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Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry

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Chapter
Use of Ozone in the Textile
Industry
AyşegülKörlü
Abstract
Wet processing of textile materials consumes a large amount of electricity,
fuel, and water. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions and contaminated effluent
are environmental problem. The most of the governments in the world warn
all the industrial sectors containing textile manufacturing to be careful about
environmental pollution. Increasing in public awareness of environment and
competitive global market forces the textile industry to manufacture textile
products environmentally. Environmental pollution in textile wet processes can
be reduced by four main ways. They are process optimization (reducing in water,
chemical energy consumption, and time loss), use of ecofriendly chemicals,
reuse of water, and new technologies like ozone and plasma technologies, transfer
printing, enzymatic processes, etc. This chapter is about the use of ozone in the
textile industry.
Keywords: textile, wet processing, ozone, ozone treatment, environment
. Introduction
The aim of wet processes is to improve the appearance, texture, or performance
of a textile material. Wet processes consist of pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and
finishing processes. Wet processes compose of application of chemicals, fixation,
washing, and drying stages generally [, ].
The textile dyeing and finishing industry is one of the largest water users. It uses
huge amount of water throughout all processing operations []. A lot of dyestuffs,
chemicals, auxiliaries, etc. are applied to textile materials in water baths. Ecological
problems are commonly related with water contamination in the textile dyeing and
finishing industry. Wastewater of the textile industry is hot, has strong odor, and
colored by dyestuffs, which are used as a part of dyeing and/or printing process
[–].
Clean production methods consider all possibilities that will lessen the effects of
pollution problem in wet processing of textiles and will save water and/or energy.
The main methods are below []:
. Process optimization (water and time saving in every possible area, use of less
chemical, working in lower temperatures).
. Use of environmentally friendly chemicals.
Textile Industry and Environment
Figure 2.
Ozone molecule [6, 11].
. Reuse of water.
. New technologies in wet processing (enzymatic processes, ultrasound, ultravio-
let, plasma and ozone technologies, dyeing in CO-containing environment, etc.).
In this chapter, the use of ozone as some ecofriendly production method in wet
processing of textiles is investigated.
. Ozone
Ozone is a strong oxidant agent, which can be produced synthetically, as
well as is being naturally available in the atmosphere. Ozone layer behaves like a
shield against ultraviolet radiation. Because it absorbs UVB and UVC light dur-
ing the cycle (Figure ) of formation and destruction of ozone in the atmosphere
[–].
Christian Schönbein described ozein” odor during electrolysis of water in .
Thomas Andrews found out that ozone was formed only by oxygen in . In ,
Soret defined the relationship between oxygen and ozone. He determined that
volumes of oxygen produce  volumes of ozone. Ozone is thermodynamically
unstable and spontaneously reverts to oxygen (Figure ). It dissolves very quickly
in pure water and respects for Henry’s law. Ozone immediately reacts with inor-
ganic and organic substances dissolved in biological water generating a variety of
free radicals [, ].
Figure 1.
Cycle of formation and destruction of ozone [8].
Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
. Generation of ozone
Ozone must be generated “in situ” because it is very reactive gas and cannot
be stored and transported to anywhere. So, it has to be generated []. The basic
methods for generating ozone artificially are below [–, , ]:
Photochemical ozone generation: Oxygen atoms formed by the photodissocia-
tion of oxygen by short-wavelength UV radiation react with oxygen molecules
to form ozone. The theoretical quantum yield of ozone by photochemical tech-
nique is . Nevertheless, the actual yield is approximately . in practice.
Because, the low-pressure mercury lamps produce not only the -nm radia-
tion responsible for the production of ozone, but also the -nm radiations
that destroy ozone. Medium-pressure UV produces higher levels of -nm
radiation, and it generates more ozone. The low concentrations of ozone from
UV generators limit their usage for water treatment to special applications. But
it can be used in air treatment effectively.
Electrolytic ozone generation: An electrolytic cell is used for electrolytic ozone
generation. Electrolysis involves converting oxygen in the water to ozone by pass-
ing the water through positively and negatively charged surfaces. Electrolysis of
water can generate high concentrations of ozone. However, the output is low and
the method is more expensive than the corona discharge process. Small electro-
lytic units can be used for treatment of ultrahigh purity waters in pharmaceuti-
cal and electronic industries.
Radiochemical ozone generation: High-energy irradiation of gaseous or liquid
oxygen by radioactive rays can help the formation of ozone. Energy efficiency of
the method is greater than that of ozone produced by electric discharge. However,
it has not yet been commercialized due to complex structure, problems associated
with recovery of ozone, and separation of by-products and radioactive material.
Ozone generation by corona discharge (silent electrical discharge): Ozone is
generated by providing air or oxygen gas into the generator. And oxygen or air
is converted into ozone by the electric discharge. Primary components in air are
firstly separated into reactive atoms or radicals by effect of the intense electric
field. Then, these reactive atoms can react among themselves. Ozone generation by
corona discharge is especially the most widely used method for water treatment.
. Measurement methods
It is necessary to determine the concentration of ozone produced by an ozone
generator because of efficiency of processes, costs, excessive ozone, and environ-
mental drawback [, ]. Many analytical methods for the determination of ozone
concentration have been described in the literature. However, most of them are not
specific and often give incorrect results []. Analysis of ozone is difficult because
of the instability of pure ozone, volatilization from solution, the rapid decomposi-
tion of ozone in water, and the reaction with trace contaminants in water, etc. [].
Ozone can be analyzed by methods given below []:
• titrimetry,
• direct and colorimetric spectrometry,
Textile Industry and Environment
• amperometry,
• oxidation-reduction potential (ORP),
• chemiluminescence,
• calorimetry,
• thermal conductivity,
• gas-phase titration with NO, and
• isothermal pressure change on decomposition.
The last four methods are not commonly used for analysis. It is necessary to be
aware of its reactivity, instability, volatility, and the potential effect of interfering
substances to measure the amount of ozone in water correctly. Ozone sometimes is
sprinkled in drops by using an inert gas for analysis in the gas phase or on reabsorp-
tion in a clean solution in order to eliminate interferences [].
.. Iodometric methods
Gaseous ozone from ozone generator is absorbed by aqueous potassium iodide
solution. On the other hand, a preformed ozone solution can be alternatively
treated with aqueous potassium iodide solution. The liberated iodine is measured by
spectrometer or titration with sodium thiosulfate. The pH value of iodine solution is
adjusted to . Then, it is titrated with titrant solution sodium thiosulfate and starch
indicator [, –]. Theoretically, one molecule of ozone releases one molecule of
iodine as the triiodide ion. It is a standard method []. Oxidants like HO and NOx
are problem for the measurement method because of their interference with the
analysis. The method is sensitive to pH, buffer composition, buffer concentration,
iodide concentration, sampling techniques, temperature, and time [, , ].
Aqueous ozone solution is added to  potassium iodide in .M neutral
phosphate buffer containing a known amount of arsenic (III). And then, the excess
As (III) is back-titrated with standard iodine using a starch end point [, ].
Standard method for residual chlorine analysis is adapted for residual ozone
as Palin DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) method. Ozone oxidizes iodine
ion in phosphate buffer of pH.. Then, the released iodine oxidizes DPD, and it is
measured colorimetrically or is titrated with standard ferrous ammonium sulfate
due to the formation of pink Wurster cation [].
The other adapted standard way is amperometric method. Ozone oxidizes iodide
ion in acetate buffer of pH.–.in the presence of sodium thiosulfate, pheny-
larsine oxide (PAO), or inorganic arsenic (III). These reagents are titrated with stan-
dard iodine to an amperometric end point without acidification. Grundwell etal.
compared (Table) the four currently popular iodometric methods for aqueous
ozone analysis in  [].
.. Direct spectrometry
Ozone has a peak absorption at nm wavelength, and it is the ultraviolet
spectrum, so absorbance of the gaseous ozone can be measured at nm by direct
UV spectrometry. The method is sensitive in the molar absorptivity. Interference of
CO, hydrocarbons, NOx, or HO vapor has no noticeable effects on measurement.
Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
UV absorbance measurement method is mainly useful for gas analysis. This method
also can be used for measuring aqueous ozone solution. However, interference from
turbidity, dissolved inorganics, and organics is a problem. Ozone is sprinkled into
the gas phase in order to eliminate interference for measurement. If the sample is
liquid, the best sample for this method will be clean water free of UV-absorbing
impurities [, , ].
.. Colorimetric spectrometry
Several different colorimetric methods are used for measuring ozone residuals.
But most of them are sensitive to significant interference from secondary oxidants
[].
The first reagents for measuring ozone in air and exhaust gases are indigo and its
water-soluble derivatives, the sulfonated indigo compounds like indigo disulfonate,
indigo carmine, and indigo trisulfonate. Water-soluble derivatives of indigo, indigo
disulfonate, and indigo trisulfonate are pH or redox indicators. Purity and age of
the indigo trisulfonate are very important for the method because they affect the
stoichiometry of the reaction [, ].
The indigo molecule contains only one double bond (CC). It reacts with ozone
in order to produce sulfonated isatin and similar substance (Figure ). Maximum
absorbance of indigo is at nm [, ]. If the pH value is below , sensitivity
of the method does not vary with ozone concentration, small changes of tempera-
ture of reaction, or the chemical composition of the water. The advantage of the
method is applicable for lake water, too hard groundwaters, and biologically treated
domestic wastewater. Indigo trisulfonate method is quantitative, selective, fast,
and simple. Classical instrumentation of water work laboratories is enough for
measurement. The method is based on the decolorization of the dye by ozone. The
loss of color is directly proportional to the concentration of ozone, and pH value
of the sample is adjusted to about in order to minimize destruction of the ozone
by hydroxide ions [, , ]. The concentration is the difference in absorbance
between sample and blank []. Mn+ ion is a problem in this method. Because,
oxidation products from the reaction of Mn+ ions with ozone can demolish indigo
trisulfonate. So, glycine is added to the sample in order to demolish the ozone
Figure 3.
Ozonation of potassium indigo trisulfonate [26].
Method O reduction I titration
Excess reagent pH pH
Iodometric
Amperometric
As (III) back
DPD
None
SO = PAO or As (III)
As (III)
DPD
.–
.
.
.
.–.
.
.
Table 1.
Iodometric methods for ozone analysis [21].
Textile Industry and Environment
selectively. Then, indigo reagent is added to the sample to measure the seeming
ozone concentration because of the reaction with manganous ion oxidation prod-
ucts. This value is subtracted from the value of the sample without glycine [].
Indigo method is applied to AccuVac Ampul” ozone measurement. For the
measurement, all the chemicals are packaged under vacuum into an ampule. The
ampule is like a cuvette, and it is used precisely for the spectrophotometric determi-
nation of the dissolved ozone [].
.. Electrochemical methods
These methods can include amperometric titration, which is mentioned under
the title of iodometric methods. Amperometric analyzers use an electrochemical
cell to determine the ozone. There are two types of analyzer []:
• The bare-metal electrodes, which are in direct contact with the water;
The electrochemical cell separated from the process water by a semipermeable
membrane.
In the literature, there are various electrochemical methods using a solid redox
polymer electrolyte-based amperometric sensor, a lignin-modified, glassy carbon
electrode, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes to analyze ozone [].
General advantages of electrochemical methods are low cost, easy operation,
potential for miniaturizing and automation, simple portable devices for fast screen-
ing purposes, and in-field/onsite monitoring []. But every  or  months, ampero-
metric analyzers have to be calibrated against a reference method such as UV, or the
colorimetric indigo methods [].
.. Chemiluminescent methods
Light is produced on the reaction of ozone with ethylene in gas phase. It is
chemiluminescence. This type of analyzer is based on chemiluminescence and it is
measured with a photomultiplier tube. It is comparable to the ozone concentration.
Aqueous solutions of ozone emit light on the reaction of ozone with miscellaneous
dyes. They are benzoflavin, acridine yellow, indigo trisulfate, fluorescein, etc. [].
. Ozone applications in the textile industry
There are two types of ozone application in the textile industry. They are:
• application in the gas phase and
• application in aqueous phase.
For wet processes, aqueous ozone is more practical than gaseous ozone because
working principle of finishing machines is suitable for solution. Use of gaseous
ozone needs special airproof machines because of occupational health and comfort.
Material of leakproof gasket has to resist gaseous ozone.
Gas phase: Half-life of gaseous ozone is more than that of aqueous ozone. So,
it decomposes slowly []. Gaseous ozone is easily affected by the catalyst. Light,
trace organic matter, nitrogen oxides, mercury vapor, and peroxides act as catalysts
for homogeneous catalysis. Metals and metal oxides are catalysts for heterogeneous
Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
catalysis. If there is no any effect of the catalyst on the mixture, it will be stable.
Porous solid substrates can adsorb gaseous ozone []. Textiles are the sample of
porous solid substrates.
Aqueous phase: Solubility of ozone in water is better than the oxygen [].
However, ozone dissolves moderately in water. It follows Henry’s law []. The
solubility of ozone depends on pressure, temperature, and ionic strength [].
Efficient moving of ozone to solution needs dispersion of gaseous ozone into small
bubbles. Positive-pressure ozone contractors, negative-pressure reactors (Venturi),
and injectors achieve it []. At room temperature, decomposition of ozone in pure
water is very slow. However, ozone decomposes with the catalysts like hydroxyl ion,
trace metals, HO/HO¯, organic substances, heat, and UV light [].
The parameters affecting the physical mass-transfer rate of ozone into water are:
• gaseous ozone concentration,
temperature,
• pressure,
• solution composition (pH, ionic strength, reactive substances),
• gas dispersion,
• turbulence,
• type of contactor [].
Recently, scientific studies about the use of ozone in textile manufacturing are
very popular. But the use of ozone in textile manufacturing is not common in prac-
tice. It is only commercially common in denim and garment washing. Therefore,
the use of ozone in denim washing is discussed in a special title. The other titles are
based on fiber types.
. Use of ozone in denim washing
The denim garments are very popular, and they are preferred by people of all
ages, classes, and genders. Depending on the desired effect, denim garments are
treated with different substances [, ]. A lot of dry and wet processing tech-
niques are used for desired effects []. Wet processes in denim washing are not
environment friendly. High water and energy consumption, large amount of waste-
water, and solid waste like pumice stones are generally environmental problem in
denim washing [, ]. Sodium hypochlorite is a very common bleaching agent
in denim washing. Especially AOXs (adsorbable halogenated organic compounds)
are the most important environmental problem. Therefore, chlorine-free bleaching
technologies are a good solution for AOX.Ozonation is an alternative bleaching
method []. Ozonation is a simple and “green” process because it does not require
steam and water. Therefore, it greatly reduces process time, water, chemical and
energy consumption, and amount of wastewater [, ]. Ozone decomposes indigo
and other dyes because of high oxidation potential. In addition to denim washing, it
is generally applicable to treatment of other textiles like T-shirts, shirts, chinos, and
casual wear. In ozonation, the ozone generated in the equipment can commercially
provide bleaching effect. It is like washing machine without water for fading of
color []. And ozone is generally applied to whole of the garment in this ozonation
Textile Industry and Environment
machine. However, local bleached spots on the fabric can also be created by ozone.
Ozone gas is scattered onto the denim fabric at a controlled velocity [].
Özdemir etal. studied on ozonation parameters of denim fabric. They used
prewashed denim fabric for ozonation. They inform that water content of the
denim fabric is very important for efficiency of ozonation, and – water pick
up value (W.P.V.) is the best for bleaching efficiency. The higher W.P.V. affects the
bleaching efficiency of ozonation negatively. For ozonation, acidic and neutral pH
values are better than basic pH value. Temperature is one of the most important
parameters because higher temperatures decrease the half-life of ozone. Ozonation
of wet denim is especially for bleaching [].
Hmida and Ladhari studied the parameters affecting dry and wet ozone bleach-
ing of denim fabric. Their results about the effect of W.P.A. on bleaching efficiency
are also compatible with Özdemir’s results. They claim that water film covers
the surface of the fabric and swelling of the fibers is achieved. Then, ozone can
penetrate into fibers, and bleaching efficiency on wet denim is better than that of
dry denim. On the other hand, backstaining problem is solved by ozonation of dry
denim [, ].
In the other study, denim fabric was treated with the combination of ozonated
water, ultrasound, and hydrogen peroxide. According to the results, ozone is more
effective with the aid of ultrasonic energy because the ultrasonic cavitations improve
the penetration of ozone into the fabric, and then, ozone decomposes indigo [, ].
Bağıran etal. compared ozone to other bleaching agents in denim washing.
According to results, ozone is one of the strong agents. It follows potassium per-
manganate and benzoyl peroxide. But, the most important advantage of ozone is
environment friendly, and it is a good alternative to the others. Benzoyl peroxide
and ozone are the causes of gray tint in bleached denim fabric. The others are the
reason for blue tint of bleached denim. After ozonation, loss of strength is not too
high because ozone is unstable, and it decomposes indigo primarily [].
In practice, ozone is applied to garments. However, there are a few studies on
ozonation of yarn [, ]. Beşen and Balcı try to fade indigo-dyed yarn before
weaving and garment processes. The indigo-dyed yarn is ozonated in hank form.
Their results about the effect of the ozonation condition on bleaching efficiency are
generally compatible with Özdemir’s results. On the other hand, the origin of the
raw material directly affects the fading degree of the yarn. According to the results,
the count of the yarn is the most important parameter on the decrease in strength
of the yarns depending on the ozonation process. However, strength loss is not so
important. As a conclusion, the ozonation condition can be determined according
to desired effect from the yarns. They claim that different fading effects can be
achieved by ozonation before weaving process [].
He etal. investigated effect of ozone on three typical denim yarns (cotton,
lyocell, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) during the color-fading process.
They claim that ozone only smoothly impacts the crystalline structures of these
yarns. PET is not affected by ozone because of its aggregate structure. This struc-
ture prevents the oxidation and decomposition of PET.They suggest that ozonation
for cotton, lyocell, or other cellulosic yarns should be limited within min at the
pH> with a careful selection of water content [].
. Ozonation of cellulosic fibers
A lot of researchers study on ozonation of cellulosic fibers, especially cotton.
Perinçek etal. studied on the use of ozone gas in bleaching cotton fabrics. Cotton
fabric containing  water at pH can be bleached in a short time with ozonation
treatment. Room temperature is the optimum for ozonation. After ozonation in a
Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
short time, the whiteness of the fabric is acceptable for dyeing and DP losses are not
so important [, ].
Eren and Öztürk also investigated ozonation of cotton fabrics. According to
their results, the starch size removal of the greige cotton samples and the water
absorbency of the greige and desized cotton samples are increased by ozonation.
But ozonation does not remove the motes successfully. Bleaching effect of ozonation
is successful because of high oxidation potential of ozone [].
Maqsood etal. suggest ozonation of cotton fiber for medical textiles and produc-
tion of nanocrystalline cellulose or nanofibrils of cellulose in their paper [].
Turhan and Soydaş discussed ozonation of cotton terry fabrics. As the results of
the study, ozone cannot sufficiently remove impurities like sizing agents, natural
waxes, and oils. Therefore, they suggest desizing the terry fabric before ozonation
and rinsing the fabric after ozonation [].
Perinçek etal. also investigated the effects of new advanced processes on cotton
woven fabric. The new advanced processes contain ozonation, ultrasound, and
ultraviolet. In this study, cotton fabrics are bleached by combining ozone with
ultrasound and ultraviolet. According to results, advanced processes can be used
in pretreatment of cotton fabrics. However, advanced processes at –°C are not
sufficient for desizing the cotton fabrics and need desizing agents. After ultrasonic
treatment followed by ozonation, whiteness and hydrophilicity of the fabric are
sufficient for dyeing. The combination of ozone and ultraviolet processes for high
whiteness of the fabric is recommended. However, breaking strengths and hydro-
philicity values have to be considered carefully [].
Perinçek recommended a removing method of optical brightener from cotton
fabric in her paper. It is difficult to remove optical brightener efficiently from the
fabric when any problem is seen on the fabric due to high stability of optical bright-
ener. Hazardous chemicals are generally used to remove it. Therefore, ozonation
process has ecological advantage. The results show that ozonation can be used for
decolorizing the optical bleached samples. Increasing ozonation time increases the
efficiency. However, bursting strength loss of fabric should be taken into consid-
eration due to the oxidation of cellulose. Meanwhile, a new patterning method for
optical bleached fabrics is proposed in the paper. It provides fashionable products
(Figure ) like batik or tie-dyed cloths [].
Figure 4.
The photographs of fabrics treated by developed method (I: optical bleached fabric is tied in knots, tightly
bound with thread; II: a=optical bleached fabric before ozonation; II: b/c=optical bleached fabric after
ozonation in accordance with developed method [40]). (Thanks to Textile and Apparel for copyright).
Textile Industry and Environment

Gashti etal. studied on surface oxidation of cellulose by ozone gas. The aim of
the study is to investigate the influence of ozonation on the performance of the fluo-
rocarbon monomer on cotton. As a result of the study, fluorocarbon efficiency on
cotton is remarkably improved by ozonation before fluoromonomer grafting. The
contact angle tests and microscopic appearances show that contact angle increases
because of the higher efficiency of the water repellent polymer on the treated cotton
by ozone [].
In Bahtiyari and Benli’s study, ozone ultrasound humidifier combines to bleach
the cotton fabric before dyeing with green walnut shells. As a result, treated cotton
with ozone can be dyed with green walnut shells, and the colors of the natural dyed
fabrics are good. Even if no mordanting agent is used in natural dyeing, the fast-
nesses are sufficient [].
Bahtiyari and Benli proposed a green process line in their paper. In their study,
cotton fabrics are treated by ozone gas and ultrasound before natural dyeing
without mordant (Figure ). Natural dyes are nutshell, orange tree leaves, and
alkanet roots. Finally, ozone and ultrasound are used for the pretreatment of cotton
before natural dyeing without mordanting agent. At the same time, fastnesses of all
the dyed samples are generally sufficient, except light fastness. But light fastness of
dyed samples with pomegranate peels is only sufficient [].
Erdem and Bahtiyari combined ultrasound and ozone during the pretreatment
of cotton slivers. Ultrasound is used in scouring process, and as expected, ozone
is for bleaching process. As a result of the study, hydrophilicity of the cotton is
achieved by pectinase enzyme/ultrasound combination. Meanwhile, bioscoured
cotton is dyed by using pomegranate peel and green tea. In the end of the study,
they suggest their process line for production of medical and cosmetic textiles [].
Benli and Bahtiyari applied ozone to natural dyed cotton fabrics in their study.
Aim of the study is to establish an alternative natural dyeing method without
mordanting agents. Ozonation ways are given below:
Figure 5.
Green process line [43].

Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
After the dyeing and washing processes, application of ozone gas to dyed fab-
rics, which are wet.
Before washing process, application of fresh and cold water through ozone gas
to dyed fabrics.
After dyeing, application of fresh and cold water through ozone gas to dyed fab-
rics. Then, washing of the treated fabrics.
Different ozone application ways present various shades and effects due to
chemical structure of natural dyes. Different types of fastnesses are examined in
terms of ozone application ways and various mordanting agents. Generally, all dyed
samples have high fastness except for light fastnesses. Direct ozonation of wet dyed
samples improves the rubbing fastness values [].
Kan etal. examined the effect of plasma-induced ozone treatment on the color
fading of reactive dyed cotton fabric. According to the results, color fading effect
is increased by increasing ozonation time, and air ratio has considerable effect on
color fading. Color levelness of the ozone-treated fabrics is excellent [, ].
Eren etal. studied the color stripping of reactive dyed cotton by ozonation. The
parameters are ozonation time and type of reactive dyes. The longest ozonation
time gives the best color stripping result. COD value of effluent from ozonation is
less than that of conventional reductive treatment [].
Yiğit etal. discussed ozonation for discharge printing of reactive dyed cotton in
their paper. The aim of the study is to use ozone gas instead of reductive agent and
caustic soda in discharge printing. Color discharge increases at higher gas flow rates
and prolonged ozonation times. According to results, ozone gas can be used for
discharge printing. However, contour sharpness of conventional discharge printing
is much better than that of ozonation. It is not as excellent as contour sharpness of
conventional discharge printing [].
Zhong etal. investigated color-fading process of sulfur-dyed cotton fabric by a
plasma-induced ozone. As the results, the plasma-induced ozone color-fading treat-
ment can be used to remove the color from the dyed fabric and the effect is uniform
and even [].
Perinçek etal. studied the ozonation of jute. The results indicate that the ozonation
conditions for the best whiteness degree are fabric at pH,  WPV, and temperature
of –°C.The lignin content and DP values of fabrics are reduced by ozonation [].
Perinçek etal. also combined ozonation and hydrogen peroxide bleaching in
their paper. Linen fabrics are bleached in two steps. First, the linen fabric is treated
by ozone. Then, it is bleached by hydrogen peroxide. The treatment conditions are
optimized statistically [].
Kurban etal. examined the ozonation of nettle biofiber in their study. Different
bleaching methods are applied to nettle fiber fabric. They are:
• ozonation,
• ozonation in the presence of ultrasonic homogenizer,
• combination of the conventional bleaching and ozonation process, and
• combination of laccase enzyme and ozonation process.
As a result of the study, ozonation improves the whiteness of nettle fiber fabric.
Among all the bleaching ways, the highest whiteness is obtained from combination
of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching and ozonation process [].
Textile Industry and Environment

. Ozonation of protein fibers
One of the early studies is about ozonation of wool garments. The aim of the
study is to obtain shrink-resisted wool garments and fabric. Therefore, a continuous
or batch treater was designed, and wool fabric and garments hung in cabin contain-
ing ozone. It was found out that circulation of the vapor around the garments and
fabric is inevitable for rapid reaction. Fabric construction is very important for
desired degree of shrink resistance. It is claimed that ozone-steam process is a solu-
tion to the felting problem of wool [].
Rahmatinejad etal. discussed innovative hybrid fluorocarbon coating on wool
treated with UV/ozone. The application of fluorocarbons on the wool fabrics is a
problem because of chemistry and structure of the fiber surface. Therefore, UV/
ozone treatment is proposed as a solution to this problem. Firstly, wool is modified
by UV/ozone treatment. Hydrophilicity of treated wool is remarkably better than
untreated wool. UV/ozone treatment can be applied to one side of the fabric and
hybrid functional fabrics with two different properties on each side of the fabric are
thus obtained [].
The chlorine/Hercosett process is the most common treatment for the wool dye-
ing. It causes environmental problems because of the pollution of wastewater with
absorbable organic halides (AOX). Therefore, ozonation is an alternative surface
modification method for improving wool dyeability [].
Micheal and El-Zaher examined the effect of ultraviolet and ozone combination
for different times on wool. As a result of the study, wetting of the wool is improved
by the ultraviolet/ozone process because of surface modification. It means that
there is an increase in amorphous areas of the treated wool. Ultraviolet/ozone
oxidizes cystine bond on the surface of the wool fabrics and generates free radical
species. They support dye uptake [].
Shao etal. investigated the effect of UV/ozone exposure and peroxide pad-batch
bleaching on the printability of wool. It is found that peroxide pad-batch bleaching
can prevent the yellowness caused by UV/ozone treatment and improved the wet-
tability of the treated wool in a short time. Printability performance of treated wool
is similar to that of chlorinated wool [].
Sargunamani and Selvakumar investigated the effects of ozonation on raw and
degummed tassar silk fabrics. Ozone treatment is compared with soap degumming
and hydrogen peroxide treatment. Soap treatment of silk is less harsh than ozonation.
Peroxide treatment causes lower yellowing index compared to ozonation [, ].
Balcı etal. discussed the effects of plasma and ozone treatments on silk in their
paper. In this study, raw and degummed silk fabrics are treated with low-frequency
oxygen plasma and ozone. The processes are applied to the fabrics individually and
alternately. According to the results, fabrics treated with ozone have more yellowing
index that of plasma treatment. Increasing the treatment time of plasma and ozona-
tion processes causes increase in yellowness and decrease in whiteness [].
In this study, Perinçek etal. examined role of the fiber moisture, pH, and treat-
ment time during ozonation on the dyeing properties of Angora rabbit. It is observed
that ozonation increases the whiteness degree and dyeability property of the fibers.
Ozone oxidizes cysteine linkage in the surface of fiber to cysteic acid [, ].
Perinçek etal. combine ozone and ultrasound in their paper. First, Angora
rabbit fibers are bleached by ozonation. Then, treated fibers are dyed by the aid of
ultrasound. It is indicated that the ozonation and ultrasonic dyeing improves the
dyeability of Angora rabbit fiber considerably [].
Atav and Yurdakul investigated the ozonation of mohair fibers. The optimum
conditions of ozonation process are W.P.V. , pH, and min. Dyeability of the
mohair fibers is improved by ozonation [].

Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
Perinçek etal. discussed bleaching of soybean fabric by different treatments
combined with ozonation in their paper. Combined process is ozonation, oxidative,
and reductive bleaching. Process steps are shown in Figure .
Consequently, combined bleaching processes improve whiteness and hydrophi-
licity degree, wettability of the soybean fabrics significantly [].
Benli and Bahtiyari examined dyeing of casein fibers with natural dye after
ozonation. Casein fabrics are bleached by ozone. However, whiteness degrees of the
treated fabrics are limited [].
. Ozonation of the other fibers
Hydrophilicity of synthetic polymer surfaces can be accomplished by ozone. The
reactive molecules on -D structures are covered uniformly during the ozonation.
Ozone treats not only the surface and penetrates through the polymer bulk. Ozone
self-decomposes rapidly in water producing free radicals, a stronger oxidant than
ozone itself. This property was utilized to produce hydrophilic and highly reactive
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) films [].
Yang etal. studied the effect of ozone on aramid fibers. They found out that
surface morphology of aramid fabrics does not have obvious change after the treat-
ment. Wicking effect increases slightly with increasing ozonation time. Ozonation
treatment does not have significant effect on the tenacity and elongation of the
fibers. However, the tenacity and elongation of aramid yarns improve significantly
after ozonation and increase with increasing ozonation time. The authors claim that
ozonation process extracts foreign matters from the surface of the fiber and estab-
lishes oxygen-containing functional groups. The importance of oxygen-containing
functional groups is to support adhesion to the matrix [].
Rahmatinejad etal. investigated enhancement in polyester materials’ hydro-
phobicity by surface modification via chemical pretreatment, UV/ozone irradia-
tion, and fluorocarbon finishing combinations. The study concentrates on the
application of UV/ozone radiation together with various chemical pretreatments
Figure 6.
Steps of bleaching process [60] (1: ozonation + reductive bleaching, 2: ozonation + oxidative bleaching,
3: ozonation + oxidative bleaching + reductive bleaching).
Textile Industry and Environment

on fabrics and their effects on the fluorocarbon finishing performance. In surface
modification, UV/ozone irradiation prior to fluorocarbon treatment results in more
hydrophobic polyester fiber surface than only fluorocarbon-treated fabric. Because
of erosion, redeposition, and the melting effects of UV/ozone-irradiation, proper
unevenness of the fiber surface is formed by UV/ozone radiation [].
Elnagar etal. studied dyeability of polyester and nylon fabrics treated with UV/
ozone radiation. Mordant is ferrous sulfate. Natural dyes are curcumin and saffron
dyes. The results show that dyeability of both fabrics with curcumin and saffron
natural dyes increases with aid of UV/ozone [, ].
Atav and Namırtı investigated effect of ozonation process on dyeing of poly-
amide fabrics with walnut rind natural dye. Color yield is increased by ozonation
before dyeing polyamide fabric, and ozone gas does not affect the color nuance and
fastness properties negatively [].
Lee etal. discussed ozone-gas treatment of nylon  and polyester fabrics in
their paper. It is appeared that the Os relative intensity increases for nylon  and
polyester fabrics. Oxygen is included in the form of OCOH and OCOOH.Therefore,
hydrophilicity of treated fabrics is higher than untreated ones. Ozonation changes
the crystalline and amorphous regions, especially for polyester fiber. Moisture
regain, water absorption, and dyeing properties increase despite an increase in the
crystallinity. On the other hand, ozonation affects the brittle hand of the fabric [].
Lee etal. studied ozonation of cationic dyeable polyester and poly(butylene
terephthalate) fibers too. Although water absorption is improved by ozonation,
crystallinity index increases a little bit. They claim that ozonation changes fiber
surface. On the other hand, internal structure of both fibers is also changed by
the treatment. Therefore, it has effect on the dyeing properties of the fibers. After
ozonation, dyeing rate with the cationic dye increases exceptionally. However,
increasing dyeing rate with disperse dye is not so significant [].
Eren and Aniş suggest ozone treatment of polyethylene terephthalate fibers after
dyeing as a novel after-clearing method. Results indicate that the trimer removal
rates of ozone treatment are quite similar to the conventional reduction clearing for
-min and higher for -min ozone treatments. The treatment time at °C is also
efficient on the amount of surface trimer [].
Eren studied on combination of after-clearing and decolorization by ozonation
after disperse dyeing of polyester. He claims that encouraging results from decol-
orization and wash fastness tests are obtained with a -min ozonation period in the
dyebath at room temperature. Decolorization and COD removal ratios are up to 
and , respectively [].
Eren etal. discussed after-clearing of disperse dyed polyester with gaseous ozone
in their paper. They propose that a new ozonation method is adopted to continuous
treatment lines. Proposed method is different from exhaust application method in
early papers [, ]. Ozone gas from the generator blasts through the wet fabric.
Depending on the type of the disperse dyes, ozonation time is different for wash fast-
ness results which is comparable to that of conventional reduction clearing method.
According to results from tensile strength tests and scanning electron microscopy
analysis, ozonation does not cause any serious damage to the fabrics [].
. Advantages and disadvantages of use of ozone in the textile industry
Wet processing of textile materials consumes large amounts of electricity, fuel,
and water. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions and contaminated effluent are
environmental problem. Ozone treatment proposed a solution to environmental
pollution from textile wet processes [, , ]. Use of ozone in the textile industry
has advantages and limitations [].

Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
Advantages of ozonation in the textile industry [, , , ]:
lower water and chemical consumption and time loss of ozonation process than
conventional wet processes,
• no need to store chemicals compared to the other conventional methods,
• no dangerous waste because of decomposition of ozone into oxygen,
• no halogenated organic compounds (AOX) in waste water,
• combination with novel technologies like UV, plasma, and ultrasound,
• different pattern and fading effects soon in denim washing,
• improving dyeability of fibers,
• more ecological antifelting treatment than conventional methods,
• higher whiteness than conventional bleaching processes, and
treatment of hygienic nondurable products like sheets, gauze bandage, tissues,
bib, hydrophilic cotton, etc., due to disinfectant property of ozone.
Limitations of ozone treatment [, , , , , , , ]:
prevention of yellowing problem with after-treatment like catalase treatment,
reductive washing, etc.
• high strength loss in textile materials due to illiterate use of ozone,
difficulty in using ozone gas due to suitability of textile finishing machine for
wet processes,
except for stainless steel, corrosion in metal parts of finishing machine due to
high oxidation potential of ozone,
damage possibility of plastics of the finishing machine due to high oxidation
potential of ozone,
• high capital investment for new machinery setups,
• necessity of onsite generation because of unsuitable for storage,
• unsuitable for storage due to decomposition of ozone quickly,
• use of ozone in illiterate way due to occupational health and safety,
• needs regular monitoring and alarm system in the mill for any leakages, and
• flammability and explosivity of ozone.
Finally, ozonation within a closed system can be called as environmental process
[]. However, limitations of the ozone have not to be forgotten by users.
Textile Industry and Environment

©  The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by/.), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
Author details
AyşegülKörlü
Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University,
Bornova-İzmir, Turkey
*Address all correspondence to: aysegulkorlu@gmail.com

Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
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B----.-
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th recent progress symposium on
textile technology and chemistry. -
May . Bursa

Use of Ozone in the Textile Industry
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81774
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... Most industrial deployments of ozone are often connected to its antimicrobial properties and its ability to degenerate organic compounds via oxidation. Its rapid reactivity and non-selectivity to different classes of microorganisms are particularly advantageous for a diverse range of applications [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. Compared to ozone, which does not form any long-term toxic byproducts, the use of chlorine (a widely used disinfectant) is associated with the production of carcinogenic byproducts, including trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids [8]. ...
... Furthermore, foam formation may affect the sensitivity of membrane electrodes. Other measurement techniques that utilise thermal conductivity, gas-phase titration, and isothermal pressure changes are not commonly used [7]. The indigo method, which utilises sulfonated indigo compounds, is also a common ozone-measuring technique but is usually adversely affected by the age and purity of the indigo-based compounds as well as the presence of the Mn +2 ion, which is capable of destabilising indigo trisulfonate [7,23]. ...
... Other measurement techniques that utilise thermal conductivity, gas-phase titration, and isothermal pressure changes are not commonly used [7]. The indigo method, which utilises sulfonated indigo compounds, is also a common ozone-measuring technique but is usually adversely affected by the age and purity of the indigo-based compounds as well as the presence of the Mn +2 ion, which is capable of destabilising indigo trisulfonate [7,23]. Thus, the Palintest procedure (a widely applied and readily available ozone measurement procedure) sufficed for the measurements performed in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
In current times of increasing global decontamination concerns, sustainable and environmentally-friendly technologies that possess rapid and effective disinfection capabilities are necessary for public health and safety. In this study, we evaluate the potential of ozone-based technology to reveal its immense potential in disinfection applications. Ozonated water generated by an electrolytic method was utilised to quantify ozone retention as a function of mineralogical composition for microbial decontamination. The impacts of temperature and detergent concentration on ozone concentration are critically analysed, as well as ozone’s decomposition and stain removal characteristics. In addition, fabric swatches inoculated with known concentrations of environmental microbes (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus) are washed with ozonated water to ascertain the impact of wash duration on bacterial removal efficiency. The results show significant improvement in the stability and retention potential of ozone in mineral water at low temperature and in the presence of a detergent. The experiments demonstrate first-order decomposition kinetics of ozone in aqueous formulations. The disinfection potency of ozone is also substantiated by a significant removal of microbiota on the fabric utilised (up to 7 log reduction for the bacteria analysed), thus making it effective for sterilisation applications. This also reduces the need for toxic chemicals or chemicals with toxic by-products (e.g., chlorine) for large-scale decontamination operations in various industries.
... Textile industry is a water intensive industry which causes big problem on the global water resource. The increasing concern about the textile wet processing industry is arisen from high water consumption, huge amount of wastewater discharge and high pollution potential [3][4][5]. ...
... Ozone has the most extremely strong oxidizing character known after the fluorine [2,5,[10][11][12][13][21][22][23]. It can participate in many chemical reactions with inorganic and organic substances because of strong oxidizing property [7,12,23]. ...
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In the present study, applicability of ozone bleaching process at the jigger machine and effects of chosen ozonation parameters on the whiteness degrees of 100% cotton woven fabrics were investigated. For this aim, effects of ozone gas on the bleaching degrees of the samples in terms of ozonation conditions (in the air with dry and moist fabrics, and in the water), ozonation time (number of the passage), production capacity of the ozone generator (6 g/h, 12 g/h, 18 g/h) and method of ozone feeding to the jigger (via rubber diffuser or stone diffuser) were researched. In addition, in order to examine effect of rinsing process on the whiteness degree of the samples, the rinsing process was applied after ozonation applications. At the end of the study, whiteness degrees (as Berger) of the samples were measured and compared with conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching. In addition, statistical analysis was carried out in order to research the effects of the investigated parameters on the output. The results showed that it was possible to apply the ozone bleaching process at the jigger and all of the investigated ozonation parameters had effect on the results at different levels. The best bleaching effect was obtained at the longest ozonation time and the highest production capacity of the ozone generator for ozone application in the water. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The main application of ozone within this industry at present is as a bleaching agent to remove color from fabric. Primarily, this process involves the introduction of ozone in high concentrations to garments, which enhances the dye's permeance to intensities that are no longer visible on the surface of the material (Sevimli and Sarikaya, 2002;Körlü 2018). According to these studies, prolonged exposure to ozone enhances its penetration into the fabric substrates, and this further enhances the bleaching process. ...
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The utilization of gaseous ozone (a powerful oxidant) in air, for disinfection and sterilization purposes, has been extensively studied for diverse applications; however, the optimal deployment of this technology for textile disinfection is deserving of further research attention and is this the focus of this work. In this study, the penetration efficiency of ozone gas into hard-to-reach regions of different garment types is critically examined. The impacts of garment packing density, hanging orientation and ozonation duration are also considered, and the resultant disinfection efficiencies are comparatively analyzed. An ozonation chamber fitted with remote ozone detection is utilized for the ozonation of fabric swatches inoculated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The number of colony-forming units per cm 2 and the bacterial lawn area fraction are evaluated pre-and post-ozonation to quantify the level of disinfection. This study shows that the attainment of sufficient ozone concentrations in hard-to-reach regions of different garment types coupled with the inter-garment spacing utilized are vital for effective decontamination. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of ozonation as a necessary technology for decontamination, particularly in this era, where the sterilization of textiles and other materials is paramount for public health and safety.
... In textiles, ozone has been shown to be effective in denim applications, cotton pre-treatment, dyeing, finishing and clearing and colour removal for different types of textile fibres (Rice et al., 2009;Körlü, 2018;Neral, 2018;Eren et al., 2020;Ben Fraj and Jaouachi, 2021). Despite these contributions, microbial inactivation by ozone on textile substrates is still an open research question. ...
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Ozone treatment is an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach to achieve material disinfection, and this disinfection method is of utmost importance in the present global pandemic. The efficacy of ozone's oxidative potential on common microorganisms has been extensively studied, particularly in the food and water treatment industries. However, little is still understood regarding its antimicrobial capabilities for the treatment of textile substrates in air. In this study, fabric swatches inoculated with bacterial and fungal suspensions are exposed to ozone for different durations and at different ozone concentrations. Pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus), and fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans), are the microbes utilised in this study. The efficacy of ozone is demonstrated by the complete removal of microbiota on the tested swatches when a concentration and exposure duration of 20 ppm and 4 mins are respectively maintained in a test ozone chamber. We expect the insights from this work to guide the development of new ozonation techniques capable of rapid sterilisation in industrial & public settings.
... The use of the dyes in the textile industry is of great importance as this is not only being cost-effective but their flexibility of dyes items, towards dyes finishes and shades, rapid turnaround, quick responses makes the textile fabric to look more colorful and stunning. Generally, soluble colorants are used for coloring textiles, paper and other industries and during application process; they impart color by the selective absorption of light [25]. ...
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Textiles sectors serve up the outfit needs of every day and this industry plays a major role in the economy of the country. All the textile fabrics are either natural or synthetic fibers or a blend of both. Different types of dyes are used for different kinds of fabrics depending on the nature and type of the fabric to be dyed, to impart color, modify the fabric to make them more attractive and astonishing. In short, the introduction of synthetic dyes resulted in the demise of a massive natural dye industry. So, it's necessary to classify the different types of dyes with the increase in the number of types and varying dyeing properties so that this would be a best way to understand the different types of dyes, their applicability, fastness and other properties. In this article, a source for the beginners is provided to understand different kind of the textile fabrics and their importance as well as their drawbacks, dyes and their various types, their interaction with the corresponding fabric, their color strength and color fastness properties.
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High performance polymer fibers, such as polyester, aliphatic and aromatic polyamides, are well established in several technical applications, including personal protection equipment, sport, automotive or aerospace. This is due to their excellent thermal, mechanical and chemical properties. In the emerging field of textile based high performance composites and intelligent textiles, polymer fibers are often utilized in hybrids, i.e., in combination with other materials such as polymer matrices or metal coatings. In such cases, the step of activating or functionalizing the fibers is essential to enhance interface strength in the hybrid systems. This review provides a broad overview on recently applied activation and functionalization techniques on high performance polymer fibers including wet chemical and physicochemical treatments (e.g., hydrolysis, oxidation, complexation, deposition, flame, plasma treatment). The main objective is to review possible modification mechanisms, elaborate the effect of the modification on the fiber properties, and address possible applications of these techniques. The review also includes a comparison of the different techniques, thereby providing a better understanding of their potentials and restrictions. While the techniques differ in terms of versatility, handling, and environmental impact they all can, given the right choice of process parameters, provide well-defined fiber surface properties for the intended application.
Chapter
Textile finishing consists different steps, needs several chemicals and water to give desired features to the textile materials. It is a magical step that makes textile materials usable. However, serious water and chemical consumption is a major problem in textile finishing. Although there are different approaches to minimize this problem, the adaptation of technologies and methods that minimize water and chemical consumption is also an important alternative. Here in this chapter ozone gas application to the textile materials was summarized in terms of the usages in textile finishing processes. The strong oxidative feature of ozone can be defined as the main reason of using it in textile finishing processes. In these respect; main properties of ozone gas was defined and then the usages and studies about the application of it in different textile finishing processes was summarized in this chapter.
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Textile finishing is an important process for improving the value of the textile products, and many finishing processes involve hazard chemicals and auxiliaries. With growing awareness on environmental problems, both manufacturers and consumers expect sustainable solutions in the entire supply chain, wherever possible. Needless to state that the textile manufacturers are also seeking sustainable finishing solutions and processes using natural and safe ingredients for providing value addition. Advanced finishing processes like encapsulation methods and plasma treatments improve the sustainability by increasing the affinity and durability of the processes. In this chapter, sustainable preparatory processes, finishing practices for flame-retardant finish based on bio-based flame retardants, antimicrobial finish, bio-finish and UV protection finish have been discussed.
Chapter
Ozone is a triatomic form of oxygen (O3) with an outstanding oxidation potential. Ozone is generated via ozone generators; two main types of ozone generators are corona discharge units and ultraviolet lamps. Either air or oxygen may be used as the feeding gas, but an oxygen generator is required if the feeding gas is air. The ozone concentration in the outlet gas mixture of an ozone generator increases as the purity of oxygen gas inlet increases. The high oxidation potential of ozone gas has encouraged research studies on the utilization of ozone for textile applications. Oxidative agents are used in desizing, bleaching, dyeing, clearing, surface modification, and wastewater treatments for applications in textile sector. The main oxidative agent used in the textile sector is hydrogen peroxide. Use of an activator, generally caustic soda, and high temperatures are required for hydrogen peroxide bleaching. On the other hand, ozone is usually applied at room temperature because of its decreasing solubility at high temperatures, and ozone is active in the whole pH range compensating the requirement of pH adjustment chemicals. Of course, the pH of the aqueous solution affects the reactions of ozone, but ozone is capable of giving oxidation reactions in neutral, acidic, or alkaline solutions. In textile industry, ozone is utilized in various processes such as: denim applications, cotton pretreatments, dyeing and finishing, polyester dyeing and clearing, treatment of various textile fibers (wool, polylactic acid, etc.), and textile wastewater and color removal treatment. In this chapter, potential uses of ozone as an alternative oxidant for textile applications are reviewed in detail. It is important to point out that ozone utilization may result in chemical substitution, waste reduction, and energy conversation in textile processes, leading to more sustainable world for future generations.
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A plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment was used for treating a blue sulphur-dyed knitted cotton fabric. Since the process parameters of plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment are inter-related with one other, the final colour-fading results are affected. An orthogonal array testing strategy (OATS) method was used for determining the optimum conditions of the plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment in this study. Three process parameters used in the plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment, i.e., oxygen gas concentration (%), water content in fabric (%), and treatment time (minutes), were used in the optimization process. Experimental results reveal the optimum conditions for fading the colour by plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment are: (1) oxygen gas concentration = 70%; (2) water content in fabric = 35%; and (3) treatment time = 30 min. The order of importance of these parameters is: oxygen gas concentration > water content in fabric > treatment time. In addition, the plasma-induced ozone colour-fading treatment can effectively remove the colour from the dyed fabric and the colour-fading effect is uniform and even.
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Environmental pollution is one of the major concerns of the textile finishing sector. The reduction or substitution of the harsh chemicals used during dyeing and printing processes is necessary. In this study, the use of ozone for the discharge printing process was examined in order to substitute the use of reductive agent and caustic soda by ozone gas. The reactive dyed cotton samples were wetted by water and some selected solutions at 25%, 40% and 60% pick up were used and subjected to ozone gas treatment. The gas flow rates were 5 and 10 l/min for 5 and 10 min treatment times, respectively. The results were compared with that of conventional discharge printed samples. Colour discharge (%), colour difference (ΔE), strength, washing and rubbing fastness and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were compared and reported. Colour discharge increased at higher gas flow rates and prolonged treatment times. Although ozone printing could not reach the contour sharpness of conventional discharge printing, the addition of selected chemicals affected colour discharge and the contour sharpness. Strength tests did not show a significant decrease when using ozone treatment. Fastness tests results (washing and rubbing) were slightly higher compared conventional discharge printed samples. COD values were much less by ozone treatment compared with conventional discharge printing effluent. Consequently, it was demonstrated that ozone may be an environmentally friendly substitute for discharge printing.
Article
Cotton fibers can be finished in different forms such as fiber, yarn, fabric, and etc. depending on the demanded final product. Absorbent cotton is one of these products. In this study it was aimed to introduce an alternative environmentally friendly method for the finishing of cotton slivers which will be useful in production of absorbent cotton. For this aim, cotton slivers were bioscoured with the help of pectinase enzyme in different concentrations for different durations. Meanwhile the effect of ultrasound has been tested too. Then the bioscoured samples were dyed with two different natural dye sources to obtain naturally colored cotton slivers or ozonated to obtain white cotton slivers. As a summary, it was found that ultrasonic bioscouring of cotton slivers can be a way for the production of hydrophilic cotton slivers. Moreover, for naturally dyed and for white cotton slivers, pomegranate peel/green tea based dyeings and ozone application were developed as production methods respectively.
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Denim color fading ozonation is dissimilar from other ozone applications as it is employed with distinctive parameters and on special products. In this study, yarns of cotton, lyocell and PET treated by denim color fading ozonation were investigated in terms of the effects of time, pH and water content on their physical properties, which included chemical and crystalline structures, surface microstructure, yarns strength and elongation. It is found that, the cellulose in cotton and lyocell yarns has a loss of strength and elongation, while only slight impacts on their crystalline structures are observed. An aggregation and compact crystalline structure of PET prevents it from the decomposition of ozone, whose prevention may also benefit from its poor ability of moisture regain. As a result, synthetic materials, such as PET is recommended more than cellulose fibers to be used in ozone fading process. Meanwhile, such process should neither be employed on cotton, lyocell and other cellulose yarns at pH < 7 nor without paying attention to select a proper water content.
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The textile industry has an important place in global marketing and trade. Both production and consumption of cotton and cotton-based materials were also considerably important. Until now, the essential term for the textile industry can be summarized as product diversity. However, today, in addition, the demand for natural and organic products has been in an increasing trend. In this respect, the use of natural dyes has become popular again. However, the need to use mordants, especially metal salts, is the most important dilemma in terms of natural production. This study was aimed to show the usability of ozone gas with natural dyeing and to introduce an alternative production that avoids use of mordants. It was observed that different ozone gas applications can be used to obtain color diversity from the same natural dye source, which at present is achieved by using different mordants. On the other hand, for the tested dyes, different fastnesses were analyzed in terms of the effect of ozone gas treatment style and different mordants. It was found that in general the tested natural dyes have good fastness values except for light fastnesses. The use of ozone gas only improved the wet rubbing fastness values when ozone gas was applied directly to the wet dyed sample. For other fastnesses, ozone did not show any significant effect.
Chapter
The production of denim garments requires a number of processes such as spinning, colouration, weaving and garment finishing. However, there are several health and hazard issues associated with this industry; the hazards and risk involved are high compared with other manufacturing industries. This chapter will look at issues involving threats to the environment and the health hazards of the denim industry, from raw materials to finished products. It first provides an overview of pollution caused by the denim industry. Then it elaborates on health problems and hazards in the denim industry, with a case study. The effects of different chemicals on human health are discussed. Furthermore, it describes different types of denim processing with respect to health concerns. Finally, it describes the responsibilities of brands and designers, which help to save the environment as well as human lives.
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The textile industry tries to provide different opportunities to its customers. Because of this, novel technologies in textile finishing and the use of different fibers have great importance for the textile industry. In this respect, the use of casein fiber is of interest to both manufacturers and consumers. In this study, casein based fabrics were pretreated by means of ozone gas. The fibers themselves are clean but have low whiteness degrees. Therefore, the fabrics were bleached by means of ozone gas but limited increases in whiteness degrees were obtained. After the bleaching process, a natural dye source, namely “onion skins”, was used for the coloration of the fabrics. The dried and milled onion skin was directly added to the dyeing bath as a kind of natural dyestuff without undergoing any extraction process beforehand. In this way, it was aimed to show the usability of a vegetable waste and, at the same time, to combine ecologic processing-dyeing with casein finishing. It was observed that with the use of onion skin, the coloration of the casein fiber can be managed easily.
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The nettle plant is an industrial crop, different parts of which can be used as food, fodder, and as a raw material for different product purposes in cosmetics, medicine, industry, biodynamic agriculture, and textiles. Nettle fibre usage provides bio-degradable, renewable, sustainable, and eco-friendly textile production and requires low energy consumption during production. However, the natural colour of nettle fibre is beige, cream, or light-brown. In this study, bleaching of 100% natural nettle fibre fabric with ozonation was explored. Apart from ozonation alone, ozonation in the presence of ultrasonic homogeniser activation, conventional bleaching with various bleaching agents, bleaching with a laccase enzyme, and their sequential applications with ozonation (conventional bleaching, then ozonation, followed by laccase enzyme bleaching, and then ozonation) were also investigated. Whiteness, tensile strength, hydrophilicity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were determined and compared. Ozone bleaching led to less strength loss in comparison to hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Higher oxycellulose formation resulted in higher strength loss in the case of peroxide bleaching in comparison to ozone bleaching. Ozone bleaching for nettle fibre fabrics could bo used as a viable alternative to hydrogen peroxide bleaching due to its effectiveness, lower application temperature, lower application time, and less environmentally harmful nature.