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Exploring the Role of A, B, C and D Personality Types on IndividualsWork-Related Behaviors and Health Problems: A Theoretical Model

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Abstract

Personality traits have a determinative effect on individuals' positive or negative attitudes and behaviors in organizational and social life.Besides,some personality traits significantly affect individuals who have serious health problems.In this context, it is important to determine the personality types which trigger desired attitudes and behaviours in organizational life and also to examine these personality characteristics influences in the selection processes.Moreover, it is highly crucial to attempt to explain health problems caused by personality types and to find out which personality characteristics lead to more serious health problems. Further, personality types play a critical role in the treatment of serious health problems. Therefore, the present study, aim to investigate personality traits of Type A, B, C and D whichare frequently associated with health problems and workplace behaviours in the literature. In accordance with the aim of the study, it is presented conceptual model which related with the attitudes and behaviours of the individuals who have Type A, B, C and D personality characteristics in their working life and the health problems that they have met.
International Journal of Business and Management Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 8028, ISSN (Print): 2319 801X
www.ijbmi.org || Volume 6 Issue 7 || July. 2017 || PP29-37
www.ijbmi.org 29 | Page
Exploring the Role of A, B, C and D Personality Types on
IndividualsWork-Related Behaviors and Health Problems: A
Theoretical Model
PelinKanten1 GültenGümüştekin2SelahattinKanten3
1Faculty of Political Science, Department of Business Administration, ÇanakkaleOnsekiz Mart University,
Çanakkale-Turkey, pelinkanten@comu.edu.tr
2Faculty of Political Science,Department of Business Administration, ÇanakkaleOnsekiz Mart University,
Çanakkale-Turkey, ggumustekin@comu.edu.tr
3School of Applied Science At Biga, ÇanakkaleOnsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkale-Turkey,
skanten@comu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT: Personality traits have a determinative effect on individuals' positive or negative attitudes and
behaviors in organizational and social life.Besides,some personality traits significantly affect individuals who
have serious health problems.In this context, it is important to determine the personality types which trigger
desired attitudes and behaviours in organizational life and also to examine these personality characteristics
influences in the selection processes.Moreover, it is highly crucial to attempt to explain health problems caused
by personality types and to find out which personality characteristics lead to more serious health problems.
Further, personality types play a critical role in the treatment of serious health problems. Therefore, the present
study, aim to investigate personality traits of Type A, B, C and D whichare frequently associated with health
problems and workplace behaviours in the literature. In accordance with the aim of the study, it is presented
conceptual model which related with the attitudes and behaviours of the individuals who have Type A, B, C and
D personality characteristics in their working life and the health problems that they have met.
KEYWORDS:Type A, Type B, Type C, Type D, Health Problems, Work Behaviors
I. INTRODUCTION
In today’s world, it is seen that all people are interested in knowing more around the others. People generally
like to make explanation for others thoughts, attitudes and behaviors. However, they want to know why these
individuals behaved or thought as they did. Being able to understand others behaviors, feelings and thoughts
give individuals a greater sense of control over life and facilitate the environment more predictable and less
threatening (Ryckman, 2013: 3).Accordingly, psychologists initiated to explain human behaviors by reference to
stable underlying dispositions as a common practice. For example, when people are caught lying or cheating,
they are considered dishonest, when they help a person in need called as altruistic or merciful. In addition, when
people always disagree with group members characterized as incompatible (Ajzen, 2005: 1). Therefore, it can be
expressed that individual differences can be conceptualized in terms of wide personality characteristics or traits
which are partly inherited and remain relatively stable throughout the lifelong (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2015: 5).
Personality traits are stable individual differences which reflect accurate and distinct habits and patterns in
people’s thoughts, feelings, attitudes and behaviors in encountered situations (Christiansen and Tett, 2013: 11).
In other words, personality conceptualized as the combination of emotional, interpersonal and attitudinal
processes that originate internally in each person, and moderates how individual react, behave, and interact with
others and consequently becomes the primary factors which effect human behaviour (Fayez and Labib, 2016:
115). Due to the personality characteristics impact on some outcomes of individuals, it is studied in the
psychological literature for several decades (Nyarko et al., 2016: 2). It is seen that many theories classify and
measure personality traits from the different point of view. Therefore, it is examined four different personality
traits including the type A, B, C and D in this research.
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Personality traits undoubtedly represent one of the main topics in psychology science. Since personality
form the foundation of individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, it became an important issue to address the effects
of personality traits on work functions and organizational behaviors (Shoaeshargh and Dadashi, 2013: 2159). In
other words, because of personality traits explain the reasons behind an individual’s behaviour, it is expected
that these traits will frequently affect their work-related behaviours (Chien-Wen et al., 2013: 79). In literature, it
is seen that there is a considerable amount of literature has been published on personality traits effect on work
behaviours and attitudes. For example studies of Penney et al. (2011); Kozokaet al. (2013); Ishaket al. (2013);
Bartholomew C et al. (2016) suggested that personality characteristics considered as an antecedents of work
behaviours and attitudes. Moreover, it is asserted that personality characteristics also considered as determinants
of healthy behaviours which account for the health states of individuals (Amir et al., 2011: 2011). It is seen
studies of Hagger (2009); Turiano et al. (2012);Weston et al. (2015); Husson et al. (2017) indicated that
personality traits are important predictors of individuals psychological and psychical health problems.
Therefore, it can be asserted that personality traits are regarded as precursors of individuals’ work-related
behaviours and their health status. Hence, this study is intended to investigate some of the effect of Type A, B,
C and D personalities’ on individuals’ work-related behaviours and health problems. Accordingly, this study
aims to review existing literature related to type A, B, C and D personalities and their associated effects. It also
attempts to propose a conceptual model which aims to explain these personality types’positive and adverse
effects on individualswork and social lives. Consequently, it aims to determine effective personality types of
individuals who have achieved a success and can derive pleasure in working area and social life and intends to
guide practitioners and researchers in the field of organizational behaviour.
II. THE EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TYPES ON INDIVIDUALS WORK-RELATED
BEHAVIORS
In literature, it is seen thatpersonality psychologists are interested inhuman wholeness, and attempt to
reveal out the complexity of human behaviors (Esmaeilpour et al., 2013: 405). Because personality is considered
as a crucial component underlying human behaviors, researchers have focused on personality traits. Personality
traits affectindividuals’ perceptions, appraisal of the environment, their emotional responses and attitudes.
However, it is suggested that personality traits are examined as an important determinant of individuals’
workplace behaviors (Kozako et al., 2013: 182). For instance, whereas some people have positive and strong
personality traits, others may have negative and weak traits which lead them to exhibit some favorable or
undesirable work-related behaviors. Accordingly, this study aims to present some effects of Type A, B, C and D
personalities on positive and negative work-related behaviors. Further, it purposes a classification as to which
personality type results in negative or positive behaviors in workplaces.
Type Aindividuals are often regarded “workaholics” as they take over multi-tasks and are strongly
motivated to do extra work and to achieve success (Radsepehr et al., 2016: 2). Related to these characteristics of
Type A, it is possible to express that they experience increased performance and increased job satisfaction.
However, even several researchers have examined the relationship between Type A and job satisfaction, results
have been inconsistent and controversial. For example, the studies byAl-Mashaan(2001) and; Yazici and Altun
(2013) found a positive correlation between Type A and job satisfaction. On the other hand, Jamal and Baba
(2001); Kirkcaldy et al., (2002) and Bockhaus et al., (2012)report that Type A individuals have lower levels of
job satisfaction. In addition, as Type A’s have a competitive and ambitious nature, they are expected to exhibit
aggressive behaviors in interpersonal relations at work (Batıgün and Şahin, 2006: 2). Vera-Villarroel et al.
(2004); Faunce et al. (2004) and Mohan and Singh (2016) asserted that Type A personality characteristics are
positively related to aggressive and hostile behaviors. In consideration of positive work behaviors, Sameenand
Burhan (2014)andHussein (2014) have indicated that Type A individuals tend to exhibit creative behaviors than
others. Due to Type A individuals prefer undertaking excessive responsibilities and new challenges, working
under time pressure and have a greater commitment to their roles, it is expected that these individuals engage to
their works (Baka and Derbis, 2012: 134). Studies of Hallberg et al., (2007); Moodley (2010); Baka and Derbis
(2012) suggest that there is a positive relationship between Type A characteristics and work engagement.
Consequently, it can be said that Type A individuals may exhibit both positive and negative work behaviors.
Type B individuals are considered easygoing and moderate thanks to their personality characteristics.
For example, it can be said that Type B individuals are more flexible and can easily adapt to changing
conditions easily (Radsepehr et al., 2016: 3). However, Type B’s are regarded as the opposite of Type A
individuals. In other words, they have a desire to be successful, but they are not excessively ambitious or
competitiveas Type A individuals are. Due to theirfondness for being comfortable, they do their workat the last
minutes, and even procrastinate. It can be expressed that Type B individuals exhibit procrastination behaviors
more often in their work life (Hussein, 2014: 2). Therefore, it can be inferred that Type B individuals use their
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time poorly and can not make efficient time schedules (Hisam et al., 2014: 1305). Type B individuals have
better communication skills than Type A’s, so they can easily communicate with others (Tokat el al., 2013:
1978). Thanks to Type B’s good communication skills, they are supported others and are more likely to express
their feelings. Moreover, as Type B’s have no eyes on greater success, high positions and extreme gains, they
are expected to be satisfied with their jobs (Darshani, 2014: 2). On the other hand, because Type B individuals
pay no attention to the time scheduling, they may spend more hours in their workplace for their co-workers and
companies. In other words, they tend to participate in non-compulsory activities or roles and tend to display
non-discretionary behaviors. Accordingly, Type B individuals are expected to exhibit organizational cizitenship
behaviors such as helping colleagues, undertaking extra roles and extra work(Pradhan and Kaur, 2016: 25).
Type C personality is regarded as a part of negative personality traits based on the individuals’ some
characteristics like incapability, non-assertiveness and passiveness. However, Type C individuals possess some
positive traits such as dedicated focus on other people, exhibit cooperative behaviors and tendency to comply
with external environment (Denollet, 1998: 981). Type C’s seem kind, obedient, well-mannered, pragmatic and
normative people who are preferred by others in work and social life (Durai, 2010: 390). On the other hand,
these individuals considered as introvert and intelligent people who are interested in details, like to discover new
things and are eager to achieve a successful career in the professional life (Ansari et al., 2013: 1004). Moreover,
type C individuals are obsessed with making visionary dreams come true and regarded as creative people
(Atchity, 2012: 16). Therefore, it can be expressed that due to their altruisticand sensitive side, Type C’s may
display helping behaviors, cooperative and organizational citizenship behaviors and feel engaged in their work
roles more than the others in the working environment. In addition, these individuals have more dispositions to
exhibit creative behaviors thanks to their imaginations. From the pessimistic perspective, it is possible to infer
that because of their negative emotions, type C’s easily get unhappy and dissatisfied with their jobs. Thus, it is
expected that their job performance, motivation and commitment levels decrease.
Type D or distressed personality examined in the extent of other negative personality traits due to the
characteristics of negative and pessimistic view in all field of life, feeling of anxious, unsatisfying and always
experience negative emotions. Owing to these characteristics lead Type D individuals build fewer friendly
relationships, have fewer friends and feel uncomfortable with strangers in work and social life (Radsepehr et al.,
2016: 3-4).Depending on these fewer social relationships, they perceive lower levels of social support from
others in their professionallives(Tekin et al., 2017: 173). However, Type D individuals feel tense and insecure in
the working environment which causes them to keep other people at a distance. In the literature, studies suggest
that Type D individuals suffer from higher levels of social alienation from their family members, friends and
working colleagues (Ginting et al., 2016: 728). In addition, researchers assert that Type D individuals get
exhausted much more quickly than othersand feel disengaged to their work. Therefore, it can be concluded that
Type D individuals’ experience adverse work-related outcomes such as higher burnout, higher work-related
stress and substantial problems in interacting with co-workers and managers (Reid, 2013: 9). Besides, it is
asserted that Type D’s are more absent from their works due to the physical and psychological illness, show a
lower sense of personal accomplishment and perceive adverse working conditions (Mols and Denollet, 2010: 4-
6). Besides, it can be noted that Type D individuals are expected to display some negative work-related
behaviors such as abseentism, incivility, sabotage and aggressive behaviors and counterproductive behaviors
(Kanten et al., 2017: 605).
When the literature has been reviewed, it can be said that personality types cause some positive and
negative work-related outcomes. Accordingly, this study aims to explain Type A, B, C, D personality’s positive
and negative effects on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Therefore, it attempts to determine which
personality type leads to positive behaviors and which ones induce negative behaviors. For this purposes, a
conceptual model has been developed to explain the effects of Types A, B, C, D’s on work-related behaviors as
provided in Figure 1.
Type A Personality
Positive Negative
Workaholic Lower Level of Job Satisfaction
Job InvolvementAggressive Behaviors
Job EmbeddednessHostility Behaviors
Work EngagementIncivility
Creative Behaviors
Proactive Behaviors
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Fig 1. TheEffects of A, B, C,D PersonalityTypes on Work-RelatedBehaviors
III.THE EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TYPES ON HEALTH-RELATED PROBLEMS
In recent years, excessive amount of research has been conducted toidentify risk factors which are
potentially dangerous for individuals’ health status. Personality is considered as one of the risk factors that may
have a crucial role on individuals’ health problems. In other words, it can be suggested that personality traits are
significant precursors of which physical or psychological disease individuals will be potentially suffer from. For
example, individuals with some negative traits such as impulsivity, psychoticism, neuroticism, anxiety, and
hostility are more prone to illnesses than other people are. When individuals have positive traits like
conscientiousness, agreeableness, optimism, hardiness, and self-efficacy, it is predicted that health-promoting
behaviors may emerge (Zetu et al., 2013: 491). Therefore, it can be inferred that while some positive
characteristics lead individuals to stay healthy, some negative traits may cause physical or psychological health
problems. Accordingly, this study aims to present some effects of Type A, B, C and D personalities on health-
related problems and to account for which diseases are associated with which personality traits.
It can be realized in the literature that for the first time Type A characteristics described by two pioneer
cardiologistsRosenman and Friedman (1959) as a coronary prone trait (Mohan and Singh, 2016: 449). It is
suggested that Type A’s characteristics have a significant impact on cardiovascular diseases. In other words, as
Type A’s are disposed to impatience, time urgency, achievement-orientationand hostility, they are expected to
come down with coronary heart diseases (Hisam et al., 2014: 1304). However, researchers have revealed that
based on the Type A’s some traits such as perfectionism, short temperament, aggression and chronic stress, they
are considered more prone to heart diseases and to have higher blood pressure and high density lipoprotein
(Alex, 2014: 65). Besides, it is claimed that because Type A’s, sympathetic nervous systems are at constant
alert, their organs are sensitive to pressure which results heart diseases and hardening of the brain's arteries. On
the other hand, researchers emphasized that Type A individuals have much more anxiety and depression
symptoms and sleep disturbances than the others (Amir et al., 2010: 2018). In addition to mental health
problems, Type A’s are considered prone to cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and gastric
troubles (Zurlo et al., 2016: 32). Consequently, it is inferred that Type A personality cause individuals to have
different physical and psychological disorders. From the psychical perspective, they suffer from high plasma
triglycerides and cholesterol levels, hyperinsulinemia, reduced coagulation times, high plasma cortisol levels.
Moreover, from a psychological perspective, it is considered that Type A’s are likely to suffer from such
Type B Personality
Type C Personality
Negative
Aggressive Behaviors Organizational Alineation
Incivility Emotional Exhaustion
Sabotage Behaviors Burnout
Counterproductive Behaviors Abseentism
Lower Level of Satisfaction
Voice Behavior
Positive Negative
Job Satisfaction Procrastination Behavior
Cooperative Behaviors Negligent Behaviors
Helping Behaviors Political Behaviors
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Democratic Leadership Behaviors
Discretionary Behavior
Positive Negative
Work Engagement Lower Level of Satisfaction
Cooperative Behavior Lower Level of Performance
Creative Behaviors Lower Level of Commitment
Helping Behaviors Lower Level of Motivation
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Career Success Silence Behavior
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disorders as anxiety, depression, tension, high level of stress, eating and sleeping disorders (Lala et al., 2010:
201). Since Type B individuals are more relaxed, easy going, less competitive and less aggressive, they are less
panicky and experience low levels of stress in the face of challenges and threats. However, Type B’s blood
pressure levels and other biochemical reactions are typically lower (Batıgün and Şahin, 2006: 2). Individuals
with Type B characteristics do not get stressed easily when they have failed. They can humbly accept failures
and mistakes, feel disappointed by these inefficiencies but they are able to control their anger, anxiety and
temper (Hannah and Akmal, 2016: 25).Thanks to their characteristics such as calmness, patient, mildness they
are not prone to cardiovascular diseases (Maltby et al., 2013: 614-615). Therefore, their greater sense of
coherence help them respond to the environment with adaptive strategies, which haves a positive impact on
these individuals’ health and well-being. Accordingly, it can be expressed that their individual characteristics
have positive effects both on mental and psychical health (Salehinezhad, 2012: 481). Eventually, it can be said
that Type B individuals have a higher level of life satisfaction, quality of life and happiness. These individuals
may have such physicaldiseases as musculoskeletal, dermatological, intestinal, brain, nephropathy and
hepatopathy or so on depending on their age.In other words, it is expected that Type B’s suffer from more
psychical diseases than physiologicaldiseasesbecause of their characteristics.
Type C individuals have some characteristics such as passiveness, calmness, frequently focusing on
others, failure to express their emotions which are associated with the development ofcancer. In the literature, it
is suggested that Type C personality is considered cancer prone personality and at a risk of developing cancer
more readily and quickly than the other personality types. Besides, researchers indicated given that these people
are unable to express their emotions and complaints, they have a higher risk of breast cancer (Bozo et al., 2014:
792). However, Type C’s inadequate coping styles in the face of the stressful situations lead to impairment of
their endocrine and immune responses to chronic stress, so they easily experience depression (Zetu et al., 2013:
492-495). In other words, due to having hopelessness, uselessness, lack of control in stressful situations, they
cannot resist disease at the start of or attack stage of disease. Therefore, it can be inferred that Type C’s have no
effective coping styles which allow them to balance between their mental or psychical problems and their life.
For this reasons, Type C’s are likely to develop all types of cancer such as breast, lung, uterine cervix and
prostate (Nisi et al., 2015: 1518-1533). On the other hand, various studies Lysaker et al. (2014); Lala et al.,
(2010); Denollet (2005) suggested that there is a significant relationship between Type C personality and
Alexithymia which means incapability of understanding other’s emotions, having a turbulence of physical
feelings due to emotions, few dreams or fantasies (Habibi et al., 2015: 100). Moreover, due to failure to express
their feelings, Type C individuals produce stress hormones including cortisol much more than others and their
brain chemicals have a painkilling effect which lead to suppression of immune systems and reduced immunity
(Kahn, 2004: 312). In addition, based on the stress levels of Type C individuals, it is suggested that they are
prone to cardiovascular diseases (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2005: 103).
A personality type which is addressed as Type D or distressed personality has received significant
attention in the health literaturebuilt on the characteristics of anxiety, irritability, pessimism, worry and negative
views. It is suggested in relation to the traits of Type D’s, they suffer from higher levels of chronic stress,
emotional difficulties, and social difficulties. In other words, type D individuals have many mental disorders
such as depression, anxiety, chronic tension, anger, pessimism, lower subjective well-beingand dissatisfaction
with life (Polman et al., 2010: 682). The studies by Mols and Denollet (2010); Karaminia et al., (2012); Howard
and Hughes (2012) and Steca et al. (2016) assert that Type D is associated with increasing symptoms of
depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation and poor health status.On the other hand,
Pedersen and Denollet (2003); Abolghasemi et al., (2014); Saleem et al. (2016) and Steca et al. (2016) indicated
that Type D personality is significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, research findings
emphasize that as well as cardiovascular problems, Type D personality is considered as a predictor of many
other health-related problems such as chronic pain, asthma, tinnitus, etc. (Gawda, 2016: 1040). In addition,
researchers focus on the fact that Type D individuals has fatigue, sleeping disorders and some dermatological
disorders (Tekinet al., 2017: 173). Therefore, Type D’s have pessimistic views, negative emotions and stressful
lives, which lead them to develop some fatal health-related problems such as myocardial infarction, high blood
pressure, cerebral hemorrhage and several cancer types. Consequently, it can be expressed that due to their
negative traits; Type D individuals are more prone to develop both physical and also psychological disorders.
When the literature has been examined, it is possible to infer that personality types lead individuals to
have some physical and psychological health-related problems. Accordingly, this study aims to explain Type A,
B, C, D personalities adverse effects on individuals’ health status. Therefore, it is intended to determine which
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personality type causes which diseases. For this purposes, a conceptual model was developed to explain
negative effects of personality Types A, B, C and D on health status of individuals in Figure 2.
Fig 2. TheEffects of A, B, C,D PersonalityTypes on HealthProblems
IV. CONCLUSION
In a society and its constituents it can be observed that individuals exhibit several attitudes and
behaviours based on their personality traits. Personality traits are considered as crucial components, which
underlie human behaviours and encountered problems. Personality traits are regarded as stable and relatively
enduring characteristics that are consistent for the life of individual. However, personality traits seem unique
elements, which make individuals distinct from others and help explain behaviour patterns in different
situations. In literature, it is seen researchers claimed that different personality theories examine individuals
from different points of view. For example,Myers-Briggs; Jung; Costa and McCrae; Horney and Eysenck
classified personality types under the various adjectives such as extraversion, conscientiousness, perceiving,
Type A Personality
Type B Personality
Type C Personality
Type D Personality
Psyhcial Psyhchological
Cardiovascular Diseases Anxiety
Higher Blood Pressure Depression
High Density Lipoprotein Sleep Disorders
Musculoskeletal Troubles Eating Disorders
DermatologicalTroubles Tension
Gastric Troubles High Level of Stress
High Plasma Triglycerides
High cholesterol
Hyperinsulinemia
Psyhcial Psyhchological
None-prone to Coronary Diseases Lower Anxiety
Lower Blood Pressure Lower Depression
Intestinal Diseases Lower Stress
Musculoskeletal Diseases Lower Tension
Dermatological Diseases
Nephropathy
Hepatopathy
Psyhcial Psyhchological
Breast Cancer Anxiety
Lung Cancer Depression
Uterine Cervix Cancer Chronic Stress
Prostate Cancer High Tension
Reducing Immune System Alexithymia
Cardiovascular diseases
Psyhcial Psyhchological
Chronic pain Anxiety
Asthma Depression
Tinnitus Chronic Stress
Cardiovascular Diseases High Tension
Dermatological Disorders Suicidal ideation
Myocardial Infarction Fatigue
High Blood Pressure Sleeping Disorders
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Several Cancer Types
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sociable, worrying, aggression and etc. Along with these theories, researchers have begun to use personality
types called Type A, B, C and D to for understand human behaviours and their problems. Due to the effect of
personality types on individuals’ behaviours and health status, researchers pay a great deal of attention to them.
Hence, it can be noted that there are substantial researches which examine personality traits and their effects on
individuals’ work-related behaviours and health problems. Consequently, the present study examines some of
the effects of Type A, B, C and D personalities on individuals’ work-related behaviours and health problems
based on conceptual model. In addition, it also evaluated effective and aversive personality types on individuals’
work and social lives.
Review of the existing literature, revealed that all personality types potentially lead to both positive and
negative work-related behaviours. From a wider perspective, it can be realized that while Type D individuals are
tend to exhibit negative attitudes and behaviours more frequently, Type B’s display more positive behaviours in
working environment. Additionally, Type A personality is considered to have both good and unfavourable traits
by nature. In other words, Type A individuals are expected to contribute to the production of desirable
organizational outcomes such as work engagement, job involvement, job embeddedness, proactive and creative
behaviours. However, when some of these individuals have excessive ambition, anger and stress, they may get
less satisfied with their works and show negative behaviours like aggression, incivility and hostility. Therefore,
it can be concluded that, Type A’s are both desirable and undesirable individuals from a professional
perspective. In comparison with Type A, Type B’s are more relaxed, easy-going and less achievement-oriented
so, they tend to exhibit positive behaviours towards their colleagues at work. In addition, owing to such
characteristics as over fondness for comfortableness and lack of ambition, they avoid competition and do not
manage their time efficiently and effectively. Hence, they may exhibit some undesirable behaviours such as
procrastination and negligence. Moreover, the examination of Type C’s exposed that, these individuals are
likely to show both positive and negative behaviours. Due to their sensitivity focus on others and humanness,
they tend to exhibit more cooperative, helping and organizational citizenship behaviours than other people do.
However, Type C’s have some undesirable traits like negative moods, unhappiness, hopelessness and tension, so
it is thought that they would potentially have lower satisfaction, lower performance and lower motivation in
their work life. The final type examined in this study isType D, it is considered closely associated with negative
behaviours. Due to characteristics of Type D’s negativity, anxiety and anger, they may exhibit much more
damaging behaviours and attitudes such as aggression, sabotage, abseenteeism, alienation and burnout.To
summarize, these personality types from the working environment perspective, it can be remarked that Type B
and Type C individuals are preferred for the construction of better social relations at work. Because they are
considered to be easy-going, moderate and sensitive people and to have improved communication skills.
Furthermore, if the primary purpose is to create a setting of high competitiveness, success and efficiency, Type
A individuals should be employed.
In consideration of health-related problems, it can be concluded that Type A, B, C and D personalities
are likely to produce both physical and psychological consequences. For example, Type A and Type D
individuals are more prone to cardiovascular diseases than the other personality types are. Because of such traits
as anger and tension, they are expected to have coronary illnesses and to have higher blood pressure. In addition,
they are more inclined to have depression, chronic stress, sleeping disorders and anxiety due to their
psychological characteristics. Thus, it can be inferred that individuals with Type A and D traits, may develop
similar physical and psychological diseases. However, Type D’s have a little difference; they are tendto have
cancer. Moreover, the analysis of Type B’s, it can be expressed that they are not prone to anxiety, depression
and stress due to their fondness of for comfort, calmness and mildness. Type B’s potentially develop such
psychical diseases as musculoskeletal, dermatological, nephropathy and hepatopathydepending on their age.
Therefore, Type B individuals tend to have less physical and psychological health problems than all personality
types are. On the contrary, Type C’s are considered to have the least favourable personality traits from the
health status perspective. In other words, Type C’s excessive sensibility, emotional outburst and negative moods
make them prone toall cancer types, breast cancer in particular. Additionally, like Type A’s, they are prone to
cardiovascular diseases and such psychological disorders as anxiety, chronic tension, stress and depression. The
evaluation of these personality types from the health consequences, it is possible to express that all of them have
adverse effects. While some health problems are treatable, others may have fatal consequences. For example,
myocardial infarction and several cancer types are considered mortal. Hence, Type A, Type C and Type D
individuals can catch diseases that may result in death. Consequently, individuals know their characteristics;
they know which disease they could possibly get, and so can take some measures related with their health status.
In literature, there are several studies dealing with the positive and negative effects of personality types, but
nonewhere Type A, B, C, and D personalities, work related behaviours and health problems are all discussed
together based on conceptual model. Therefore, this study aims to explore the role of Type A, B, C and D and
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their effects on individuals work-related behaviours and health status, so it is expected to contribute to the
literature. For future studies, the conceptual model can be tested some samples who have work over load, time
pressure and stressful work roles. Moreover, it can be investigated whether working conditions and social
factors have an effect on the relationship between personality types and work-related behaviours and health
problems. REFERENCES
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... Regarding health psychology, there are three personality types that favor the development of somatic diseases: type A ('coronary personality'), type C ('cancer-prone personality'), and type D ('distressed personality') [12]. Two approaches are taken into account regarding the study of the relationship between personality and disease. ...
... Two approaches are taken into account regarding the study of the relationship between personality and disease. The first indicates that certain personality traits are associated with morbidity rate of certain severe health issues such as, for example, type A personality promotes ischemic heart disease, or type C, which was previously associated with cancer [12][13][14]. The second approach assumes the existence of a general susceptibility to disease and indicates that this susceptibility is the result of personality traits that may favor or inhibit the development of the disease [15]. ...
... Type D personality is linked to neuroticism by a tendency towards a catastrophic perception of reality, a way of evaluating events as highly threatening and harmful and a feeling of strong anxiety and tension [12]. What is characteristic in social situations is confusion, shyness in the presence of others, a tendency to worry, a pessimistic view of the world, high susceptibility to stress, and a tendency to break down in difficult situations. ...
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... The typical Type A lifestyle may also be a risk factor for SA. The TAP individual is often a workaholic who is frequently aggressive and hostile (Kanten et al., 2017;McLeod, 2021). TAP individuals also tend to be work under pressure and suffer from mental health issues and social impairment (Amir et al., 2011(Amir et al., , 2010(Amir et al., -2008. ...
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... We used a cross-sectional design to investigate how clinical characteristics and Type D personality might affect the working life of cancer survivors in Malaysia. Individuals with Type D personality are characterised by both the tendency to experience negative emotions and the propensity to inhibit self-expression in social interaction due to their negative and pessimistic views of life in general (Denollet, 2005;Kanten et al., 2017). In addition, cancer survivors with Type D personality seem to have more comorbid conditions and lower health-related quality of life (Mols et al., 2012). ...
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... Osobowość typu D wykazuje pewne cechy wiążące ją z innymi typami osobowości uznawanymi za predyktory chorób somatycznych, głównie z osobowością typu C, w pewnym stopniu także typu A [20,21]. Wspólne dla typów osobowości C i D jest unikanie eksponowania przeżywanych emocji, przy czym w typie C ma to głównie związek z niską świadomością ich przeżywania, a w typie D z hamowaniem ich wyrażania z obawy przed odrzuceniem. ...
... Доведено, що тип Д особистості поєднується із інтенсивним стресом у професійній діяльності. Люди з цим типом особистості мають менше друзів, гірше вибудовують стосунки із колегами, схильні до серцево-судинних захворювань, бронхіальної астми, часто страждають на інсомнію [5]. Такий тип особистості пов'язаний зі збільшеним числом ускладнень і летальністю у хворих з ішемічною хворобою серця, інфарктом міокарда, хронічною серцевою недостатністю, атеросклерозом периферичних артерій [6]. ...
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This study investigates the relationship between personality characteristics and organisational Affective Commitment of Bank employees in Nigeria. The sample consisted of two hundred and ten (210) respondents from ten (10) purposively selected area offices of banks in Port Harcourt. The Spearman's Rank Order Correlation Coefficient Statistical Technique in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the analyses of data. It was revealed that a positive and significance relationship exist between the five facets of personality characteristics and Affective commitment. These outcomes show that managers have the responsibility of devising ways to understand and effectively manage personality traits of their employees as each of these facets have potentials to be low or high that yields different results to the organisation. Banks should adopt personality tests at employment interview points to enable them identify employees whose talents can be optimised at work.
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ABSTRACT… Introduction: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is escalating speedily in the developing world including Pakistan. CVD is considered to be one of the leading causes of deaths in near future. The CVD is believed to be associated with personality factors and the researches continue to refine the key elements predisposing cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to explore the construct of a Type A behavior pattern and Type D personality in patients with cardiovascular disease and healthy controls. Settings: Cardiology OPD of the hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Methods: The psychometric tools used to measure these constructs are the Type A behavior pattern scale (TABP), Type D personality Scale (DS14) and Revised Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCS-R). 100 patients with cardiovascular disease having coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction were compared with 100 healthy controls in terms of relevant aspects of their cardiovascular functioning. Traditional emphasis has been that Type A is a predictor of CVD. Results: The study results indicate that the Type D is a better predictor of cardiovascular heart disease as compared to Type A. Furthermore, the results indicate that frequency of Type A and Type D is more prevalent in CVD patients than in the healthy controls. Conclusion: Making an allowance for the high frequency of Type A and Type D personality in cardiovascular disease, controlling the behavior patterns can be useful for prevention of risk as well as for creating better management of CVD patients.
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Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.
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The objective of present study is to examine the extent of organizational citizenship behaviour among type A and type B personality nursing professionals. OCB is a spontaneous and voluntary initiative taken by an employee which is not formally rewarded by an organization’s management. A nursing professional in a health care organization is primarily concerned with the well-being and assurance of proper health care facilities to the patients. So, in this respect, the concept of OCB becomes crucial particularly in a health care organization. Contemporary literature largely focuses on linking organizational citizenship behaviours with Big-5 personality traits. However, only a few of them addressed the personality traits of type A and type B among nursing professionals. The hypotheses predicting a negative relationship between type A and OCB while, a positive relationship between type B and OCB were formulated. The correlational analysis was carried in order to test the proposed hypotheses. For this purpose, data were gathered from 50 female nursing professional working in a private hospital using standardised tools. The obtained results indicate a significant positive relationship between type B and OCB and a negative correlation was obtained between OCB ant type B personality. The findings suggest that type B nurses are willing to go beyond their in-role tasks for the welfare of both the patients and their organizations. Ultimately, the study aims to contribute to the hiring of nursing staff and providing appropriate interventions for each personality type.
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Aim: To analyse the type of personalities among individuals of Saveetha Dental College. Objective: To find out the factors determining and distinguishing the type A and type B personality. Background: Personality refers to the combination of characteristic or qualities that build an individual distinctive character. People in this world are generalized into Type A and Type B personality. This study shows interest on the factor, which determine the Type A or B. This study also helps the individuals to know their personality type and the factors, which can improve their personality in a positive manner. A step is also planned in this study to motivate and guide the Type B personality individuals. Materials & Methods: The study was done as a questionnaire-based study among I BDS students of Saveetha Dental College. A total of 50 students participated in the survey. All the students were provided with a list of 9 personality-related questions with 2 answers given for each question. The students were told to choose only one out of the two answers that describes them the most. Result: The results from the study indicate any tendency of the individuals towards being a constanly stressed out Type A personality or the more relaxed and laid back Type B personality.[1]
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Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between metacognitive beliefs, thought control strategies and personality type. Method: Participants were 135 students of medical sciences in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran. The subjects were evaluated using Friedman and Rosenman questionnaire, Type D personality scale (DS14), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), and Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ). Data were analysed using MANOVA and Tukey’s range test in SPSS software. Results: The results of our study showed that there was a significant difference among students with Type B and Type D personalities in terms of “positive beliefs about worry” and “beliefs about uncontrollability of thought and danger”. Also, from among subscales of thought control strategies, all three type of personalities differed from each other in terms of “distraction”, “worry” and “punishment”. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between Type A and B, and Type A and D personalities in terms of “distraction” and between Type D and B personalities in terms of “worry”. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a significant difference in metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies among Iranian students with Type A, B, and D personality.
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Purpose: There is a paucity of research into the relationship between personality and health behaviors among cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Type D personality and its two constituent components, negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), are associated with health behaviors, quality of life (QoL) and mental distress among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Methods: Population-based study among 2620 CRC patients diagnosed between 2000-2009 who completed measures of personality (DS14), health behaviors, QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) and mental distress (HADS). Results: Personality was not associated with BMI or smoking. Those scoring high on NA (with or without SI) were more often non-drinkers and less physically active compared to those scoring high on neither or only SI. Personality (high scores NA) and health behaviors (inactivity) were independently associated with poor QoL and mental distress. Conclusions: CRC survivors with high scores on NA are at risk to be inactive and have worse health outcomes.
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Compulsive buying behavior is an emerging phenomenon nowadays, that has gained greater attention since the late 1980s (Magee, 1994), reflecting negative behaviours of consumers (Hafez et al., 2013). This research aims to discuss compulsive buying behaviour of Egyptian consumers, taking the "Big Five" personality dimensions as the independent variable that impacts this behaviour, and therefore discussing this topic in the context of developing countries, unlike previous researches. Although many theories exist about the measurement of personality traits, the most famous and widely used approach in the recent years is the "Big Five" model (Quintelier, 2014; Tommasel et. al, 2015), namely; openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Leung and Bozionelos, 2004; Lin, 2010; Tommasel et al., 2015). Quantitative research design is used, utilizing a structured questionnaire. Results are gathered from 400 respondents and are later analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20 (SPSS 20). Few tests are done, namely; reliability analysis, factor analysis, descriptive analysis, stepwise regression analysis, and ANOVA test. The findings of the analysis and tests resulted in a new model, consisting of four new personality dimensions that affect compulsive buying behaviour, namely; anxiety, openness, self-control, and selfconfidence. It is recommended to use the resulted model in future research, testing the effect of the new personality measures on compulsive buying behaviour. This research contributes to both application and theory, since it adds to the literature of the discussed topic, while focusing on developing countries. It also highlights the significant influence of some demographic groups on the newly identified relationship. Furthermore, it helps marketers in creating and adopting better marketing strategies.
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The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers’ psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers’ self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations.