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La dynamique du triangle stratégie, technologie et management : l'insertion des entreprises Grecques dans la globalisation

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Abstract

L'objet central pour cette recherche est l'étude de l'insertion des entreprises grecques (voire plus exactement des entreprises industrielles opérant en Grèce) dans la globalisation envisagée comme une période de concurrence multiforme, de transformation intense des structures industrielles surtout pendant la décennie 90. Il s'agissait d'une insertion vue comme une somme complexe de phénomènes par nature multiples et évolutifs. Muni d'une nouvelle conception stratégique restructurée, avec les racines stra. Tech. Man. Physiologiques pour chaque firme, nous nous sentons prêt à rendre compte de la pluralité des formes, des contenus et des mutations évolutives qui synthétisent en fait l'insertion polymorphe et variable de entreprises grecques dans la globalisation en cours. D'ici, l'action stratégique n'est plus selon nous qu'un produit issu de la structure profonde dialectique stra. Tech. Man. Dans toutes les entreprises vivantes. Link: http://www.theses.fr/2004PA100022
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... Although the dynamics of globalization lean on and affect all socio-economic systems and organizations, leading to an increasingly deeper homogenization, the forces of cultural heterogeneity and diversity are reinforced at different edges of the world (Ladhari et al., 2015;Roudometof, 2014;Scherer et al., 2013). To this end, according to Vlados (2012Vlados ( , 2004, the Greek entrepreneurial ecosystem hosts firms of different (idiosyncratic) -physiology‖ and structure: that is, the firms operating in Greece do not all belong to the same -species‖ of entrepreneurship. Specifically, Greek firms -think‖ and act based on three distinct -Stra.Tech.Man‖ physiologies, that is, in the way they evolve the inner dialectical spheres of their strategy, technology, and management. ...
... According to the Stra.Tech.Man -physiological‖ typology developed by Vlados (2004), there are three major categories of entrepreneurial development in Greece, classified as -monad-centered,‖ -massive,‖ and -flexible‖ entrepreneurship. It turns out that the Greek socio-economic system's low competitiveness is due to the existence of -monad-centered‖ firms, which constitute the overwhelming majority even today (Vlados & Chatzinikolaou, 2019a, 2019b: ...
... In terms of strategy, a -monad-centered‖ firm's core logic (Miller et al., 2001;Nieto et al., 2015;Siakas et al., 2014;Vlados, 2004) is instinctive since a strategic systematization is absent. It uses this instinct to pursue a -short-sighted‖ immediate profit by tending to avoid risk-taking. ...
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In economies where most firms are family-owned, there is a risk of poor management and problematic strategic and technological comprehension. Multiple cases prove the existence of a series of socio-economic pathologies in such firms that undermine an economy’s ability to overcome economic crises through innovative and entrepreneurial thinking and adaptability. The paper aims to present the relationship between entrepreneurship and “development and crisis” from the perspective of Greece’s current socio-economic crisis. It first analyzes the neo-Schumpeterian entrepreneurship theory and the structures that allow innovative and competitive models to appear and then links this context with Greece’s case. The “Stra.Tech.Man” theoretical framework of physiological types of entrepreneurship is suggested as the analytical base for elaborating a local development policy instrument for economies where such less competitive businesses prevail.
... Understanding the significance of the macro-meso-micro levels of policy for less-developed European regions, Vlados and Chatzinikolaou (2019a) have suggested the policy mechanism of the -Institutes of Local Development and Innovation‖ (Figure 3). Vol. 13, No. 2; In this policy recommendation, firms are conceived as -socio-economic organisms‖ who think and act-they have a specific business rationale or -physiology‖-according to how they synthesize the spheres of strategy, technology, and management (Vlados, 2004(Vlados, , 2019a. Each sphere corresponds to a series of questions that lead to a preliminary diagnosis of the firm's innovation potential in terms of -Stra.Tech.Man‖ (strategy-technology-management synthesis). ...
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In today’s unprecedented transformation in the global socio-economic system caused by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the escalating fourth industrial revolution, reinforcing innovative entrepreneurship appears a significant policy objective that can lead to overall socio-economic development. In this drastically changed context, entrepreneurship support policies seem that they need to be both conceptually and practically readjusted, simultaneously at the macro, meso, and micro levels. This paper investigates the case of public entrepreneurship policies in the European Union (EU), aiming to find specific patterns and suggest a new multilevel policy framework. Initially, the article offers a brief overview of the related trends created in the emerging post-COVID-19 era. Next, the “competitiveness web” perspective in terms of “macro-meso-micro” level synthesis is presented, considering that it can function as a theoretical framework for entrepreneurship reinforcement. Recent EU entrepreneurship support policy guidelines are then explored, emphasizing the latest trends and the development opportunities arising with the EU Recovery and Resilience Facility establishment to deal with the consequences of the current health and socio-economic crisis. Upon this basis, the paper concludes in a proposal for an integrated “macro-meso-micro” policy, placing at the epicenter the mechanism of the Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI). This policy aims to strengthen the spatially-located firms to reposition and readapt the “Stra.Tech.Man” potential they have and activate in their local business ecosystem (strategy-technology-management synthesis).
... From a Veblenian perspective (Veblen, 1898), institutions are also organisms that behave according to their environment's specific stimuli. To this end, following the "Stra.Tech.Man approach" (Vlados, 2004;Vlados and Chatzinikolaou, 2020b), the dialectic of three central forces within each socio-economic organization specifies its competitive survival and adaptability: the synthesis of strategy, technology, and management. The Stra.Tech.Man synthesis enables organizations to innovate and articulate their evolutionary physiology, following the environment's mutation that hosts them. ...
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The formulation and implementation of development plans serve as the benchmark for evaluating economic progress in different sectors of an economy. Since independence, successive administrations in Nigeria have paraded different economic development plans. At the continental level also, several development programmes have been articulated for driving development in the countries of Africa. Many times, supposed laudable economic programmes have failed to identify with the interest of citizens, largely due to poor communication of such programmes. This study investigated citizens’ participation in the implementation of Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020. Among others, the study asked the following questions: to what extent are Nigerian citizens aware goals of Vision 20:2020 economic blueprint? What were the media used in popularising Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 economic blue print? The study was anchored on the Participatory Development theory. The survey research design was used to study a population of 84, 004, 084 from which a sample size of 384 respondents was drawn. The sample was based on Keyton’s sampling system. Findings of the study showed that many citizens of Nigeria do not understand the goals of Vision 20:2020. It was also found out that many citizens of Nigeria cannot identify development projects executed in line with the goals of Vision 20:2020. Based on these findings, the study recommended, among other things, that Nigerian government should partner with civil society organisations to popularise the goals of Vision 20:2020. It was also recommended that citizens of Nigeria should be encouraged to participate in the formulation and implementation of development programmes.
... Β. Most firms in Greece, cross-sectorally, seem to be also reproducing during the structural crisis of 2009-2019 their -monadocentric physiology‖ by facing increasing pressure in terms of their low competitiveness. According to Vlados (2004), monadocentric means that a firm is inflexible and attached to the -monad‖ (usually the face of the business owner) to schematize its strategic choices, technological alertness, and managerial capacity. This fact leads most Greek firms to perceive their strategy instinctively, their technology sporadically, and their management based on their practical experience (Vlados & Chatzinikolaou, 2019b). ...
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Human resource management and continuing training are prerequisites for business innovation, especially when the fourth industrial revolution causes the rapid emergence of knowledge-intensive professions and the constraint of older ones. This article examines how human resources, in-business training, and educational needs are significant parts of entrepreneurial innovation and business development. We present field research that we conducted in the business ecosystem of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, which is a less competitive region of Greece and Europe. After examining the region’s economic profile, we continue with field research results in its retail sector. Our findings suggest that these businesses desire and search for more systematic actions towards training enhancement and human resource management upgrading. Thus, we propose a policy mechanism that could function as a “business clinic” for the region, including the diagnosis of needs and “therapeutic” intervention in terms of education and knowledge. This local development policy could create a growth spiral for the entire socio-economic spatialized system.
... From a Veblenian perspective (Veblen, 1898), institutions are also organisms that behave according to their environment's specific stimuli. To this end, following the "Stra.Tech.Man approach" (Vlados, 2004;Vlados and Chatzinikolaou, 2020b), the dialectic of three central forces within each socio-economic organization specifies its competitive survival and adaptability: the synthesis of strategy, technology, and management. The Stra.Tech.Man synthesis enables organizations to innovate and articulate their evolutionary physiology, following the environment's mutation that hosts them. ...
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The study of spatial socio-economic development constitutes a significant field of analysis of innovation creation and diffusion. Understanding the spatial evolution of the different socio-economic systems in the age of globalization requires a synthesizing and integrated theoretical approach to how innovation is generated and replicated. This article aims to study three significant spatial socio-economic development theories –the growth poles, the clusters, and the business ecosystems. A literature review reveals that (a) the concept of growth poles concerns mostly the analysis of spatial polarization between specific territories and regions, (b) the clusters concept addresses the issue of developed inter-industrial competition and co-operation from a meso-level perspective, and (c) the analytical field of business ecosystems provides an evolutionary approach that can be valorized for all co-evolving spatial socio-economic organizations. In this context, an eclectically interventional mechanism to strengthen innovation is suggested. The Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI) policy is proposed for all firms and business ecosystems, of every size, level of spatial development, prior knowledge, specialization, and competitive ability. The ILDI is presented as an intermediate organization capable of diagnosing and enhancing the firm’s physiology in structural Stra.Tech.Man terms (strategy-technology-management synthesis).
... The Stra.Tech.Man approach considers the action of all "socio-economic organisms" as the result of a synthesis of the dimensions of their strategy, technology, and management (Vlados, 2004). This model suggests that every socio-economic organism responds dialectically, either explicitly or implicitly, in a series of philosophical questions (Figure 4): ...
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This article aims to investigate whether the helix theory and the Stra.Tech.Man approach (strategy-technology-management synthesis) have prospects of analytical cross-fertilisation. After presenting the evolution of helix theory of innovation in three different stages and identifying some of its essential points and received criticisms, it analyses the constituents and theoretical implications of the Stra.Tech.Man approach. It finds that some points of the Stra.Tech.Man analysis, such as the 'physiology' of the firm, the 'competitiveness web' approach that places the dynamics of business innovation centrally, and the proposal of a micro-meso level policy of 'local development and innovation institutions' that diagnoses Stra.Tech.Man physiology, constitute enrichment and cross-fertilisation elements of the two theories. Overall, both theories attempt to provide a comprehensive theory of integrated socio-economic development, and their synthesis seems to offer new theoretical implications.
... As it has been proven (Vlados, 2004), in this biological and evolutionary approach, business ecosystems become more or less competitive according to how advanced is the Stra.Tech.Man physiology of the domestic businesses. Therefore, the crucial element in the development of the multilevel socio-economic system is the way that its actors manage to innovate effectively. ...
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Competitiveness and industrial policy seem to play a critical role in the development and mutation of different spatialized socio-economic systems. This article aims to review the literature on these two concepts and suggest a novel theoretical framework. First, we identify that, in the relevant literature, industrial policy acquires progressively a repositioned content, described as a new, holistic, multidimensional, or integrated policy that can help create and sustain the competitiveness of the firms, industries, localities, nations, or other socio-economic agglomerations. In this context, we explore the form of an actual integrated industrial policy and propose the theoretical framework of the competitiveness web, in which the co-evolution of micro-meso-macro levels are explored, by placing the dynamics of business innovation at the dialectic center of the overall developmental process. This integrated industrial policy to strengthen competitiveness must also be able to promote innovation in the different local and regional ecosystems and, therefore, we conceive a policy mechanism in the form of the Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI). The primary purpose of these institutes is to diagnose and strengthen the Stra.Tech.Man physiology (strategy-technology-management synthesis) of the local socio-economic organizations. We believe that this new approach to the integrated industrial policy to strengthen the local competitiveness can contribute to facilitating the adaptation of the socio-economic systems, and especially the less dynamic and developed, to the new emerging challenges of the crisis and restructuring of globalization in the pandemic era.
... It seems clear that such a policy must start from the -cellular‖ processes of the socio-economic system, which are at the level of the firm and its specific entrepreneurship. According to Vlados (2004), the firms at the micro-level are -living‖ socio-economic systems; they are -organisms,‖ which -inhale‖ and -exhale‖ socio-economic flows at three compound levels: in their spheres of strategy, technology, and management (Stra.Tech.Man approach). These -living organizations‖ have and express a particular -physiology‖ that defines their innovative potential. ...
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This article aims to propose an integrated policy framework for competitiveness and entrepreneurship at a unified macro-meso-micro level. The article presents the evolution of the definition of competitiveness and competitiveness policy and focuses next on modern definitions of macro-policies, meso-policies, and micro-policies by presenting their conceptual synthesis based on the literature. Then, by building on the approach of “competitiveness web,” it presents the implications that such an overarching concept can have on the micro-meso-macro level of entrepreneurship strengthening policies. In this context, it leverages the “Stra.Tech.Man” approach to entrepreneurship dynamics, which implies that business innovation derives from the synthesis of the innate spheres of strategy, technology, and management. At the same time, it proposes the micro-meso-level policy of “Local Development and Innovation Institutes” in the overall context of the competitiveness web. The proposed “competitiveness web” policy framework can address the issue of fostering entrepreneurship in today’s environment of globalization because it takes into account all the building blocks of socio-economic systems by describing the general framework of the policies at the micro-meso-macro socioeconomic levels.
... Με αυτήν την διαπίστωση ως έναυσμα μπορούμε να εμβαθύνουμε στα βαθύτερα συστατικά που διαμορφώνουν το επιχειρηματικό οικοσύστημα. Σύμφωνα με την προσέγγιση που έχουμε εισηγηθεί και αναλύσει στο παρελθόν (Vlados, 2004, αντλώντας και χαρακτηριστικά από την μελέτη της «βιολογίας των επιχειρήσεων» και της εξελικτικής θεωρίας των συστημάτων (Battram, 1999· Bertalanffy και Chabrol, 2012· Forrester, 1984· Georgescu-Roegen, 1971· Geus, 2002· Gowdy, 1997· Hammerstein και Hagen, 2005· Hanusch και Pyka, 2007· Harlé και Jouanneault, 1983· Kauffman, 1993· Khalil, 1992· Lesourne, 1976· Meyer και Davis, 2003· Penrose, 1952· Rothschild, 1990· Schumpeter, 1942· Senge, 2006· Wiener, 2007· Witt, 2006, κάθε κοινωνικοοικονομικός οργανισμός/επιχείρηση είναι μία πολύπλοκη οντότητα που αποτελείται στον εξελικτικό της «πυρήνα» από τρεις σφαίρες: της Στρατηγικής (Stra), της Τεχνολογίας (Tech) και του Μάνατζμεντ (Man). ...
Thesis
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Πως εξελίσσουν το ανταγωνιστικό τους δυναμικό τα κοινωνικοοικονομικά συστήματα στην εποχή αναδιάρθρωσης της παγκοσμιοποίησης; Ποια είναι τα δομικά στοιχεία μίας «ολοκληρωμένης» βιομηχανικής πολιτικής, η οποία είναι ικανή να αντιλαμβάνεται με πληρότητα όλα τα επίπεδα του χώρου και ποια είναι τα όρια της παρέμβασης της; Πως συνδέονται στην διεθνή βιβλιογραφία οι έννοιες της ανταγωνιστικότητας και της βιομηχανικής πολιτικής; Αυτά είναι ορισμένα από τα ερωτήματα που συζητούμε στα πλαίσια του Α’ Μέρους αυτής της διπλωματικής εργασίας. Φαίνεται ότι τα περισσότερο ανταγωνιστικά εθνικά κοινωνικοοικονομικά συστήματα καταφέρνουν και αρθρώνουν μία πολυεπίπεδη βιομηχανική πολιτική. Με αυτόν τον τρόπο υλοποιούν στοχευμένες παρεμβάσεις -όχι όμως με τον συνηθισμένο και παραδοσιακό τρόπο ενίσχυσης ορισμένων «εθνικών πρωταθλητών»- οι οποίες ενισχύουν πρωτίστως το ανταγωνιστικό και καινοτομικό δυναμικό των επιχειρήσεων που λειτουργούν σε τοπικό επίπεδο. Χωρίς την συστηματική τόνωση των τοπικά χωροθετημένων επιχειρήσεων, των «κυττάρων» δηλαδή μίας οποιασδήποτε οικονομίας, φαίνεται να μην μπορεί να επιτευχθεί μία διατηρήσιμη και σε βάθος χρόνου ανάπτυξη. Αυτή ακριβώς είναι και η θεωρητική «γέφυρα» που εισάγει τον αναγνώστη στο Β’ μέρος της διαπραγμάτευσης μας. Εδώ, ισχυριζόμαστε ότι ο επιστημονικός χώρος της κλαδικής ανάλυσης βρίσκεται σε μία βαθιά αλλαγή σήμερα, καθώς εισέρχονται ολοένα και περισσότερα στοιχεία «βιολογικής οπτικής» στην οικονομική επιστήμη και αναδιαμορφώνουν τις βέλτιστες πρακτικές ενίσχυσης των επιμέρους κλαδικών συσσωματώσεων και επιχειρηματικών οικοσυστημάτων. Συγκεκριμένα, τα επιχειρηματικά οικοσυστήματα αποτελούν μία σύγχρονη θεωρητική οπτική μελέτης των χωροθετημένων κοινωνικοοικονομικών συστημάτων, στην οποία λαμβάνονται υπόψιν όλες οι συνεξελικτικές τροχιές των επιμέρους φορέων δράσης. Μέσα από τα συμπεράσματα μίας διερευνητικής έρευνας πεδίου που πραγματοποιήσαμε στην ελληνική περιφέρεια της Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης -μία συγκριτικά λιγότερο αναπτυγμένη παραμεθόριος περιοχή της Ελλάδας και της Ευρώπης- προσπαθούμε να δείξουμε ότι ένας σύγχρονος μηχανισμός ενίσχυσης των τοπικών επιχειρηματικών οικοσυστημάτων πρέπει να αντιλαμβάνεται πρωτίστως την εξελικτική «φυσιολογία» των τοπικών επιχειρήσεων. Αξιοποιώντας την οπτική Stra.Tech.Man (σύνθεση στρατηγικής, τεχνολογίας και μάνατζμεντ), μία μεθοδολογία ανάλυσης των βαθύτερων διαλεκτικών διεργασιών των κοινωνικοοικονομικών οργανισμών, είμαστε σε θέση να διακρίνουμε πως μετεξελίσσεται το καινοτομικό δυναμικό της περιφέρειας. Αυτός ο μηχανισμός ενίσχυσης των τοπικών επιχειρηματικών οικοσυστημάτων πρέπει να διακρίνει και να ενισχύει κάθε μία διάσταση του Stra.Tech.Man αλλά και συνολικά, μέσα από δράσεις συμβουλευτικής, μέντορινγκ και εκπαίδευσης επιχειρήσεων.
... Considering the dynamic triangle of strategy, technology and management (Stra.Tech.Man), which determines in structural terms every socio-economic organism, refer to the following:(Vlados, 2004;Vlados, 2012;. ...
Book
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INTRODUCTION We are experiencing a phase of profound restructuring of globalization nowadays, manifested through a wide variety of crisis symptoms, articulated at the same time upon the economic, political, social, and environmental spheres. Everything shows that the movements of the world’s “tectonic plates” are re-shaping the existing geo-economic and geopolitical balances on the planet drastically, causing new challenges to emerge, as well as new opportunities and threats for all stakeholders and participants in the global socioeconomic system. ... This volume—which is a collection of published articles by the “Stra.Tech.Man Lab” research team—studies some of the fundamental aspects that concern the structuring/restructuring of the current phase of globalization: in what we call “new globalization.”
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