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Internet Penetration and Usage in Kosovo, 2nd Ed.

Abstract and Figures

Using desk research, quantitative approaches and other methods, this study aims at refreshing the previous research1 on the very same subject matter – namely, updating data related to Internet penetration and usage in Kosovo. In the course of this study, Internet usage and habits, and demographic Internet penetration based on households and users were studied. In addition, data on geographical Internet penetration was gathered and presented. The findings show that both rural and urban areas utilise Internet connectivity and its benefits. Further, this study reveals that Internet penetration in Kosovo is at satisfactory levels and can be compared to developed countries. Internet penetration based on households is 84.8%, Internet penetration based on users is 76.6%, and geographical Internet penetration shows that on regional roads there are, in average, 9 wireless networks per kilometre. There are various reasons for these levels of penetration, the main ones being Kosovo’s very young median population age who want to follow the latest global trends and Kosovo’s population living abroad who want to stay connected with their families and friends living in Kosovo. According to the findings of this study, most of user habits are comparable to global trends. Social networking and Internet voice communication services are mostly used by women, and this is also a global trend. Kosovars are most active in Facebook, being the main channel for reaching the widest user base. regardless of employment status and family income, Kosovars are a connected society at similar levels as developed countries. Further, the study concludes that there will be a slow down in further Internet penetration in Kosovo due to market maturity. This being the point in time when Kosovo’s institutions, companies, and other organizations will need to further advance general quality of service, e-governance, parental control, market regulation, and information society in general. The study provides additional information that can support the authorities, private sector, international organizations, and potential investors to make policies and decisions based on evidence. Finally, the report suggests that Kosovo’s institutions may wish to consider the establishment of the Ministry of Information Society.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Wrien by
Phogen LLC
Agron Fazliu
agron@phogen.com
www.phogen.com
Data colected by
Universum University College
info@universum-ks.org
www.universum-ks.org
Design by
projectGRAPHICS
Disclaimer
The views expressed in this report are those of the survey respondents and author,
therefore they do not necessarily represent the views of STIKK.
CONTENTS
List of gures ................................................................................................................................... 5
List of tables .................................................................................................................................... 6
Abbreviaons (Alphabecally) ......................................................................................................... 7
Keywords ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Foreword ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 10
1. Introducon .................................................................................................................................. 11
2. Exisng Studies ............................................................................................................................. 11
2.1. Telecommunicaons Regulatory Authority (TRA) of Kosovo .................................................. 12
2.2. Kosovo Agency of Stascs – Census 2011 ............................................................................ 13
3. Need and objecves of the study .................................................................................................. 13
4. Methodology and Scope .............................................................................................................. 14
4.1. Populaon sampling ............................................................................................................. 15
4.2. Quesonnaire ....................................................................................................................... 17
5. Internet Penetraon ..................................................................................................................... 18
5.1. Demographic Internet Penetraon – based on users ............................................................. 18
5.2. Demographic Internet penetraon – based on households .................................................... 22
5.3. Geographic Internet Penetraon ........................................................................................... 24
6. Internet Service Provision ............................................................................................................. 25
7. Internet Users ............................................................................................................................... 30
7.1. Smart phone Internet users ................................................................................................... 30
7.2. Computer ownership ............................................................................................................ 34
7.3. User habits ............................................................................................................................ 36
7.4. Language ............................................................................................................................... 40
8. Internet non-Users ........................................................................................................................ 42
9. Internet Usage .............................................................................................................................. 43
9.1.1. Entertainment .................................................................................................................... 43
9.1.1.1. Sports .......................................................................................................................... 45
9.1.1.2. News ........................................................................................................................... 46
9.1.1.3. Music and Movies ........................................................................................................ 47
9.1.1.4. General Browsing ........................................................................................................ 48
9.1.1.5. Internet, e-banking and online shopping ...................................................................... 49
9.1.2. Voice Communicaon ......................................................................................................... 51
9.1.3. Social Networks .................................................................................................................. 54
9.1.3.1. Twier ......................................................................................................................... 54
9.1.3.2. Instagram .................................................................................................................... 55
9.1.3.3. Facebook ..................................................................................................................... 55
9.1.3.4. YouTube ....................................................................................................................... 56
9.1.4. Email communicaon ......................................................................................................... 57
9.1.5. Lifestyle .............................................................................................................................. 59
9.1.6. Research and Study ............................................................................................................ 60
10. e-Government awareness ........................................................................................................... 61
11. Informaon Privacy ..................................................................................................................... 62
12. Conclusions and Recommendaons ............................................................................................ 64
13. References (Alphabecally by Document tle) ............................................................................ 66
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Respondents by age .................................................................................................... 16
Figure 2: Respondents by educaon level ................................................................................. 16
Figure 3: Respondents by gender .............................................................................................. 17
Figure 4: Respondents’ family members .................................................................................... 17
Figure 5: Internet user penetraon ........................................................................................... 18
Figure 6: Internet users (rural and urban) .................................................................................. 19
Figure 7: Internet users by family income .................................................................................. 20
Figure 8: Internet users by educaon level ................................................................................ 20
Figure 9: Internet users by gender ............................................................................................. 21
Figure 10: Internet users by age ................................................................................................ 22
Figure 11: Internet usage locaon ............................................................................................. 22
Figure 12: Internet service prices in rural areas ......................................................................... 23
Figure 13: Internet penetraon based on households .............................................................. 24
Figure 14: Internet penetraon based on households in rural and urban areas ....................... 24
Figure 15: Geographical Internet penetraon (hp://goo.gl/shHUF) ........................................ 26
Figure 16: ISP Market shares ...................................................................................................... 27
Figure 17: ISP market share in rural areas ................................................................................. 28
Figure 18: ISP prices in Kosovo ................................................................................................... 28
Figure 19: ISP bandwidth packages ............................................................................................ 29
Figure 20: Internet connecvity sasfacon .............................................................................. 29
Figure 21: Smart phone Internet users ...................................................................................... 32
Figure 22: Relaonship - Employment and smart phone ownership ......................................... 33
Figure 23: Internet usage on mobile devices (by age) ............................................................... 34
Figure 24: Internet usage based on mobile devices (by gender) ............................................... 34
Figure 25: Smart phone Internet connecvity ........................................................................... 35
Figure 26: Smart phone users – me spent daily ....................................................................... 35
Figure 27: Smart phone users and family members .................................................................. 36
Figure 28: Mobile network operators – Market share ............................................................... 36
Figure 29: Computer ownership - per household ...................................................................... 37
Figure 30: Computer users per desktop/laptop equipment at home ........................................ 38
Figure 31: Frequency of Internet use ......................................................................................... 38
Figure 32: Frequency of Internet usage by gender .................................................................... 39
Figure 33: Frequency of Internet use (by age) ........................................................................... 39
Figure 34: Dayme Internet usage ............................................................................................. 40
Figure 35: Dayme Internet usage by age ................................................................................. 41
Figure 36: Internet usage - hours per day .................................................................................. 42
Figure 37: Purpose of Internet use ............................................................................................ 42
Figure 38: Family members’ Internet usage ............................................................................... 43
Figure 39: Languages used by Internet users ............................................................................. 43
Figure 40: Languages used by Internet users based on age ....................................................... 44
Figure 41: Languages used for browsing (by gender) ................................................................ 44
Figure 42: Internet future usage by non-users .......................................................................... 45
Figure 43: Reasons for not using the Internet ............................................................................ 45
Figure 44: Internet services used in Kosovo ............................................................................... 46
Figure 45: Relaonship between employment and Internet services usage ............................. 47
Figure 46: Sports (video and news) usage by age ...................................................................... 48
Figure 47: Sports (video and news) usage by gender ................................................................ 48
Figure 48: Internet usage for news by age ................................................................................. 49
Figure 49: Internet usage for news by gender ........................................................................... 49
Figure 50: Movie and Music downloading (based on age) ........................................................ 50
Figure 51: Movie and Music downloading (based on gender) ................................................... 50
Figure 52: General Internet browsing (based on age) ................................................................ 51
Figure 53: General Internet browsing (based on gender) .......................................................... 51
Figure 54: Online shopping condence ..................................................................................... 52
Figure 55: Online shopping condence based on age ............................................................... 53
Figure 56: Internet usage for VoIP communicaon by age ........................................................ 54
Figure 57: Internet usage for VoIP communicaon by gender .................................................. 54
Figure 58: Internet usage - Skype services (by age) ................................................................... 55
Figure 59: Internet usage - Skype services (by gender) ............................................................. 55
Figure 60: Twier usage based on age ...................................................................................... 56
Figure 61: Twier usage based on gender ................................................................................. 57
Figure 62: Instagram users based on age ................................................................................... 57
Figure 63: Facebook usage based on age ................................................................................... 58
Figure 64: Facebook users based on gender .............................................................................. 58
Figure 65: Internet usage - Youtube services (based on age) .................................................... 59
Figure 66: Internet usage - Youtube services (based on gender) ............................................... 59
Figure 67: Personal e-mail usage by age .................................................................................... 60
Figure 68: Personal e-mail usage by gender .............................................................................. 60
Figure 69: Work e-mail usage by age ......................................................................................... 61
Figure 70: Work e-mail usage by gender ................................................................................... 61
Figure 71: Internet and lifestyle (based on age) ........................................................................ 62
Figure 72: Internet and lifestyle (based on gender) ................................................................... 62
Figure 73: Internet ulizaon for research and studying (based on age) .................................. 63
Figure 74: Internet ulizaon for research and studying (based on gender) ........................... 63
Figure 75: e-Government services ............................................................................................. 64
Figure 76: e-Government services based on gender ................................................................. 64
Figure 77: e-Government services based on age ....................................................................... 65
Figure 78: Awareness about Informaon privacy ...................................................................... 66
Figure 79: Awareness about Informaon privacy (based on gender) ........................................ 66
Figure 80: Awareness about Informaon privacy based on age ................................................ 67
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Related Studies ............................................................................................................. 11
Table 2: Internet Penetraon - Census 2011 .............................................................................. 13
Table 3: Survey Distribuon ....................................................................................................... 15
Table 4: Internet users based on gender .................................................................................... 21
Table 5: Geographical Internet penetraon ............................................................................... 25
Table 6: Naonal ISP prices ........................................................................................................ 31
Table 7: Correlaon between Mobile Internet users and Employment ..................................... 32
ABBREVIATIONS
ccTLD - Country code top-level domain
CIA - Central Intelligence Agency
EU - European Union
GPS - Global Posioning System
ICT - Informaon and communicaons technology
ISO - Internaonal Organizaon for Standardizaon
ISP - Internet Service Provider
ITU - Internaonal Telecommunicaon Union
LAN - Local Area Network
PC - Personal Computer
PoP - Point of Presence
RIPE NCC - The Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordinaon Centre
RSSI - Received signal strength indicaon
SSID - Service Set Idener
STIKK - The Kosovo Associaon of Informaon and Communicaon Technology
TRA - Telecommunicaons Regulatory Authority of Kosovo
UNDP - United Naons Development Programme
VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol
KEYWORDS
Internet penetraon, Kosova, Kosovo, Internet service provider, parental control, Internet
usage, households, rural populaon, proporonal straed random sampling, facebook
usage, email usage, Albanian, survey, wardriving, contenon rao.
8INTERNET
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FOREWORD
We are very proud to present the Internet Penetraon and Usage in Kosovo, the second in a series of
reports measuring cizens’ percepons of problems and challenges regarding the Internet access as
well as covering various needs and data gaps pertaining to business support and Internet infrastructure
and services.
The report channels the voices of 1050 Kosovans from 30 municipalies, sharing their opinions on
whether they enjoy an adequate access to internet and how sased are they with services provided.
Further, this study aims to beer understand Internet atudes and behaviours. Understanding how
users, especially youth, ulise the Internet is of major importance to further empower the younger
generaons in Kosovo using ICT as a tool.
The rst chapter presents an analysis of the exisng studies on the subject maer from year 2000
onward, using the available data from Regulatory Authority for Post and Electronic Communicaons
(ARKEP) and Kosovo Stascal Agency, as well as other Internaonal and local organizaons.
The remainder of the report presents demographic Internet penetraon (households and users),
geographic Internet penetraon and Internet usage (user behaviour).
We are condent that the wealth of data and the analysis that Internet Penetraon and Usage in
Kosovo brings will smulate meaningful and parcipatory discussions and will help local and central
governments priorize and implement acons to improve the access to and the quality of public
services in their municipalies, contribung to a beer life for all people of Kosovo. In addion, this
report will enable beer posioning of Kosovo in global ICT Agenda and will open doors for potenal
investment possibilies.
We extend our appreciaon to the Kosovo Ministry of Foreign Aairs for their valuable insights and
nancial contribuon in the preparaon of the report.
Enjoy the report!
Vjollca Çavolli
STIKK Execuve Director
9INTERNET
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SUMMARY
Using desk research, quantave approaches and other methods, this study aims at refreshing the
previous research1 on the very same subject maer namely, updang data related to Internet
penetraon and usage in Kosovo. In the course of this study, Internet usage and habits, and
demographic Internet penetraon based on households and users were studied. In addion, data
on geographical Internet penetraon was gathered and presented. The ndings show that both
rural and urban areas ulise Internet connecvity and its benets. Further, this study reveals that
Internet penetraon in Kosovo is at sasfactory levels and can be compared to developed countries.
Internet penetraon based on households is 84.8%, Internet penetraon based on users is 76.6%,
and geographical Internet penetraon shows that on regional roads there are, in average, 9 wireless
networks per kilometre. There are various reasons for these levels of penetraon, the main ones
being Kosovo’s very young median populaon age who want to follow the latest global trends and
Kosovo’s populaon living abroad who want to stay connected with their families and friends living
in Kosovo.
According to the ndings of this study, most of user habits are comparable to global trends. Social
networking and Internet voice communicaon services are mostly used by women, and this is also a
global trend. Kosovars are most acve in Facebook, being the main channel for reaching the widest
user base. Regardless of employment status and family income, Kosovars are a connected society at
similar levels as developed countries.
Further, the study concludes that there will be a slow down in further Internet penetraon in Kosovo
due to market maturity. This being the point in me when Kosovo’s instuons, companies, and other
organizaons will need to further advance general quality of service, e-governance, parental control,
market regulaon, and informaon society in general. The study provides addional informaon that
can support the authories, private sector, internaonal organizaons, and potenal investors to
make policies and decisions based on evidence. Finally, the report suggests that Kosovo’s instuons
may wish to consider the establishment of the Ministry of Informaon Society.
1 hp://www.skk-ks.org/images/stories/publikime/STIKK-raport_eng_email.pdf
10INTERNET
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1. INTRODUCTION
The Kosovo Associaon of Informaon and Communicaon Technology (STIKK), an ICT associaon based
in Prishna, is proacvely engaged to enhance the ICT sector in Kosovo. This study was made possible with
their kind support.
Currently, in Kosovo, there are mostly top-down data collecon and analyses on the subject maer. The
informaon and data sources that are publicly available have been created using feeds mainly from Internet
service providers or other secondary sources. As explained further below, this approach did not prove to be
the most accurate because of quick market changes, informaon provision errors, and lack of informaon
exchange between stakeholders, as well as dicules in data aggregaon in order to bring the analysis at
the naonal context.
There is obvious potenal for further development of the ICT sector in Kosovo. Therefore, STIKK have
contracted the second annual publicaon of this research report with the aim of providing further
informaon on the subject of Internet penetraon and usage, including analysis and recommendaons.
Phogen LLC was contracted to digitally collect, process, analyse, and interpret the data. Field data collecon
process was contracted to the University College Universum who assigned a team of 30 eld researchers
(university students) lead by a university professor, expert on the subject maer.
2. EXISTING STUDIES
The subject of Internet penetraon in Kosovo has been researched by various companies and organisaons.
There is a fair amount of informaon from secondary sources such as Internet World Stats2. Furthermore,
there are online reports suggesng that there was no Internet usage increase in Kosovo since 20003. The
table below provides details on various resources on the subject maer:
2 hp://www.Internetworldstats.com/europa2.htm#kv
3 hp://ptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/9780789747884/supplements/9780789747884_appC.pdf , p. 9.
11 INTERNET
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Nr Title/link Internet
Penetraon Ref. Page Month/Year
1EU Kosovo Progress Report 200945.40% 41 2008
2eSEE ICT Status Report - Stability Pact5 6% 95 April, 2004
3Cullen Report IV (Enlargement countries
telecommunicaons monitoring)6 6.24% 136 Jan, 2010
4EU Kosovo Progress Report 20107 6.40% 28 2009
5Pasyre e tregut te Telekomunikacionit: TM1-20118 7.69% 12 2011
6Invesng in Kosovo 2009912% 16 2005
7Naonal Background Report on ICT Research for
Kosovo (2009)10 20% 24 Nov, 2009
8Invesng in Kosovo 201011 20.90% 19 Sept, 2009
9Households* with Internet Connecon12 53%* homepage 2009
10 Internet penetraon and usage in Kosovo 72.1%* 20 March, 2012
11 Kosovo Census 201113 57.1%* 118 2011
12 UNDP - Kosovo Mosaic 201214 62%* 29 Feb. 2012
Table 1: Related Studies *) households.
4 hp://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2009/ks_rapport_2009_en.pdf
5 www.stabilitypact.org/e-see/040906-ict-status.pdf
6 hp://www.cullen-internaonal.com/ressource/224/0/nal-study-report-31-march-2011.pdf
7 hp://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2010/package/ks_rapport_2010_en.pdf
8 www.art-ks.org/repository/docs/Pasqyre%20e%20tregut%20te%20Komunikimeve%20Elektronike%20TM3%20dhe%20TM4_2012.pdf
9 www.eciks.org/english/publicaons/invesng_in_kosovo/content/media/investorsguide_web.pdf
10 www.wbc-inco.net/aach/KosovoICTReportFINAL_01_12_2009.pdf
11 hp://ambasada-ks.net/us/repository/docs/Aach_1._Invesng_in_Kosovo_2010.pdf
12 hp://www.indexkosova.com
13 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/docs/Final%20Results_ENG.pdf
14 www.ks.undp.org/content/dam/kosovo/docs/Mozaik/Kosovo_Mosaic_2012_Eng_735317.pdf
12INTERNET
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2.1. TELECOMMUNICATIONS REGULATORY
AUTHORITY (TRA) OF KOSOVO
The Telecommunicaons Regulatory Authority (TRA) of Kosovo regularly gathers informaon on the Internet
penetraon from Internet Service Providers via a quesonnaire15 that is lled out on quarterly basis. The TRA
is the ocial source of informaon about Kosovo’s state of aairs in regards to telecommunicaons (including
Internet penetraon) and it is the main sector informaon source for various global and regional companies
and instuons (including the ITU in the future), hence it was given more aenon.
The previous STIKK-sponsored research (2012) concluded that segregated data on municipalies is not
published, although it is required on the quesonnaires provided by the TRA. As of Q4 2012, the TRA have started
publishing a list (excluding rural and urban segregaon) of Internet penetraon based on municipalies16.
Based on the TRA report, as of Q3 2012, Internet user penetraon is 8.72% (see g. 56 on TRA’s report). It
is apparent that there are discrepancies between various research publicaons and TRA’s publicaons but
consultaons are ongoing in order to understand the methodologies and approaches adopted by the TRA. In
order to enable greater clarity, the TRA may wish to consider the following:
1. Revise and publish the methodology of data collecon and analysis
2. Note the source of data
3. Determine consistent denions
4. Segregate between urban and rural municipal areas
One of the reasons behind these suggesons is related to the United Naons (UN) Millennium Devel-
opment Goals (MDG) indicator 8-16 (Internet users per 100 inhabitants), developed in cooperaon with
the ITU and other internaonal organizaons. Because a growing number of countries are measuring the
Internet user penetraon through surveys, this STIKK sponsored research has also adopted this method.
Discrepancies in results arise because the TRA report calculates the Internet inhabitant (user) penetraon
by dividing the number of line subscripons with the number of total populaon, shown as a percentage.
However, the Cullen Internaonal Assessment report on Kosovo17 states that this calculaon shows only
the broadband network penetraon and not the Internet user penetraon, as cited below:
“The broadband network penetraon dened as the number of access subscribers with speeds of 144k/
bits or more as a percentage of populaon.
Further, in regards to the methodology ulised by the TRA, the UN MDG state the following18:
A growing number of countries are measuring the percentage of individuals using the Internet through
household surveys…Where surveys are not available, an esmate of the percentage of individuals using the
Internet may be derived based on a number of indicators such as xed (wired)-broadband subscripons,
xed-telephone subscripons, acve mobile-broadband subscripons and the income of the country.
While the data on the percentage of individuals using the Internet are very reliable for countries that have
carried out ocial household surveys, they are much less reliable in cases where the number of Internet
users is esmated based on the number of Internet subscripons.
Disaggregaon for this indicator, including by age and sex, is possible in countries where data are derived
from household surveys. This is the case in a growing number of developing countries.
The methodology used to esmate the percentage of individuals using the Internet should always be de-
scribed when presenng the data.
As Kosovo aspires European integraons, UN and ITU membership, and the Internet penetraon is com-
parable to developed countries, using the second cited paragraph as a basis for a suggeson, the TRA may
wish to follow the latest trends on globally adopted methodologies for generang indicators, including the
Internet penetraon.
15 hp://art-ks.org/repository/docs/Pyetesori%20per%20Sherbimet%20e%20Internet_(ISP).xls
16 www.art-ks.org/repository/docs/Pasqyre%20e%20tregut%20te%20Komunikimeve%20Elektronike%20TM3%20dhe%20TM4_2012.pdf
17 hp://www.ebrd.com/downloads/legal/telecomms/kosovo.pdf
18 hp://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mi/wiki/8-16-Internet-users-per-100-inhabitants.ashx
13 INTERNET
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2.2. KOSOVO AGENCY OF STATISTICS - CENSUS 2011
Recently, Kosovo has completed a populaon census 2011 and two quesons were included with regards
to the Internet household penetraon and computer ownership19. These results20 have been processed
further and presented below:
Kosovo Census 2011 Urban Rural Total
Households 127886 168649 296535*
Households with Internet access 89311 80007 169318
Internet Penetraon based on Households 69.84% 6.24% 57.10%
Table 2: Internet Penetraon - Census 2011 *) see the publicaon table, p.118
Previous research sponsored by STIKK covered 28 urban areas (cies) and 49 rural areas (villages). The re-
sults showed that the Internet penetraon based on households was 72.1%. As the majority of interviews
were completed in urban areas, this result was close to Kosovo’s Census Urban Internet penetraon based
on households, which is 69.84%.
It is important to note that the lack of a unied/dynamic published tables with data segregaon based
on age groups, gender and rural/urban strata, made the calculaons complicated for the purpose of
various analysis.
3. NEED AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objecve of this study is to provide a snapshot of Kosovo Internet penetraon and usage
(completed in June 2013). Addionally, the purpose of this study is to cover various needs and data gaps
pertaining to business support and Internet infrastructure and services. Based on available data, it is
obvious that there is a strong need for up-to-date and thorough studies that would address relevant issues,
support businesses and aract potenal foreign invesng companies who want to make informed business
choices. Addionally, in order to further improve the quality of Internet services, it is a prerogave to
create a compeve market through oering more transparent services, beer value for money, and beer
monitoring of the sector which can be achieved through introducing ecient government regulaons (ex.
ISP quality of service), performing research on specic subjects of interest, opmizing exisng resources,
and implemenng good pracce.
Further, and highly relevant, this study aims to beer understand Internet atudes and behaviours. Un-
derstanding how users, especially youth, ulise the Internet is of major importance to further empower
the younger generaons in Kosovo using ICT as a tool21. This study aims at further developing baselines that
can be monitored and analysed with a focus on how ICT skills of Kosovan youth can be further improved
and developed through a myriad of acvies and projects such as innovaon centres, vocaonal trainings,
internships, cercaons, study visits, etc.
The desk research phase also revealed that currently in Kosovo the Internet infrastructure is not properly
mapped out. Companies operang in Kosovo are limited in informaon exchange and coordinaon among
relevant actors. This, in turn, does not provide an accurate aggregated map of Internet infrastructure and,
as a result, cross-sector cooperaon is hampered. To illustrate, construcon companies, in lack of informa-
on and strict control by the local authories, can destroy the Internet infrastructure during the course of
their work (as it oen happens with electrical power cables and water pipelines).
19 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/docs/R2ENG.pdf
20 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/repository/docs/Final%20Results_ENG.pdf , p. 118, 204
21 hp://www.skk-ks.org/sq/component/dms/doc_download/9-skills-gap-analysis-for-informaon-and-communicaon-te
chnology+skillsgap+analysis+STIKK
14INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Internet infrastructure is vital to the development and business processes of a given country. One example
worth looking into is that of New Zealand, who were successful in creang the Naonal Broadband Map,
which essenally serves “to comprehensively map New Zealand’s Broadband landscape and provide infor-
maon and tools to aid in demand aggregaon and infrastructure planning.”22 A good pracce was high-
lighted in this process, the network suppliers around New Zealand voluntarily provide to the State Services
Commission with their network coverage map23.
4. METHODOLOGY AND SCOPE
The data collecon for this study began by desk research. During this phase, the study considered second-
ary sources by going through the exisng literature and body of knowledge. The demographic data segre-
gated based on gender, age and locaon were sourced from the results of the Census in Kosovo24 organized
by the Oce of Populaon Census.
Survey data collecon was completed using a quantave approach. Through Phogen’s e-quesonnaire
soware on Tablet PCs the data was collected during the period from 11th – 22nd of June 2013. The scope
of this study includes the demographic Internet penetraon (households and users), geographic Internet
penetraon and Internet usage (user behaviour). Except desktop and laptop computers as means of ac-
cess to the Internet, smart phones (dened as mobile phones with Internet access capabilies) were also
included in the quesonnaire.
4.1. POPULATION SAMPLING
The sample populaon was straed using the Proporonal Straed Random Sampling methodology.
Inially, total populaon grouped by gender and divided based on locaon (rural and urban) was analyzed.
This data was straed based on age groups. Finally, the number of quesonnaires for each municipality
(urban and rural), age group and gender was dened. Populaon under age of 10 was excluded due to the
nature of quesons and children’s assent aspects. Hence, the populaon for research purposes was around
1.4 million (1,409,604) covering approximately 77.64% of the Kosovo’s populaon of 1,815,60625. The nal
step was the incorporaon of the proporonal aspects of the methodology. The total number of queson-
naires (1050) was divided in age groups, gender and locaon (urban and rural) strata. The following results
in relaon to condence levels and intervals were obtained26:
a) The Condence Level is 95%
b) The Condence Interval 3%
In words, if the same survey methodology (with the same sample populaon) was to be implemented
again, with 95% of condence the results would be within plus/minus 3% of the current results. Note that
the lower level of condence interval will be calculated on this paper.
A summary of the nal distribuon results is shown below:
22 hp://www.broadbandmap.govt.nz/
23 Ibid.
24 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/?cid=2,40,265
25 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/eng/
26 hp://www.macorr.com/sample-size-methodology.htm
15 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Nr. Municipality Urban Rural Total
1 Deçan 2 25 27
2 Gjakovë 24 34 58
3 Gllogoc 15 23 38
4Gjilan 40 26 66
5Dragash 1 31 32
6 Istog 6 20 26
7 Kaçanik 9 17 26
8Klinë 1 21 22
9 Fushë Kosovë 11 10 21
10 Kamenicë 517 22
11 Mitrovicë 32 22 54
12 Lipjan 529 34
13 Novobërdë 1 16 17
14 Obiliq 3811
15 Rahovec 1 25 36
16 Pejë 27 28 55
17 Podujevë 15 33 48
18 Prishna 97 26 123
19 Prizren 57 21 78
20 Skenderaj 8 18 26
21 Shme 314 17
22 Suharekë 831 39
23 Ferizaj 24 38 62
24 Vi 1 26 27
25 Vushtrri 18 26 44
26 Malishevë 2 30 32
27 Junik 1 1 2
28 Mamushë 0 1 1
29 Hani i Elezit 05 5
30 Kllokot 1 0 1
Total: 428 622 1050
Table 3: Survey Distribuon
16INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
The following graphs provide more informaon about respondents who answered the e-quesonnaires,
and who are not necessarily Internet users or non-users. It is obvious that most of respondents belong to
the age group between 10-30 years old, this being the biggest age group in Kosovo because, as noted on
one CIA website27, Kosovo’s median age is 27.4 years old.
Figure 1: Respondents by age
The majority of respondents are secondary school graduates, whereas 2.76% had no formal educaon.
Figure 2: Respondents by educaon level
*
27 hp://www.macorr.com/sample-size-methodology.htm
17 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
The graph below shows respondents based on gender. Note that based on census 2011, the rao between
male and female is 101.32 / 100.
Figure 3: Respondents by gender
Based on Census 2011, in average, there are 5.85 family members living on a household. This corresponds
with the graph below where the majority of respondents live in households of 5-6 members.
Figure 4: Respondents’ family members
18INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
4.2. QUESTIONNAIRE
The quesonnaire was designed using quesonnaire design guidelines28. The number of quesons was 39,
including few quesons covering respondent’s informaon details (age, gender, residence). The queson-
naire included mulple choice quesons and no open ones. Furthermore, the quesonnaire was divided in
secons covering demographics informaon, Internet users and non-users. Out of the sample size of 1050
quesonnaires, 59.2% were distributed through rural areas and 40.8% through urban areas. The interviews
were performed face-to-face with randomly selected respondents within the dened strata. Considering
that electronic quesonnaires were used, other features were also ulised. Namely, skip logic, mulple
answer selecon control, and other validaon techniques were fully implemented.
5. INTERNET PENETRATION
There are two types of Internet penetraon, geographic Internet penetraon and demographic Internet
penetraon (households and users). Data collecon in regards to penetraon can be completed using
many methods and approaches. Geographic Internet penetraon is, in a nutshell, a detailed geographical
map with mapping mediums that carry Internet trac to households. The demographic Internet penetra-
on is based on households and individual users. The former is dened as the percentage out of the total
households that have Internet connecvity, whereas the laer denes the number of Internet users out of
total populaon.
5.1. DEMOGRAPHIC INTERNET PENETRATION – BASED
ON USERS
The graph below shows the Internet user penetraon considering also the frequency of usage. Users who
use the Internet once a month or less (1%) were excluded while users who use the Internet two mes a
week or more, up to everyday, were included. In addion, the lower range of the condence interval of 3%
was also taken into consideraon. Therefore, the Internet penetraon based on users is at least 76.62% or
1,080,038 Internet users (based on Census 2011 total populaon).
Figure 5: Internet user penetraon
28 hps://www.mrs.org.uk/pdf/2011-07-27%20Quesonnaire%20Design%20Guidelines.pdf
19 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
This is indeed a signicant Internet user penetraon level. However, in developed countries the Internet
penetraon in 2013 is esmated at 77%, as per ITU’s published report29. Another factor that further ex-
plains the rate of Internet penetraon in Kosovo is the unregulated market of Internet service providing.
Namely, there is a typical situaon of service provision where one person in a village (as menoned above
the majority of populaon lives in rural areas) buys wireless Internet connecvity from one of the bigger
service providers and resells it to as many households in the village as possible. This model is unregulated
and out of the reach of authories, however it is an eecve way of ensuring wider access to Internet by
the local populaon. Based on the TRA’s reports, other unspecied ISPs serve as many as 1041230 users.
The other not less important reason is the Kosovan diaspora31, who want to be connected with their fami-
lies in Kosovo and thereby may provide computers and cover internet connecvity costs to their families
in Kosovo. In this context, UNDP’s Kosovo Mosaic 2012 states that “25 per cent of households reporng
reliance on remiances, a gure that is even higher among households in rural areas and those headed by
women.32
The results of the Internet user penetraon in rural and urban areas are interesng, because a higher
proporon of Internet users live in rural areas, as shown in the graph below. Several factors might have
inuenced this fact, some of them being: the majority of Kosovans live in rural areas, the average number
of family members in rural households (houses) is higher compared to urban areas (ats), the need to stay
connected with family members living abroad (as the majority of Kosovan Diaspora comes from rural ar-
eas), etc. Similar to total Internet user penetraon, the occasional users (once a month or less) and lower
end of the condence interval (3%) were considered.
Figure 6: Internet users (rural and urban)
There is a relaonship between Internet penetraon, educaon and income as concluded on a publica-
on33 which also describes a model which enables the esmaon of Internet penetraon rate given the
income and educaon level. In Kosovo, the family/personal income is among the rarest reasons selected
by Internet non-users, as menoned further below (see Figure 42).
29 hp://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Stascs/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2013.pdf
30 www.art-ks.org/repository/docs/Pasqyre%20e%20tregut%20te%20Komunikimeve%20Elektronike%20TM3%20dhe%20
TM4_2012.pdf
31 www.swiss-cooperaon.admin.ch/kosovo/ressources/resource_en_180366.pdf
32 www.ks.undp.org/content/kosovo/en/home/ourwork/povertyreducon/successstories/how-to-become-a-driving-force-
-kosovo-diaspora-/
33 hp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2145704
20INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 7: Internet users by family income
Figure 8: Internet users by educaon level
The results of the Internet users based on the educaon level are similar to overall respondents’ results,
the reason being that high proporons of respondents are Internet users.
21 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 9: Internet users by gender
The graph above shows the Internet users by gender where out of all male respondents there are 81%
Internet users whereas 19% are non-users. Similarly, 80% of female respondents are internet users
whereas 20% are non-users. These gures should not be compared to overall user Internet penetraon
without considering other factors menoned above. In comparison to other countries, as published by
the ITU34, Kosovo’s gures are similar to developed countries, as shown on the table below. Note that
the data is not collected on the same year - Kosovo’s data is collected 4 years later compared to other
countries on this table.
Country Male Female Year Source
Kosovo 81.4 79.8 2013 STIKK
Turkey 50.1 29.9 2010 ITU
Serbia 47.3 36.3 2009 ITU
Croaa 55.4 46.1 2009 ITU
Bulgaria 47 43.1 2009 ITU
Macedonia 54 49.5 2009 ITU
Greece 49.2 40 2009 ITU
Germany 83.2 75.3 2009 ITU
Switzerland 88.6 79.4 2010 ITU
United Kingdom 84.5 81.2 2009 ITU
Table 4: Internet users based on gender
34 hp://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/stascs/Gender
22INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 10: Internet users by age
The graph about Internet users by age shows clearly that Kosovans are young Internet users and the major-
ity of them are below 30 years old.
Internet usage from home showed to be 94.21% (this does not represent the household Internet pen-
etraon), while interviewees also said that they use the Internet in other places such as work (26.6%),
at friends’ homes (12.17%), schools/universies (12.41%), and Internet cafes (8.16%). Note that Internet
cafes are dened as purpose build shops where hourly usage of Personal Computers wired to the Internet
is provided as a primary business acvity. This is to clarify the dierence with the hotels, bars and cafes
where Internet wireless connecvity is provided free of charge throughout all cies of Kosovo.
Figure 11: Internet usage locaon
23 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
There is a variaon in regards to cost per bandwidth unit (1Mbps) that subscribers pay, the cost being
higher in villages. Also, there is a dierent approach in regards to the technologies that are being used, as
described in the previous research carried out by STIKK in 2012 where the majority of rural areas connect
through wireless technologies, whereas urban areas make use of cable-based connecvity. The topic of
cost is further analysed with regards to Internet service provision (see below).
Figure 12: Internet service prices in rural areas
5.2. DEMOGRAPHIC INTERNET PENETRATION –
BASED ON HOUSEHOLDS
In regards to the Internet penetraon based on households, the graph below shows more details. Consider-
ing the lower condence interval and summarizing “Yes” answers (see graph below) shows that household
internet penetraon is at least 84.81% or 251962 households (based on Census 2011 total households). In
comparison, European Union has published a report stang that 84% of households in developed countries
have Internet connecvity35. It is worth menoning that UNDP have published the Kosovo Mosaic Report
2012 (data collected February 2012) and the Internet penetraon based on households, for example, in
Prishna is 82% followed by Mitrovica at 76%36.
35 hp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_362_en.pdf
36 www.ks.undp.org/content/dam/kosovo/docs/Mozaik/Kosovo_Mosaic_2012_Eng_735317.pdf
24INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 13: Internet penetraon based on households
Household internet penetraon in urban areas is at least 87% which is slightly higher than in rural areas,
where is it at least 83%. This is to be expected because urban areas consist of at buildings where the aver-
age number of family members is lower, whereas in rural areas populaon lives in houses (with a higher
probability of having more Internet users). Hence the smaller proporon of households with Internet ac-
cess in rural areas while the number of users is bigger. The second reason is that the majority (61%) of
populaon lives in rural areas.
Figure 14: Internet penetraon based on households in rural and urban areas
25 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
5.3. GEOGRAPHIC INTERNET PENETRATION
In order to further analyse the level of Internet penetraon from geographical point of view, a variaon of
wardriving37 and GPS-based locaon logging was performed on randomly selected regional roads. Based
on CIA’s website, Kosovo has in total 1964 km of road network which includes the length of the paved and
unpaved porons38, as of 2009. Note that only public informaon such as SSID, authencaon protocol,
channel and RSSI details were retained (see interacve map for details).
Nr From Through To Wireless Networks Distance (km)
1Prishne - Gjilan 389 42
2Prishne - Podujeve 232 26
3Prishne - Mitrovice 468 33
4Prishne - Peje 917 78
5Gjakove Decan Peje 175 35
6Prishne Ferizaj Hani i Elezit 582 60
7Gllogoc Skenderaj Kline 371 55
8Lipjan Shme, Suhareke Prizren 560 53
9Prizren - Gjurgjice 190 48
Total: 3884 430
NOTE: Wireless Networks within these cies were not recorded
Table 5: Geographical Internet penetraon
As can be seen on the map below, the density of networks increases close to the bigger cies while there
is also a constant presence of access points in-between cies, conrming the high Internet penetraon
rate in rural areas. The naming convenons of recorded wireless access points give hints in regards to ser-
vice providers. Most of Internet service providers have their equipment pre-congured, hence the same
name appears in many access points. Moreover, a poron of access points were obviously a property of
local Internet Service Providers. This fact was very oen visible on the wireless access point name which
included ISP’s name and even the telephone number, presumably for customer support. Based on the col-
lected data, there are 9 wireless networks per kilometre across regional roads in Kosovo. Note that there
are other factors that will aect this approximaon, such as populaon density factor, hills, lakes (see lake
of Badovc towards Gjilan, there are no access points), etc. A Google map layout can be accessed to interac-
vely analyse data about these wireless networks39 (see link below).
37 hp://dspace.cusat.ac.in/jspui/handle/123456789/2362
38 hps://www.cia.gov/library/publicaons/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2085rank.html
39 hp://goo.gl/shHUF
26INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 15: Geographical Internet penetraon (hp://goo.gl/shHUF)
27 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
6. INTERNET SERVICE PROVISION
Based on the quarterly report40 published by the Telecommunicaons Regulatory Authority, there are 51 li-
censed companies (an increase of 14 ISPs that have been licensed, based on Q3 2011) that provide Internet
services to end-users and 5 (one ISP less, from Q3 2011) companies have licenses for Internaonal Internet
trac exchange. The remaining 46 Internet Service Providers have access to the Internet through the main
ve licensed ISPs. In addion, through the wardriving process menoned above, it has been noced that
there are regional and rural ISPs that funcon but are not necessarily listed on TRA’s reports. It is a good
pracce to include more details in regards to listed and not listed ISPs. In addion, further details for RIPE-
registered ISPs can be easily found in the RIPE NCC Database41.
The graph below shows market shares of major ISPs (urban and rural) but it also includes other local
ISPs that take 33% of overall shares. Note that the opon ‘other local ISPs’ consist of all other ISPs which
might be supplied with Internet connecvity through the major ISPs – therefore, there are no denite
details on ISP market shares. In addion, other smaller ISPs with internaonal connecvity were also
included in this group.
Figure 16: ISP Market shares
Based on the gathered data and as seen on the graph below, 44.5% of rural areas are covered by local ISPs
(without direct access to the Internet but through one of the major ISPs). The other 55.5% are covered by
major ISPs. For transparency reasons, TRA and major ISPs may wish to consider exchanging informaon
with the TRA in regards to their minor / local (downlink) ISPs while these ISPs would also submit records
related to their uplink providers. This approach would guarantee a clearer picture of market shares on this
topic at the naonal level.
40 www.art-ks.org/repository/docs/Pasqyre%20e%20tregut%20te%20Komunikimeve%20Elektronike%20TM3%20dhe%20
TM4_2012.pdf
41 hps://apps.db.ripe.net/search/full-text.html
28INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 17: ISP market share in rural areas
In regards to the costs of Internet services, the bar chart below gives more informaon. It is worth nong
that only 7% of populaon do not know the price of the Internet service package that they pay. However,
when they are asked about the bandwidth of the service that they pay for, the percentage of respondents
who did not know is 40.7%. These gures show lack of awareness among populaon in relaon to what
services and bandwidth they are paying for.
Figure 18: ISP prices in Kosovo
29 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 19: ISP bandwidth packages
The graph below shows the sasfacon of subscribers with the provided Internet bandwidth. It is im-
portant to consider the proporon of users (8 %) who are sased with Internet speeds only in the early
morning and late in the evening. This issue is related to Contenon Rao42 and the number of users that are
connected to the same exchange/wireless point (PoP).
Figure 20: Internet connecvity sasfacon
42 hp://www.broadbandwatchdog.co.uk/contenon.php
30INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Considering the fact that the Telecommunicaons Regulatory Authority of Kosovo is collecng informaon
from Internet Service Providers every three months, adding contenon rao data would be benecial43, al-
though the majority of users are happy with their Internet speeds. In order to illustrate the issue of content
rao, the following paragraph is cited from the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India:
All the service providers shall provide informaon regarding contenon raos adopted by them to provide
Internet/broadband service in their tari plans submied to TRAI, manual of pracce, call centers and on
their websites.
All the service providers (ISPs, UASLs, CMSPs, BSOs) shall quarterly publish contenon rao for dierent
Internet/broadband services on their website to facilitate subscribers to take informed decision.44
The table below shows Internet service provider prices and it also shows Informaon provision details re-
lated to package bandwidth, maximum speed, etc. Note that most of ISPs adverse xed bandwidth, not
maximum speeds. Based on the adversed values, it is implied that the client will have a guaranteed adver-
sed speed at any me. This is similar to the situaon created in India (2009) where the Telecom watchdog
had to promptly act, poinng out that “available broadband speed is lower than the subscribed speed”45.
43 hp://berec.europa.eu/doc/berec/bor_10_46.pdf
44 hp://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/UserFiles/Documents/AnuualReports/ar_08_09.pdf
45 hp://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReaddata/ConsultaonPaper/Document/cpaper15jan09.pdf
31 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
ISP Package Monthly Cost
(VAT Inc.)
TV
Channels
Download
Bandwidth
(Mbps)
Transfer Limit
(GB) Source
IPKO
TV + Internet 19.95 € 64 Up to 10 No Limit
www.ipko.com
TV + Internet 32.95 € 98 Up to 10 No Limit
Internet 44.95 € -Up to 80 200
Internet 9.95 € - Up to 10 10
Internet 14.95 € - Up to 10 No Limit
Internet 19.95 € -Up to 15 No Limit
Internet 29.95 € - Up to 30 120
Kujtesa
TV + Internet 18.00 € n/a 5 No Limit
www.kujtesa.com
TV + Internet 21.00 € n/a 20 No Limit
TV + Internet 29.00 € n/a 40 No Limit
TV + Internet 39.00 € n/a 60 No Limit
Internet 8.00 € - 2 No Limit
Internet 13.00 € - 10 No Limit
Internet 19.00 € - 20 No Limit
Internet 29.00 € -40 No Limit
PTK (Tele-
komi)
Internet 8.99 € - 2 No Limit
www.telekomi.netInternet 13.99 € -4 No Limit
Internet 17.99 € -8 No Limit
ArtMoon
TV + Internet 15.00 € 70 - 80 20 No Limit
www.artmoon.info
Internet 7.99 € - 10 No Limit
Internet 11.00 € -15 No Limit
Internet 15.00 € -25 No Limit
Internet 30.00 € -50 No Limit
Retrieval Date: 12 June 2013
Table 6: Naonal ISP prices
Finally, it is worth menoning that Kosovo is highly compeve in the region regarding the internaonal
retail leased lines. Namely, Cullen Internaonal, in their 2013’s report stated that “For 2 Mbps half circuits
to a near country…Kosovo has the lowest prices, which were further reduced in from March 2012 by 32%,
a level of €7,200 per year.”46
46 hp://www.cullen-internaonal.com/ressource/5127/0/report-3-april-2013-nal.pdf
32INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
7. INTERNET USERS
7.1. SMART PHONE INTERNET USERS
The new topic, not present in the previous STIKK-sponsored research is the users’ Internet connecvity
through smart phones. As described above, smart phone is considered every mobile phone that has In-
ternet connecvity capabilies. The graph shows the percentage of Internet users who also access the
Internet through their mobile smart phones.
Figure 21: Smart phone Internet users
The relaonship between employment and smart phone ownership is interesng. Namely, in Kosovo, the
unemployed have more smart phones when compared to the employed populaon. Except the fact that
unemployment is 35.1%47, the other factor that seems to have inuenced this interesng point is the family
members living abroad who connue sending smart phones to their relaves in Kosovo. The other pos-
sibility is that the employed Kosovars buy smart phones for their unemployed family members, relaves or
friends. To further consider this, Pearson correlaons and t-tests were calculated, as shown below:
Mobile Internet User? Employed?
Mobile Internet User?
Pearson Correlaon 1-.030
Sig. (2-tailed) .404
N775 763
Employed?
Pearson Correlaon -.030 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .404
N 763 978
Table 7: Correlaon between Mobile Internet users and Employment
47 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/eng/
33 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
As it can be noced in the table above, signicance (2-tailed p value) is less than 0.5 therefore there is no
stascally signicant correlaon between the two variables (mobile Internet usage and employment). In
other words, increases or decreases in one variable (ex. employment) do not signicantly relate to increas-
es or decreases in the second variable. Further and more importantly, Pearson’s value is close to 0, mean-
ing that there is a weak relaonship between the two variables – hence, changes in one variable are not
correlated with changes in the second variable. In a nutshell, this means that if more people get employed
this does not relate to more, or less, smart phone ownership in Kosovo. Therefore, no maer the employ-
ment status, Kosovars are connected to the Internet just as any other regional and European country. The
actual gures are shown on the graph below:
Figure 22: Relaonship - Employment and smart phone ownership
The graph below shows Internet usage on mobile phones based on age groups and gender. It is eye-catch-
ing the fact that the majority of mobile Internet users belong to the age groups of 10 – 29 years old and
the number of males is slightly larger. To illustrate, the graph below shows that 72% of 20-29 years old
respondents use the Internet on their smart phones whereas 28% of them do not use Internet connecvity
capabilies of smart phones.
34INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 23: Internet usage on mobile devices (by age)
Figure 24: Internet usage based on mobile devices (by gender)
The graph below reveals an interesng point, although biggest mobile network operators oer the GPRS
service, only 16% actually make use of this technology. One of the main reasons for this is related to wide
coverage of Wi networks in Kosovo. Note that only a ny percentage of smart phone owners are not
aware of these possibilies.
35 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 25: Smart phone Internet connecvity
On the graph below, it can be noced that the majority of smart phone users in Kosovo seem be spending
one hour per day online on their mobile devices, compared to United Kingdom where, in average, users
spend 2 hours a day48. On the other side, 36.5% of Kosovars spend more than 3 hours online on their mo-
bile devices.
Figure 26: Smart phone users – me spent daily
48 hp://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/arcle-2333261/We-spend-MORE-me-phones-partner.html
36INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
In regards to respondents’ family members, it is obvious that the majority of smart phone users have an-
other two family members who own smart phones, too.
Figure 27: Smart phone users and family members
The graph below is not related to smart phones because it simply asks for mobile phone users and their
corresponding mobile network operator services. It is possible that the group “Other operators” represents
respondents who are either on roaming services or are clients of operators based in neighboring countries.
Figure 28: Mobile network operators – Market share
37 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
7.2. COMPUTER OWNERSHIP
Data shows that currently 52% of respondents’ households are equipped with a desktop or laptop. It is
important to note the fact that 37% of households own the second computer and almost 9% own the third
computer. Note that the computer ownership in Kosovo is lower compared to European countries where
the percentage is 68%. However, Kosovo has comparable gures with other regional countries such as Ro-
mania (53%), Hungary (54%), and Greece (55%)49. It is important to menon that the UNDP Kosovo Mosaic
report states that 87.5%50 of households in Prishna own a computer.
Figure 29: Computer ownership - per household
If this informaon is compared to the next graph, it becomes apparent that the highest proporon of fami-
lies is in a situaon where 3 users use the same computer. Hence, it is evident that more computers per
household are needed in order to accommodate the standard of one computer per user at home. One of
the quesons that could be raised is why Kosovans nd it easier to source smart phones but not PCs. The
answer could be related to the easiness of smart phone transport compared to PCs (monitors and towers).
49 hp://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_362_en.pdf
50 www.ks.undp.org/content/dam/kosovo/docs/Mozaik/Kosovo_Mosaic_2012_Eng_735317.pdf
38INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 30: Computer users per desktop/laptop equipment at home
7.3.USER HABITS
Kosovans are serious Internet users, as shown on the graph below. The percentages of users who use the
Internet once a month or less were not considered as Internet users. In comparison, EuroStat ([isoc_ci_ifp_
fu]), states that 84% of European cizens use the Internet on daily basis. It is important to note that Kosovo
has much younger populaon compared to EU countries and Internet has always been more appealing to
younger generaons.
Figure 31: Frequency of Internet use
39 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 32: Frequency of Internet usage by gender
Figure 33: Frequency of Internet use (by age)
The graph below shows that most users use the Internet through out the day but less in the mornings and
late in the evenings.
40INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 34: Dayme Internet usage
The following graph gives a beer picture. It is grouped by age and it reveals interesng informaon in re-
gards to younger generaons (being the biggest age group) who do not necessarily use the Internet in the
morning but are rather acve during the day and late in the evenings. In comparison, respondents who are
50 or more years old are acve in the morning and during the day, but not during late nights. Finally, it is im-
portant to noce that Internet is quiet in Kosovo during the aernoons and aer-work rush hours. To illus-
trate the reading of the graph below, 7.9% of 10-19 year old respondents use the Internet in the morning,
during the day 42.6% of this age group uses the Internet, during the aernoon 20.4% of teenagers use the
Internet and nally during the evening and aer midnight 29.2% of 10-19 age group users use the Internet.
41 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 35: Dayme Internet usage by age
Compared to smart phone Internet users, where most of users spend 1-2 hours a day online, desktop us-
ers reach up to 3 hours a day being online. Note that there is no informaon if smart phone mobile users,
in addion to their mobile online presence, spend further more me online on their desktops or laptops.
42INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 36: Internet usage - hours per day
It seems that Kosovan Internet users’ community is genuinely communicave, as 80% of them use the
Internet mostly for communicaon purposes, while the second biggest group is fun-lovers.
Figure 37: Purpose of Internet use
Based on Census data, in average, there are 5.85 family members living in the same household. If this is
compared to the graph below, it turns out that, in average, at least half of family members are Internet users.
43 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 38: Family members’ Internet usage
7.4. LANGUAGE
The graph below gives informaon in regards to languages that users use while browsing the Internet. Note
that most of young Internet users use the English language as primary language, while Albanian language
is used more by age groups from 40 – 59.
Figure 39: Languages used by Internet users
44INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 40: Languages used by Internet users based on age
Concerning languages for Internet use based on gender, the female group is the true winner. They use Alba-
nian and English more than male counterparts. In regards to the German language, it is important to note
that males of 20-29 are the major user group. This perhaps relates to various German speaking call centre
businesses operang in Kosovo and possibly other communicaon needs with the Albanian diaspora in
Germany and Switzerland.
Figure 41: Languages used for browsing (by gender)
45 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
8. INTERNET NON-USERS
Further above, it was concluded that Kosovo has high Internet user and household penetraon rates (com-
parable to developed countries). This will be one of the main factors to inuence future slow down in
Internet penetraon aspects. Results from the graph below where 65% of non-users do not plan and do
not believe that they will use the Internet any me soon shows that there are only 35% of non-users who
are potenal users in the future. This fact further supports the conclusion that Kosovo will experience a
slowdown in Internet penetraon growth, similar to developed countries.
Figure 42: Internet future usage by non-users
European Commission reports from 2012 state that the most frequent reason for not using the Internet is
lack of Interest51 and the situaon is no dierent in Kosovo. Similarly, in Europe, the second reason is the
lack of skills and the graph below shows the same result for Kosovo. Note that the gures below do not add
to exactly 100% because of mulple answer opons available on the e-quesonnaire.
Figure 43: Reasons for not using the Internet
51 hps://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/sites/digital-agenda/les/scoreboard_digital_skills.pdf
46INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9. INTERNET USAGE
9.1.1. ENTERTAINMENT
The Internet has been tradionally used mostly for entertainment. The situaon in Kosovo is no dierent
especially nowadays when it is being used also for socialising. There are many other services that the Inter-
net provides but only the following were considered.
It is apparent that emailing, Facebook, Skype and Youtube are the main services that are used in Kosovo.
The graph below shows mulple Internet services that are independent, hence these variables will not add
up to 100%, as one might expect. To illustrate, 73.3% of Internet users use the facebook service. This shows
that 73.3% of 76.6% (Internet users) are facebook users – meaning that 43.6% (approximately 790000) of
Kosovo’s total populaon uses the facebook service.
Figure 44: Internet services used in Kosovo
When it comes to employment status and Internet services used, it is interesng to note that dierences
are unexpected. For example, as shown on the graph below, Twier is mostly used by unemployed (hinng
at younger generaons - see next graph), whereas reading about research and studying is the acvity of
employed (hinng that many employed respondents might be also studying/researching in some form).
Expectedly, work e-mails and LinkedIn are acvies of employed respondents while Facebook games and
Instagram are services mostly used by the unemployed. Finally, news reading is more preferred by the
employed cizens. To illustrate the graph below, 93% of employed Internet users use work-related emails,
whereas 7% of unemployed use their emails for work-related purposes. Similarly, 54% of employed Inter-
net users have personal emails whereas 46% of unemployed users own personal emails.
47 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 45: Relaonship between employment and Internet services usage
9.1.1.1. SPORTS
As seen in the graph below, when there is the queson of Sports informaon, male teenagers and young-
sters (up to 29) are the biggest group. There is a considerable dierence when it comes to gender, as shown
in the graph further down.
48INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 46: Sports (video and news) usage by age
Figure 47: Sports (video and news) usage by gender
49 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.1.2. NEWS
The age group from 20 to 49 are the main group interested in news whereas from gender point of view,
males consist the majority in news reading. It is worth nong that younger generaons are more interested
in online news when compared to the older generaons, as shown in the graph below. The reason for
this might be that older generaons use printed media and TV as their main source of informaon while
younger generaons rely on the Internet services.
Figure 48: Internet usage for news by age
Figure 49: Internet usage for news by gender
50INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.1.3. MUSIC AND MOVIES
In this secon, the usage of the Internet for downloading movies (torrent les52) and watching movies
online has been included. It is interesng to further analyze this type of informaon, once the law on copy-
rights53 starts to be implemented in Kosovo, as is being discussed lately in various media. The graph below
shows that main movie watching and downloading acvies come from male teenagers, followed by age
groups from 20 to 39.
Figure 50: Movie and Music downloading (based on age)
Figure 51: Movie and Music downloading (based on gender)
52 hp://paths.sheeld.ac.uk/wikiana/wiki/Torrent_le
53 hp://www.kuvendikosoves.org/common/docs/ligjet/2004_45_en.pdf
51 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.1.4. GENERAL BROWSING
The graph below shows that female young Internet users are ahead of male populaon in regards to Inter-
net browsing and reading. This also holds true when it comes to using the Internet for research and study-
ing, as it is shown further down.
Figure 52: General Internet browsing (based on age)
Figure 53: General Internet browsing (based on gender)
52INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.1.5. INTERNET, E-BANKING AND ONLINE SHOPPING
Due to the lack of online payment opons and of low interest rates, Kosovo did not manage to move ahead
with online payment services compared to, for example, expansion of Internet penetraon. There are also
other reasons such as overall wealth of cizens, lack of coordinaon among local banks, but also shipping
services that are poorly developed in naonal and internaonal aspects. The queson below emphasizes
the fact that most of the respondents do not actually believe in online shopping while, on the other side,
the second group represents the users who do not have any problem with purchasing online. As it can be
seen, the Internet users’ community is deeply divided and this is the result of the lack of online payment
services that would clearly raise awareness amongst Kosovan Internet users. As seen further down on the
graph segregated by age, older generaons clearly do not believe in this service, whereas younger genera-
ons are divided in their opinions whether to believe online shopping or whether it should be avoided. In
any case, 44% of respondents would be happy to shop online.
Figure 54: Online shopping condence
53 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 55: Online shopping condence based on age
9.1.2. VOICE COMMUNICATION
One of the main drivers of the increase of Internet demand is the convenient means of communicaon
that Internet oers. Considering the fact that nearly every third Kosovan today lives abroad and that every
third household in Kosovo has at least one family member living abroad54, low cost communicaon is of
vital importance and the Internet oers exactly this. With a high number of internet users and various
equipment such as desktops, laptops, tablets and smart phones, Kosovans are and will be serious users of
voice communicaon over the Internet, having a considerable number of family members living abroad.
Again, younger generaons are the main user group making use of smart phone VoIP services, as shown
below. When it comes to gender, females are doing slightly beer in using smart phone apps such as Viber,
WhatsApp, and Tango.
54 www.swiss-cooperaon.admin.ch/kosovo/ressources/resource_en_180366.pdf, p.5
54INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 56: Internet usage for VoIP communicaon by age
Figure 57: Internet usage for VoIP communicaon by gender
Skype service is an addion to the communicaon means with Kosovans’ families living abroad. However,
this service is also globally very popular due to its opmized audio and video communicaon capabilies.
Addionally, this service is very popular with rural areas55 considering the fact that higher numbers of mi-
grants come from rural areas. In regards to age groups, Skype is used across all age groups up to 49 years
old, where it starts to head down.
55 Ibid. p.6
55 INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 58: Internet usage - Skype services (by age)
Similar to smart phone VoIP apps, Skype, which also exists as a smart phone app, is again used slightly more
by the female user group.
Figure 59: Internet usage - Skype services (by gender)
56INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.3. SOCIAL NETWORKS
For purposes of this study Twier, Instagram, and Facebook were considered because other social media
network services such as LinkedIn and Xing are less popular in Kosovo (Xing is very popular in German
speaking countries where most of Kosovo’s diaspora is located). The results are shown in the graph below.
It is evident that both male and female users are very acve in using these services. Globally, based on
Pew Research reports, Facebook service is especially appealing to women and adults aged 18-29. Twier
is mostly used by adults aged 18-29 and urban residents. Instagram is used by adults aged 18-29, women,
and urban residents54.
9.1.3.1. TWITTER
As noted above, Twier is by far used by Kosovo teenagers and the age group up to 29. As with other com-
municaon and socialising services, the female user group is slightly ahead on usage. It is important to note
that this service is frequently used by Kosovo policians and celebries.
Figure 60: Twier usage based on age
56 hp://pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2013/PIP_SocialMediaUsers.pdf
57 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 61: Twier usage based on gender
9.1.3.2. INSTAGRAM
In Kosovo, as with Twier, Instagram is mostly used by teenagers however when it comes to gender, its us-
age is equal among men and women.
Figure 62: Instagram users based on age
9.1.3.3. FACEBOOK
The usage of Facebook is somewhat dierent compared to Twier and Instagram. Firstly, it aracts users
from all age groups. In comparison, Facebook is used more by men and it is one of the four acvies that
are preferred by the Kosovan Internet user community.
58INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 63: Facebook usage based on age
Figure 64: Facebook users based on gender
59 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.3.4. YOUTUBE
Analysing YouTube survey data, it is obvious that female populaon is slightly ahead of male populaon
during the young ages. Both groups are far more frequent YouTube users during their teens and also during
20’s. It is interesng to note that there is a sudden sharp drop once users reach 30 and then again when
they reach the age of 50.
Figure 65: Internet usage - Youtube services (based on age)
Figure 66: Internet usage - Youtube services (based on gender)
60INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.4. EMAIL COMMUNICATION
Email communicaon for personal reasons is being used mostly by younger generaons and adults up to
40 years old, and almost equally among male and female. However, the graph further below shows that
email communicaon for work and business is being used more by men. This might give a hint on career
dierences that are present based on gender and requires further research by eld experts. In regards to
age and work related email communicaon, the graph further below shows that users of the group age
30 – 39 are more acve than other groups.
Figure 67: Personal e-mail usage by age
Figure 68: Personal e-mail usage by gender
61 INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 69: Work e-mail usage by age
Figure 70: Work e-mail usage by gender
62INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.5. LIFESTYLE
Compared to male populaon, female populaon is ahead in using the Internet for gathering lifestyle and
dressing ideas. In regards to age, age groups from 10-29 are much more acve but then there is a sudden
drop, once users reach their 30’s. As women are the majority user group, it is obvious that once women
reach their 30’s for some reason they sharply (more than 50% drop) lose interest in searching for clothing
ideas and lifestyle
Figure 71: Internet and lifestyle (based on age)
Figure 72: Internet and lifestyle (based on gender)
63 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
9.1.6. RESEARCH AND STUDY
Similar to the communicaon and social network secons above, female young populaon is also much
more acve in using the Internet for research and studying. The age group 20-29 are the leaders of these
acvies, which is expectable as most of these users are studying or aending trainings of some sort. There
are two sharp drops once users reach the age of 30 and then 40, as if there is not much to learn anymore.
This stascs might be interesng for those promong life-long educaon and/or training
Figure 73: Internet ulizaon for research and studying (based on age)
Figure 74: Internet ulizaon for research and studying (based on gender)
64INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
10. e-GOVERNMENT AWARENESS
The graph below shows the awareness of populaon in regards to services oered by the Government of
Kosovo through ulizing the Internet. Just under half of the respondents are aware of the service. Aware-
ness reaches the peak for the age group 20-29, while for older users it starts to slowly drop. As shown,
women are less aware about this service, compared to their counterparts.
Figure 75: e-Government services
Figure 76: e-Government services based on gender
65 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 77: e-Government services based on age
11. INFORMATION PRIVACY
Informaon privacy, especially on the Internet, has always been one of the most interesng topics. This
topic has been discussed from various aspects, including demographics. Based on the graph below, it is
obvious that women are more careful when their privacy is in queson and this corresponds with the data
collected globally57. As far as age is concerned, all age groups up to 59 have some level of awareness about
privacy, which again is similar to world trends. Older generaons are less aware about the issue of privacy
– however 19% of 10-19 years old users are also not aware about informaon privacy. On the other side,
10-19 year old users are also the largest group that knows about privacy but is not concerned about it.
57 www.pewinternet.org /Reports/2012/Privacy-management-on-social-media/Summary-of-ndings.aspx
66INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 78: Awareness about Informaon privacy
Figure 79: Awareness about Informaon privacy (based on gender)
67 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
Figure 80: Awareness about Informaon privacy based on age
12. CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
The Internet penetraon and usage in Kosovo is comparable to developed countries. There are many fac-
tors that contribute to these high levels, some of them being related to Kosovo’s young median age popu-
laon (27.4)58, many families having relaves living abroad (diaspora), overall culture, country’s polical
orientaon (western values), Kosovo’s geographical posion, etc. There is a proven correlaon between
educaon, income and Internet penetraon59 but this is not valid for Kosovo due to reasons discussed
above. The relaonship between high levels of Internet penetraon and Kosovo’s poverty gures (12.1%)60
can be explained by two means. The rst being that Kosovo is an outlier, as it can happen61, due to various
reasons menoned above and the other reason is related to analysis above on this report where respon-
dents have stated that family income is not among the main reasons for not using the Internet. In fact,
family/personal income is among the rarest reasons selected by Internet non-users, as menoned above.
58 hps://www.cia.gov/library/publicaons/the-world-factbook/elds/2177.html
59 hp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2145704
60 hp://esk.rks-gov.net/eng/
61 hp://arcusadvisors.com/new-markets-for-content-infrastructure/ict-and-poverty-2/
68INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
It is evident that there is more to be done in regards to iniaves and coordinaon in the ICT sector
in Kosovo with the aim of providing beer value for money to end-users. Considering high Internet
penetraon levels, main stakeholders should consider opportunies for the employable youth who are
a majority, acve and capable in ulising the Internet and communicaon means in extremely ecient
and benecial aspects. The ICT sector needs to further cooperate in terms of developing joint acvies
and synergic mul-stakeholder informaon exchange, as well as dene a common acon plan from the
perspecve of youth inclusion and empowerment.
It is expected that there will be a slow-down on future naonal Internet penetraon rates. This is expected
for two reasons – the rst one being related to already high levels of penetraon and lack of potenal
clients for market expansion and the second reason is presented above on this report where 65% of non-
users state that they are not thinking of using the Internet in the near future.
According to the ndings of this study, most of user habits are comparable to global trends. Social networking
and Internet voice communicaon services are mostly used by women, and this is also a global trend. Similarly,
Sports related news are read and watched by male Internet users, which is also similar to world trends.
As Kosovo is aiming towards fullment of Internaonal standards in ICT sector, corresponding sets of
informaon should be gathered and processed accordingly by the responsible stakeholders i.e. informaon
provision such as contenon rao, which is a very important parameter of quality of service. Subsequently,
it is imperave for the Kosovo polical agenda to begin immediately with the development of ICT indicators
that can and will be measured regularly and presented to general public and to interested pares62.
It has been broadly discussed that there is a need for mul-direcon iniaves, further development of ICT EU-
compable legislaon and policies, sector development plans, implementaon of a wide range of ICT related
strategies, addressing current issues related to the ccTLD and ISO codes for Kosovo, parcipaon in ICT related
internaonal acvies, etc. Therefore, it is suggested to Kosovo instuons to consider the establishment
of the Ministry of Informaon Society, similar to what neighbouring countries have done (Macedonia63 and
Montenegro64). Macedonia has developed two naonal strategic documents which are publicly available65 66
(in Macedonian), whereas Montenegro has published a list of few documents which are specic to various
subjects67 such as disaster recovery, open source, digital communicaons, etc. (in Montenegrin).
It is further recommended that relevant stakeholders intensify awareness raising among the populaon on
Internet security, Internet-based nancial transacons (online payments), parental control, informaon
privacy, etc.
As a last word, this study aimed at providing fresh informaon to be built on top of the previous report. This
could produce invaluable informaon related to trends, atudes and behaviour. It was also the aim of this
study to iniate a discussion on Internet penetraon, usage, and cooperaon among relevant stakeholders.
62 hp://www.unescap.org/idd/pubs/st_escap_2353.pdf
63 hp://www.mio.gov.mk
64 hp://www.mid.gov.me
65 hp://www.mio.gov.mk/les/pdf/dokumen/Strategija_i_Akcionen_Plan.pdf
66 www.mio.gov.mk/les/pdf/dokumen/Nacionalna_strategija_za_razvoj_na_elektronski_komunikacii_so_informacki_
tehnologii.pdf
67 hp://www.mid.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije
69 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
13. REFERENCES
(Alphabetically by Document title)
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2. Telecom Regulatory Authority of IndiaBandwidth required for ISPs for beer connecvity and im-
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Broadband Guide, 2013
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5. European Commission
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70INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
13. eSEEurope Iniave
ICT Sector Status Report, 2004
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hp://www.orkii.com/albania/internet-penetraon
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Internet Penetraon and Usage in Kosovo, 2011
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18. Orkii Stascs and Indicators
Internet Penetraon Bulgaria, 2011
hp://www.orkii.com/bulgaria/internet-penetraon
19. Orkii Stascs and Indicators
Internet Penetraon Macedonia, 2011
hp://www.orkii.com/macedonia/internet-penetraon
20. Miniwas Markeng Group
Internet World Stats, 2008
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21. Kosovo Ministry of Trade and Industry
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Kosovo Census 2011 Quesonnaire, 2011
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Kosovo Populaon and Housing Census 2011, 2011
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Kosovo Mosaic, 2012
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71 INTERNET
PENETRATION
AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
26. European Commission
Kosovo Progress Report 2009, 2009
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27. European Commission
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Kosovo Wi Map, 2013
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29. Kuvendi i Kosoves
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hp://www.kuvendikosoves.org/common/docs/ligjet/2004_45_en.pdf
30. University of Prishna
Naonal Background Report on ICT Research for Kosovo , 2009
www.wbc-inco.net/aach/KosovoICTReportFINAL_01_12_2009.pdf
31. New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development
Naonal Broadband Map, 2013
hp://www.broadbandmap.govt.nz
32. Autorite Rregullav per Komunikime Elektronike dhe Postare
Pasqyra e Tregut te Komunikimeve elektronike (Albanian), 2013
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ke%20TM3%20dhe%20TM4_2012.pdf
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Pyetesori per sherbimet e Internet (ISP) (Albanian), 2010
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72INTERNET
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AND USAGE
IN KOSOVO
38. Arcus Advisors
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39. Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communicaons
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Skills Gap Analysis for Informaon and Communicaon Technology, 2011
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and%20Communicaon%20Technology.pdf
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and informaon society services in Enlargement Countries, 2011
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hps://www.cia.gov/library/publicaons/the-world-factbook/elds/2177.html
INTERNET USERS BY GENDER
KOSOVO MIRRORS EUROPEAN NEIGHBORS ON USAGE
... Local government institutions nowadays face new challenges as well as new expectations if compared to earlier institutions. A 2013 survey on the state of use and penetration of internet in Kosovo showed that internet users constitute 76% of total Kosovo population above 10 years old (Fazliu, 2013). This analysis provides some relevant facts about ICT tools at hand within administration and converging views that key officials are having an increased understanding of the importance and utilization of the ICT tools with special focus on social media. ...
... The fact that approximately 71% of all local government institutions are present on social networks, is encouraging. And in view of current general usage statisticsof social media networks in Kosovo (Fazliu, 2013;"Internet World Statistics," 2013), indicate an estimated internet penetration of 76% among the 1.85 million population. There is, as such, a large potential for a rapid substantial strengthening of an e-participation component of eGovernment, which would not only cover the public consultations processes but, moreover, it could strengthen the cooperation with citizens at the local level as well as significantly increase the institutional transparency towards citizens; thus building on the trust of citizens towards governmental institutions. ...
Conference Paper
Accessing ICTs among citizens, especially youth, is gaining momentum as it is assumed to contribute to increased participation and general improvement in citizens’ present and future welfare. The move to create opportunities for engagement of youth in processes of urban planning represents one common vision for empowering local communities with ICT platforms, with which they can face existing concerns on existing public spaces and actively contribute in revitalizing planning processes through civic engagement. This paper is based on a local government case study, an initiative for using Minecraft as a citizen participation tool for urban redesign in local development. The aim is to examine how this initiative has approached the common vision of access, utilization, participation, and engagement of citizens in the community. By presenting this vision of access to ICT promotion for civic engagement among citizens and youths, this paper aims to provide a practical illustration of how serious games may be used in urban planning and to explore the potential by applying the application in the context of local governments. We draw interesting lessons from this case and implications for e-Participation.
... According to the same Agency report (2017; 2013) the number of citizens between 18 and 64 is 1,192,18 and the average age in Kosovo is 30,2. Regarding the age of internet where social media are included also the age that uses the internet the most are 10-29 (Fazliu, 2013). To perform the chi-square test has been gathering data in Kosovo from 151 respondents. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consumer behaviour in theoretical aspect has evolved through the years. Moreover, numerous seller have moved from physical retailer to online e-commerce websites or pages on social media. Social media within years have expanded the usage in the commercial world. In the digitization era, where consumers are daily users of technology and social media, gamification has been seen as an innovative engaging and motivating technique. So far, gamification has been employed in different fields such as healthcare, sustainability, government, transportation, education, and so on. Although, gamification appliance in consumer behaviour domain is not that much explored. Furthermore, one of gamification elements is game mechanics, which has been applied for the research purpose. This paper aims to explain the differences between consumers of different age groups and cities in Republic of Kosovo regarding the game mechanics influence when purchasing via social media. A qualitative approach followed by a non-parametric test, Chi-Square test, has been employed to describe and explain the differences between the groups. This paper contributes to the existing theory of gamification, game mechanics and its impact for social media purchasers.
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