirachtaindica leaf extract. J
Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67(3):373–376
3. Clarkson PM. Antioxidants and Physical Performance. Crit Rev Food
SciNutr, 1995; 35(1&2): 131-141.
4. Emmanuel S, Rani S, Sreekanth R. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia
occidentalis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a dose dependent
study. IJPBS. 2010; 1: 1-12.
5. Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Peto R. Antioxidant Vitamins Benets Not
Yet Proved. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330(15): 1080 – 1081.
6. Hossain MS, Asadujjaman M, Khan MRI, Ahmed M, and Islam
A, Antidiabetic and glycogenesis eects of dierent fractions of
methanolic extract of Momordicacharantia (Linn.) in alloxan induced
diabetic rats.Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2011; 2(2): 404-412.
Licanialicaniaeora. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(3):379-381.
7. Meetali Deori, Dulal Chandra Boruah, Dipali Devi, Rajlakshmi Devi;
Antioxidant and antigenotoxic eects of pupaeof the muga silkworm
Antheraea assamensis. Food Bioscience 5, 2014: 108-114.
8. Mohammad Wasim, Kuldeep Singh, MK Mishra; Antidiabetic,
antihyperlipidemic and histopathological studies of aqueous and
ethanol extracts of leaves of Scirpus grossus in alloxan induced
diabetic rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Letters
2015, 5 (6): 627-631.
9. Mohammed Ali. Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 2nd ed., Delhi: CBS
Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd.; 2012: 141-175.
10. Mojekwu TO, Yama OE, Ojokuku SA, Oyebadejo SA. Hypo glyceamic
eects of aqueous extract of Aframomummelegueta leaf on alloxan-
induced diabetic male albino rats. Pac J Med Sci. 2011; 8(1):28-36
11. Nair SA, Shylesh BS, Gopakumar B, Subramoniam A. Antidiabetes
and hypoglycaemic properties of Hemionitisarifolia (Burm.) Moore in
rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 106(2): 192–197.
12. Noor A, Gunasekaran S, Soosai A, Minicab, Vijayalakshmi
MA. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera and histology of organs in
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Current science 2008; 94:1070-
1076.
13. Proctor PH. Free radicals and human disease,In:MiquelJ;Weber H.,
eds. Handbook of Free Radicals and Antioxidants in biomedicine, 1st
ed. Florida: CRC Press; 1989: 209-221.
14. Ranju Pal, Kundlik Girhepunje , Nidhi Shrivastav , Mohammed
Misbah Hussain and Thirumoorthy N; Antioxidant and free radical
scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia. Annals of
Biological Research, 2011, 2 (1): 127-131.
15. Rehman SU, Jafri SA, Hassan S, Ishtiaq N, Muhammad N. Study on
antidiabetic eect of Aloe vera extract on alloxan induced diabetic
rats. LARCJI. 2011; 2(1): 29-32.
16. Safdar M, Khan A, Khan MMA, Siddique M. Eect of Various Doses
of Cinnamon on Blood Glucose in Diabetic Individuals. PJN. 2004;
3(5):268-272.
17. Sarah W, Anders G, Sicree R, King H. Global Prevalence of Diabetes:
epidemiology/health services/psychosial research. Diabetes Care
2004; 27(5): 1047-53.
18. Sokeng DS, Lontsi D, Moundipa PF, JatsaHB, Watcho P, Kamtchouing
P. Hypoglycemic eect of Anacardiumoccidentale L Aqueous extract
in normal and on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res.
2001; 36: 01-09.
19. Tanko Y, Yerima M, Mahdi MA, Yaro AH, Musa KY, Mohammed A.
Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Stem Bark of Adansonniadigitata
extract on blood glucose levels of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic
wistar rats.Int. j. appl. res. nat. prod. 2008; 1(2):32-36.
20. Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 12th ed.,
London: BailliereTindall and Company Publisher; 1983: 343-383.
21. Umara A, Qamar U, Bala Y, Bashar Bello MS. Anti-hyperglycemic
activity of the leaves of Tetracerascandens (Dilleniaceae) in alloxan
induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131:140–145.
22. Valko M, Jomova K, Rhodes CJ, Kuca K, Musilek K. Redox- and non-
redoxmetal-induced formation of free radicals and their role in human
disease. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90(1):1-37.
27
... Spinach leaves, which are wide and smooth and approximately ten inches long, are a strong source of folic acid, especially when fresh. Spinach leaves are also high in antioxidant vitamins C and E (29) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Diabetes mellitus is a significant metabolic illness that affects people all over the world. Because existing synthetic medications have various limits and negative effects, the search for novel drugs continues. Traditional botanicals have long been used to cure diabetes around the world. Objective The goal of this study is to compile a list of commonly available medicinal vegetables from various parts of Pakistan that have antidiabetic and related therapeutic properties. Methods This study was conducted for the purpose of providing broad information on common medicinal vegetables found in Pakistan, that are used to cure diabetes. Results This review identified and characterized six generally available medicinal vegetables, demonstrating the importance of vegetables, in the treatment of diabetes. Conclusion Only a few vegetables have been thoroughly researched by scientists.
... Spinacia Oleracea was extracted according to the method recorded by Shaheen et al., [8] with mild modification. The leaves were washed and dried at room temperature, after which the leaves were ground then sifted. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research was done to evaluate the effect of flavonoids isolated from Spinacia oleracea leaves on the pituitary-adrenal ovarian axis in mice treated with doxorubicin. Forty female mice were distributed into four groups; the first group (G1) was given a daily orally dose of Spinacia oleracea leaves extract (100 mg/kg), the second group (G2) was given a daily oral dose of flavonoids (100 mg/kg), the third group (G3) was given distilled water, and the fourth group (G4) was left without any treatment. At the beginning of the first week, G1, G2, and G3 were intra-peritoneally injected with doxorubicin (0.15 mg/kg) twice weekly. G1 and G2 showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) in ACTH, Cortisol, FSH, and LH levels with a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of glutathione peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and an enhancement in the fertility index compared to G3. Histopathological section of the ovary in G3 showed degeneration of epithelial cells, ovary section in G2 showed a presence of multiple mature follicles contained oocyte. Ovary in G1 showed the presence of mature follicle. The histopathological section in the adrenal cortex of G3 showed the congestion of blood vessels. The adrenal cortex of G2 showed moderate vacuolization and mononuclear cells infiltration. The adrenal cortex of G1 showed a mild vacuolization. From this study, we concluded that the flavonoids isolated from Spinacia oleracea leaves have the ability to attenuate the side effects of chemotherapy drugs by enhancing antioxidant and improving fertility.
... Spinacia Oleracea was extracted according to the method recorded by Shaheen et al., [8] with mild modification. The leaves were washed and dried at room temperature, after which the leaves were ground then sifted. ...
... [148,149] On that note, methanolic extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves (250 mg/kg) was found to have good antidiabetic activity in mice treated as it decreased blood glucose concentration at 120 min (from 21.7mM±SEM to 14.1mM±SEM) (p<0.05), while mice treated with the more concentrated extract (500 mg/kg) showed decrease (from 24.9mM±SEM to 14.3mM± SEM) (p<0.05) at 120 min compared with standard group (from 25.6mM±SEM to 11.2mM±SEM) at 120min. [150] Results from other animal studies showed that spinach thylakoids lower blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations after 10 days of treatment, while in the clinical setting, thylakoids given before high-fat meal to healthy subjects reduced insulin concentration possibly as a result of reduced glucose uptake. [151][152][153] ...
Article
Background The Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood sugar levels due to pancreatic beta-cell functional impairment and insulin resistance in various tissues. Inspired by the ancient communities this diet emphasizes eating primarily plant-based foods, including vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereals, and nuts. Importantly, virgin olive oil is used as the principal source of fat. Red meat is consumed in low amounts while wine and fish are consumed moderately. Objective Here, we review the most beneficial components of the Mediterranean Diet and tentative mechanisms of action for prevention and/or management of T2DM, based on research conducted within the last decade. Methods The references over last five years have been reviewed and they have been selected properly according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results Several bioactive diet components were evaluated to prevent inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, reduce glucose concentration, carbohydrate absorption and increase insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. Conclusion The adherence to a healthy lifestyle, including diet, exercise and habits remains the best approach for the prevention of diabetes as well as frequent check-ups and education. Though diabetes has a strong genetic component, in recent years many reports strongly point to the critical role of lifestyle specific epigenetic modifications in the development of T2DM. It remains to be established how different components of the Mediterranean Diet interact and influence the epigenetic landscape to prevent or treat the disease.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at investigating the physicochemical and bread-making features of dehydrated spinach. Physicochemical composition of spinach powder was compared with wheat flour and the effect of spinach powder supplementation on the nutritional composition, dough rheology, and quality attributes of chapatti were assessed. The results suggested spinach powder to be holding 8.2% crude fiber, 19.2% protein, 1,304 mg/100g calcium, and 40.4 mg/100g iron. Spinach powder indicated significantly increased values for hygroscopicity, swelling power, and water solubility index values, that is, 6.4%, 7.1 g/g, and 4.2%, respectively, when compared with wheat flour. Supplementation of spinach powder in wheat flour at 20% substitution level significantly reduced dough development properties including water absorption, dough stability, and peak dough development time. Color measurements of baked chapatti indicated a significant reduction in L*, a*, and chroma values with increasing the level of spinach powder supplementation; however, sensory profiling confirmed that supplementation of spinach powder at 7.5% had an optimum effect on the overall acceptability of the baked product. The results further suggested that replacing wheat flour with spinach powder (5%–7.5%, w/w) in baked products could be a viable dietary approach to enhance the optimum supply of micronutrients and to combat micronutrient deficiencies among various population segments.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Resistin is a peptide hormone, secreted by adipose tissue. Increased secretion of resistin results in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydro-alcoholic spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.) extract on the expression of resistin mRNA in the visceral adipose tissue of rats exposed to chronic immobilization stress. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were allocated to six groups, including: 1) Control, 2) Spinach 200, 3) Spinach 400, 4) Stress, 5) Stress-Spinach 200 and 6) Stress-Spinach 400. Groups 2 and 5 were gavaged with spinach hydro-alcoholic extract at dose 200 mg/kg body weight and groups 3, 6 were gavaged with dose 400 mg/kg body weight of extract for 21 consecutive days; groups 4, 5 and 6 were placed in restrainers 6 hours a day for 21 consecutive days. At the end of this period, the expression of resistin mRNA in adipose tissue was evaluated by Real Time PCR. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Chronic immobility increased the expression of resistin mRNA (2.78±0.30) in adipose tissue, compared to the control group (1±0.36) (P=0.002). Resistin mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue of Stress-Spinach 200 and Stress-Spinach 200 (0.74±0.23 and 1.45±0.15 respectively) was lower than in the stress group (P=0.000 and P=0.020 respectively). Conclusion: Results indicate that spinach extract can reduce resistin mRNA expression in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress.
Article
Full-text available
Aframomum melegueta (Zingiberaceae) seeds are used in West Africa, as a remedy for variety of ailments such as stomach ache, snakebite, diarrhea and anti-inflammatory properties. The hypoglycaemic effects of crude leaf extract of Aframomum melegueta on the treatment of alloxan induced diabetes in male rats and non-diabetic rats (control) were examined in this study. Results obtained from the experiment showed that the elevated blood glucose level caused by oral administration of 250 mg / kg body weight of alloxan was reduced significantly (p < 0.01) by oral administration of Aframomum melegueta leaf extract doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg with the exception of 20 mg/kg when compared to control groups. The non-diabetic groups that received the extract showed reduction in blood sugar level as the dose increases when compared to their control group. There was a final weight gain and organ restoration for both the diabetic and non-diabetic rats after treatment when compared with their controls. This study showed that the extract have hypoglycemic and prophylactic effects.
Article
Full-text available
An attempt was made to study the beneficial effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic induced rats fed with A. vera (300 mg/kg body wt), the fasting plasma glucose levels were reduced to normal and body weight was found to be increased. In the pancreatic sections of diabetic rats fed with A. vera, the islets were comparable to normal rats. In liver, the changes caused after induction of diabetes are granular cytoplasm, dilated sinusoids, shrunken nuclei and inflammation, which was re duced after feeding with A. vera. Excess proliferation of epithelium in the small intestine was observed in diabetic rats, which was reduced after A. vera feeding. In diabetic rats and diabetic rats fed with A. vera, no change was noticed in the kidney and stomach.
Article
Full-text available
The study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycogenesis effects of the different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia. The different fractions of the extract were administered intraperitoneally as a single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced as well as glucose induced diabetic rats and found to reduce blood glucose level significantly (p<0.05). The different fractions of Momordica charantia to the alloxan-induced diabetic rats resulted in the significant elevation of liver glycogen content which was decreased by 50.60% in diabetic control. The plant fractions also improve the glucose tolerance in the glucose induced rats. The effects of plant fractions were compared with standard drug metformin. The phytochemical screening tests indicated that the different constituents such as saponins, tannins, triterpines, alkaloids and flavonoids etc. were present in the plant which has antidiabetic and glycogenesis properties. Thus, this investigation paves the way for plant based diabetic treatment and indicates that various fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of the methanolic extract of Momordica charantia have favorable effect in bringing down the severity of diabetes, enhancing glycogenesis activity by increasing the cellular uptake of glucose and also improving glucose tolerance activity.
Article
Cassia occidentalis Linn. is extensively used in the indigenous and folklore medicine systems to treat several illnesses. However adequate characterization of hypoglycemic activity of C.occidentalis has not yet been done. The scientific evaluation of its hypoglycemic activity was, therefore, explored and also compared with the effect of a standard hypoglycemic drug, Glibenclamide. In the present study methanol fraction of C.occidentalis leaves (COLMF) was tested against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats, weighing 150-200g, were randomized into control and experimental groups. Experiment group rats were induced diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment with COLMF at different doses and times following in normal and diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose level to normal in diabetic rats (99.68±3.57). Hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hepatic glycogen, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes (TBARS, HP, SOD, CAT, GPx VitC, VitE, GSH) and hepatic marker enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, ACP) were also evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. Oral administration of COLMF significantly and dose-dependently normalized the above mentioned parameters near to normal in STZ-diabetic rats (p<0.05). Histopathological examination showed that COLMF extract protected the pancreatic tissue from STZ-induced damage.
Article
Transition metal ions are key elements of various biological processes ranging from oxygen formation to hypoxia sensing, and therefore, their homeostasis is maintained within strict limits through tightly regulated mechanisms of uptake, storage and secretion. The breakdown of metal ion homeostasis can lead to an uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species, ROS (via the Fenton reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals), and reactive nitrogen species, RNS, which may cause oxidative damage to biological macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. An imbalance between the formation of free radicals and their elimination by antioxidant defense systems is termed oxidative stress. Most vulnerable to free radical attack is the cell membrane which may undergo enhanced lipid peroxidation, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts. While redox-active iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of redox-inactive metals such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. While arsenic is known to bind directly to critical thiols, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. Redox-inert zinc (Zn) is the most abundant metal in the brain and an essential component of numerous proteins involved in biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The depletion of zinc may enhance DNA damage by impairing DNA repair mechanisms. Intoxication of an organism by arsenic and cadmium may lead to metabolic disturbances of redox-active copper and iron, with the occurrence of oxidative stress induced by the enhanced formation of ROS/RNS. Oxidative stress occurs when excessive formation of ROS overwhelms the antioxidant defense system, as is maintained by antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidant enzymes which include SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. This review summarizes current views regarding the role of redox-active/inactive metal-induced formation of ROS, and modifications to biomolecules in human disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, renal disease, blood disorders and other disease. The involvement of metals in DNA repair mechanisms, tumor suppressor functions and interference with signal transduction pathways are also discussed.
Article
The aim of this work was to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content, and to evaluate in-vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic root extract of Morinda Citrifolia (MCREt). The raw, dry root powder was extracted with 99.9% of ethanol. Phytochemical test shows that extract contains higher level of total phenol and flavonoids. Total phenolic compound in ethanolic root extract of Morinda Citrifolia was found to be 41.89 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent (r2=0.9971) and total flavonoids compound was found to be 17.27 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent (r2=0.9992). The extract was screened for its potential antioxidant activities using tests such as hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, reducing power activity, and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity. The in-vitro antioxidant assay showed MCREt posses potent antioxidant activity when compared with reference compound butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). MCREt could be useful for preparation of neutraceuticals as potent antioxidant to treat various human diseases and its complications.