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MARKETING 4.0: IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS ON MARKETING ACTIVITIES 1 Pazarlama 4.0: Teknolojik Gelişmelerin Pazarlama Faaliyetlerine Etkileri Öz



Technological developments, which have transcended just being an innovation, have a profound influence on production processes and daily life of consumers by changing their habits and behaviors. Comparing the production technology and daily life of the 1950s with today, the changes are apparently noticed. Therefore, proceeding in a parallel manner with the changes in technology, marketing activities have converted to Marketing 4.0. Thus, in the light of literature, this study systematically aims to reveal the changes in marketing activities based on technological developments and to explain the distinctive features of each marketing stages. Hence, in this study firstly the changes in marketing activities are investigated in terms of changes in industry, markets and consumers. It is understood that marketing activities can be examined in four stages namely; Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 3.0 and Marketing 4.0. The differences of all stages are explained in detail. Finally, the transformation of marketing mix elements has been investigated based on technological developments. Thus, the relationship between technology and marketing has been addressed in a comprehensive manner.
Technological developments, which have transcended just being an innovation, have a profo-
und inuence on production processes and daily life of consumers by changing their habits
and behaviors. Comparing the production technology and daily life of the 1950s with today,
the changes are apparently noticed. Therefore, proceeding in a parallel manner with the chan-
ges in technology, marketing activities have converted to Marketing 4.0. Thus, in the light of
literature, this study systematically aims to reveal the changes in marketing activities based on
technological developments and to explain the distinctive features of each marketing stages.
Hence, in this study rstly the changes in marketing activities are investigated in terms of
changes in industry, markets and consumers. It is understood that marketing activities can be
examined in four stages namely; Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 3.0 and Marketing
4.0. The dierences of all stages are explained in detail. Finally, the transformation of marke-
ting mix elements has been investigated based on technological developments. Thus, the rela-
tionship between technology and marketing has been addressed in a comprehensive manner.
Keywords: Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 3.0, Marketing 4.0, Marketing Mix
Pazarlama 4.0: Teknolojik Gelişmelerin Pazarlama
Faaliyetlerine Etkileri
Teknik bir yenilik olmanın ötesine geçen teknolojik gelişmeler, tüketicilerin alışkanlıklarını ve
davranışlarını değiştirmek suretiyle günlük hayatı derinden etkilemektedir. 1950’ler ile günü-
müzdeki günlük hayat kıyaslaması yapıldığında, bu değişimler açık bir şekilde görülmektedir.
Bu nedenle pazarlama faaliyetleri de teknolojideki değişimlerle paralel bir şekilde ilerleyerek,
tüketicileri tatmin etmeye yönelik yeni uygulamalarla Pazarlama 4.0’a dönüştüğü görülmektedir.
Bu nedenle, bu çalışmada pazarlamanın teknolojiyi takip ederek geçirdiği dönüşüm ve bu dönü-
şümün pazarlama karması unsurlarında meydana getirdiği değişimler sistematik bir şekilde ele
alınarak, teknolojik gelişmelerin pazarlama faaliyetleri üzerindeki etkisinin vurgulanması ve her
bir pazarlama döneminin ayırt edici özellikleri ile birlikte detaylı bir şekilde açıklanması amaç-
lanmaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, ilgili literatürden hareketle pazarlama faaliyetlerindeki
değişim endüstri, pazar ve tüketici yapısındaki değişimlerle birlikte ele alınarak, Pazarlama 1.0,
Pazarlama 2.0, Pazarlama 3.0 ve Pazarlama 4.0 olmak üzere dört ayrı dönemde incelenmiştir.
Bu dönemlerin ayırt edici özellikleri açıklandıktan sonra teknolojinin pazarlama karması unsur-
larında meydana getirdiği değişimler detaylı olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu nedenle bu çalışmanın
teknoloji ve pazarlama arasında ilişkiyi kapsamlı bir şekilde incelediği düşünülmektedir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Pazarlama 1.0, Pazarlama 2.0, Pazarlama 3.0, Pazarlama 4.0, Pazarlama Karması
1 This study is derived from the authors’ study of “Marketing 4.0: Reections on Technological
Developments in Marketing Activities” presented in Sos-Con International Social Sciences
and Innovation Congress in Antalya on 11-13 May 2018. This publication has been prepared
based on the Project supported by the ERU BAP (Project Number: SDK-2017-7136).
2 Research Assistant Dr. Erciyes University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Scien-
ces, Management Department, E-mail:
3 Prof. Dr. Erciyes University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management,
Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (KÜSBD)
Cilt 8, Sayı 2, Temmuz 2018, Sayfa 621-640
Kırıkkale University Journal of Social Sciences (KUJSS)
Volume 8, No 2, July 2018, Pages 621-640
The history of humanity can be divided into various periods based on the
materials, tools, equipment, machinery and eventually technology used in
a time span. In this context, Crawford (1991) divided society into four cate-
gories namely; primitive, agricultural, industrial and information. Technological
developments have been a signicant role on economic and sociological chan-
ges of the world. Particularly, the invention of steam engine and uses of basic
machines working with steam power has changed rstly manufacturing and then
daily routine of people leading industrial revolution with the transformation of
agricultural society to industrial society. According to historians, industrial revo-
lution has covered a long period which has started at 18th century and has been
continued until present (Lasi et al., 2014, p. 239). However, industrial revolution
has been examined in four stages, namely Industry 1.0, Industry 2.0, Industry 3.0
and Industry 4.0 (Drath and Horch, 2014, p. 56). Industry 1.0 was regarded as the
starting point of industrialization with the use of steam engine (Wahlster, 2012).
After almost a century, development of assembly lines has increased mechaniza-
tion in manufacturing, hence Industry 2.0 has emerged (Baygin et al., 2016, p.1).
The digital programming of automation systems has been used in production lea-
ding to Industry 3.0 (Drath and Horch, 2014, p.56). Finally, Industry 4.0 has begun
with the uses of internet technologies in production (Lasi et al., 2014, p. 241). Hen-
ce, the developments of technology have altered production from Industry 1.0 to
Industry 4.0 and these improvements have led to increase in the production ca-
pacity of organizations. Technological developments have not only aected pro-
duction capacity but also markets to reach. With the help of the developments in
communication and transportation technologies, businesses have expanded their
target markets and started to operate globally. Fax machines, telephones, mobile
phones, computers and internet have made it possible to communicate all around
the world easily (Moncrief and Cravens, 1999, p. 329). In addition to communica-
tion technologies, transportation technologies have developed rapidly and helped
to reduce the costs and time of shipping of most products. Thus, businesses have
begun to operate globally leading to emergence of global markets.
Globalization has proliferated the variety of the alternative products in the
market, hence the level of competition in the markets has increased. Marketing
strategy has become signicant for organizations to facilitate and sustain com-
petitive advantages (Kotler and Keller, 2006, p. 329). The increase in number of
products with dierent brands has not been the only alteration in the market. As
the choice of products has increased, consumers have begun to compare the pro-
ducts. Especially the developments in information technologies have facilitated to
gather information about products for consumers. Thus, consumers have become
more conscious.
622 Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Technology has also changed consumers’ daily routines by altering their da-
ily way of engagements (İnal, 2009, p. 108), this leads consumers to gain new
aitudes and behaviors (Koufaris, 2002, p. 206). Especially, information and mo-
bile technologies have been known as initiators of a new era named informati-
on society due to their tremendous impacts on daily life of consumers (Webster,
2006, p. 8). Nowadays, smart devices, mobile technologies and wireless internet
connection have been used by the large part of the human population. According
to the statistics, one in every four has used smart phone (Ntalkos et al., 2015, p.
540). These kinds of mobile technologies help consumers to communicate conti-
nuously and to obtain information easily. Therefore, these digital consumers are
dierent from those in the past (Kotler et al., 2016, p. 26). Since the developments
in technology have aected important surrounding factors of marketing such as
production facilities, markets and consumer behaviors, marketing activities has
changed in parallel manner with the technology.
Against the background briey presented above, the aim of this study is to
determine the eects of technological development on marketing activities. For
this purpose, in the light of current literature, marketing activities are examined
in four stages respectively; Marketing 1.0, Marketing 2.0, Marketing 3.0 and Mar-
keting 4.0. The main features of each marketing stages and the dierences among
them are examined. Finally, the eects of technological developments on marke-
ting mix elements are studied. Since this paper explains the relationship between
technology and marketing comprehensively and holistically, it is believed that it
makes a signicant contribution not only to the body of knowledge but also to the
practitioners to help them to understand the issue from a wider angle.
Marketing Evolution
Many radical changes have taken place in the world since the Industrial revo-
lution. Especially rapid developments of information technologies increased the
pace of the changes in the last decade. Nowadays the world has become a global
place where both geographic and cultural boundaries between nations have be-
come transparent and people all over the world have connected each other via
social media and the internet. Technology and globalization have also changed
the rules of trade. In business life the data has become the most important asset of
the companies and the companies which manage data properly have possessed
the key of achievement. Keeping pace with the changes is required for sustaining
the business life. Thus, marketing activities have transformed from Marketing 1.0
to Marketing 4.0 in parallel manner with the technological developments.
Marketing 1.0.
Marketing 1.0 was the rst stage of marketing which has consisted of various
concepts namely production concepts, product concepts, selling concepts and mar-
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
keting concepts. It is noteworthy that industrial revolution had induced to emer-
gence of Marketing 1.0 (Jara et al., 2012, p. 854). Therefore, Marketing 1.0 started
with production concepts as a result of the Industrial revolution. In the early days
of Marketing 1.0, there were a small number of businesses engaging in production
in the market and these businesses focused on achieving high production eci-
ency with low cost (Kotler and Keller, 2006, p. 15). In order to ensure this, busi-
nesses used industrial machines and so that they could manufacture standardized
products massively. In that term, consumers were regarded as passive and they
had no impact on production process of businesses (Nowacki, 2015, p. 313). Henry
Ford, the founder of automotive industry, declared in a meeting any customer can
have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black. In marketing li-
terature, many researchers came to a consensus on that this speech summarized
properly the production concept of Marketing 1.0 (Mucuk, 2010, p. 8).
With the economic developments, the number of businesses in the market
began to proliferate. As the alternative products in the market rapidly increased in
time, businesses believed that customers would choose the product that oer high
quality. Thus, they varied their business strategy to product concept rather than
production (Kotler and Keller, 2006, p. 15). Businesses concentrated on manu-
facturing high quality products and dierentiating their products from others in
order to aain competitive advantage. In this stage, consumers were still passive
but businesses realized the signicance of consumers leastways. After a while, bu-
sinesses noticed that quality and innovativeness were not sucient for selling the
products. Consequently, the selling concept came into prominent topic. Busines-
ses aempted to sell aggressively with promotions and advertising (Kotler and
Keller, 2006, p. 15). The focus point of organizations was to persuade consumer
to buy more. The accuracy and validity of the messages given in advertising cam-
paign were not important so that organizations implemented aggressive selling
activities at the cost of deception of consumers.
In the middle of 1950s, it has been understood that misleading selling activi-
ties could not yield prot in the long run. Businesses discerned that customer sa-
tisfaction was the key factor of business success. Businesses shifted their strategy
to marketing concept. With the marketing concept, the businesses converted their
strategy from nding right costumers for their products to nding right products
for their customers (Kotler and Keller, 2006, p. 15). However, businesses merely
focused on manufacturing products that satisfy customers’ physical need even in
marketing concept.
With an overview of Marketing 1.0, although Marketing 1.0 has been a long
period that experiencing many transactions between production concept and
marketing concept, businesses generally focused on products, not customers in
this term (Tarabasz, 2013, p. 128). Therefore, Marketing 1.0 was evaluated as pro-
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
duct-based marketing. Businesses targeted to manufacture high quality products
which provide customers functional benets (Kotler, 2011, p. 133). Marketing 1.0
strategy consisted of basic marketing mix elements namely product, price, place
and promotion strategies (4P) and these were thought sucient to persuade con-
sumers to buy products (Jiménez-Zarco et al., 2017, p. 8). The main marketing
communication channels were traditional media so, marketing communication
with customers were unidirectional (Erragcha and Romdhane, 2014, p. 138).
Marketing 2.0.
Rapid progression in technology, globalization and economy led to change
social and business life radically. On the one hand, the buyer power has increased
in connection with economic conditions and the choice of goods in the market that
customers could purchase have continued to increase with globalization, on the
other hand, communication and access of information have become easier thanks
to technological developments. Especially Web 2.0 technologies altered the com-
munication from monologs to dialogs (Tarabasz, 2013, p. 126). These develop-
ments have begun a chain of particular changes in marketing.
First of all, on account of plenty of similar goods in the market and the facili-
tation of internet technologies to access information, consumers started to search,
question and compare the products before they gave buying decision. Additio-
nally, the buying power of consumers has increased, consumers started to purc-
hase products not only to get functional benet but also emotional benet. Mar-
keters realized that consumers have bought more consciously under the inuence
of dierent motives compared to past. For this reason, businesses had to change
their marketing strategies as customer-oriented marketing in order to retain their
current customers so businesses tried to establish strong relationship with cus-
tomers thanks to ecient communication. Beside to communication, businesses
operated marketing researches to learn the needs and desires of customers and to
discover new opportunities (Jara et al., 2012, p. 854). As a result of these changes
in marketing, businesses reorganized traditional marketing mix elements as 4C
with the aim of sustainable marketing (Kumar et al., 2012). 4C was an abbrevia-
tion that consisted of the rst leer of customer solution, customer cost, commu-
nication and convenience. It was thought that 4P reected vender point of view,
whereas 4C that reected customer point of view (Mucuk, 2010, p. 33). Becoming
a customer- oriented organization required to think like customers and to provide
customers various benets so that businesses begun to consider to nd a soluti-
on for customer needs with their products, to determine the real cost of product
possession for consumers, to communicate with customers eciently and to make
products available in convenient place. Therefore, Marketing 2.0 focused on 4C in
contrast to Marketing 1.0.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
Another dierence between Marketing 1.0 and Marketing 2.0 was the way
of communication. In Marketing 2.0 businesses not only used traditional media
but also, they started to use internet for communication and promotion activiti-
es (Tarabasz, 2013, p. 126). Especially Web 2.0 induced signicant dierences in
marketing activities. With the use of internet as a marketing tool, unidirectional
communication turned into double-sided so that businesses could operate marke-
ting communication with their customers interactively (Aldhaheri and Bach, 2013,
p.6). Additionally, Web 2.0 made personal treatment to each consumer possible for
businesses (Jiménez-Zarco et al., 2017, p. 2). This led to fortify the relationship bet-
ween businesses and their target markets. Moreover, Web 2.0 technologies allowed
anyone to create and share content so that consumers left their passive role in mar-
keting behind and undertook a co-creative role. These consumers who contribu-
ted to production and marketing process of organizations voluntarily were called
prosumer. Prosumer was rstly dened by McLuhan and Nevit (1972). However,
prevalent usage of Web 2.0 technologies facilitated consumers’ participation into
business processes. Hence, prosumers who have special need and desire or who
want to dierentiate themselves from others started to demand customized pro-
ducts (Nowacki, 2015, p. 314). Therefore, product dierentiation and tailored pro-
ducts became the key marketing concepts of Marketing 2.0 (Kotler et al., 2010, p.
4). Businesses started to behave their customers as if they were king (Craven, 2005).
Marketing 3.0.
Marketing 3.0 is known as value- driven marketing applications (Kotler et
al., 2010, p. 4). The center of interest shifted toward human as a whole in Mar-
keting 3.0 (Varey and McKie, 2010, p. 330). In Marketing 1.0 businesses focused
on merely functional benets and these benets were regarded as sucient to
satisfy mind of customers. In Marketing 2.0 beside to functional benets, busi-
nesses strived to promote their products with emotional benets in order to enter
into the heart of consumers. Because Marketing 3.0 treated consumer as a human
being who has mind, heart and spirit, a new benet as spiritual benet was added
in Marketing 3.0 era (Erragcha and Romdhane, 2014, p. 137). Businesses should
create value in order to appeal to the soul of consumers. The environmental and
social factors emerged as a result of intense industrialization and globalization
sensitized customers in terms of social issues. Therefore, businesses that struggled
for making the world a beer place with social responsibility projects can touch
the soul of consumers (Nowacki, 2015, p. 314). Because social, environmental and
economic problems concern everyone in the world, businesses have collaborative
role. They have to stimulate all their entities such as stakeholders, employees and
customers to work together with the aim of nding solutions for social welfare.
Therefore, Marketing 3.0 demonstrated spiritual and collaborative issues as its
concerns (Jiménez-Zarco et al., 2017, p. 104).
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
The sensitivity of consumers to social welfare was not the only change in con-
sumer behavior but also, consumers got new habits thanks to the developments
in information technologies. Especially social media altered customer behavior
radically. Social media serves as an online communication channel which let con-
sumers share their opinion and experience with other social media users. Soci-
al media is an essential platform for businesses as well. Businesses make use of
social media for dierent marketing purposes such as gathering consumer data,
establishing marketing communication with consumers and operating promotion
activities (Mangold and Faulds, 2009, p. 357). Besides, social media has an es-
sential impact on purchase decision of consumers. As competition increased, the
number of advertising consumer exposed to in a day increased as well. This indu-
ced to diminish the credibility of advertising credibility on consumers. Therefore,
consumers initiated to pay more aention to other users’ product experience be-
fore giving purchase decision. The nature of social media encourages consumers
for sharing their experience so that social media has a vital inuence on purchase
decision (Wang et al., 2012, p. 198). Additionally, social media accelerated viral
content of businesses to reach many people (Chu and Kim, 2011, p. 48). Social me-
dia users share the interesting viral content with their friends thus; viral content is
displayed by large group of people. Therefore, consumers engaged in advertising
campaign of businesses in Marketing 3.0.
Marketing 4.0.
Marketing 4.0 emerged in consequence of various changes sourced from in-
tense global competition, new type of consumers and rapid development in tech-
nologies (Vassileva, 2017). Actually, whether it is a new phenomenon or it is a
modication of existing marketing implementations is discussed in the literature
(Jara et al., 2012, p. 854; Tarabasz, 2013, p. 129; Nowacki 2015, p. 315). Like previ-
ous marketing concepts, customers are still the center of the marketing activities
however; the dierence lies behind the market conditions. Marketing 4.0 is ope-
rated in extremely cybernetic marketing system in which business transactions
and customer activities can be monitored in real time (Dholakia et al., 2010, p.497).
Marketing 4.0 focuses on satisfaction of customers’ needs and desires like rst
two generations and it tries to create value for all entities like third generation. In
addition to them, it oers a direct interaction of consumers with products with
enhanced technology (Jara et al., 2012, p. 854). Consumers can either display the
features of the product or purchase it by scanning matrix barcode, radio frequency
identication (RFID) and near eld communication (NFC) tags themselves. This
led consumers to become more conscious (Tarabasz, 2013, p. 132). Moreover, inter-
related machines enable consumers to design or prepare their personal products
without anyone (Jiménez-Zarco et al., 2017, p. 197). As the interaction between hu-
man and computer increases, marketing strategies transformed into digitalization
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
(Vassileva, 2017, p. 47). Traditional trade rstly converted into e-trade and then
m-trade. Technology improves continuously and aects both business and social
life. For this reason, the main purpose of Marketing 4.0 is to predict the future de-
velopments in the market and mould marketing activities based on this foresight.
Therefore, consumer insights, data management and advanced analytics are key
factors of Marketing 4.0 in order to forecast the future trends (Vassileva, 2017, p.
49). Table 1 summarizes the main dierences among marketing concepts.
Table 1: The main dierences among marketing concepts
Specications Marketing 1.0
Marketing 2.0
Marketing 3.0
Marketing 4.0
(Localized virtu-
al marketing)
Objective Sell products Satisfy and retain
Make the world a
beer place
Today create the
Enabling forces Industrial revo-
Information techno-
New wave tech-
revolution and
Web 4.0
The market seen
by companies
Mass buyers with
physical needs
Smarter consumers
with mind and heart
Whole human
with mind, heart
and spirit
Collective of fully
conscious buyers,
co-creative pro-
Key marketing
Product develop-
Dierentiation Values Mass customiza-
tion, JiT
Company marke-
ting guidelines
Product speci-
Corporate and pro-
duct positioning
Corporate vision
and values
Values, vision
and anticipation
Value proposi-
Functional Functional and emo-
emotional and
Functional, emo-
tional, spiritual
and self-creative
Interaction with
One-to-one relation Many-to-many
co-creation and
Source: Kotler et al. (2010) and Tarabasz (2013)
Table 1 shows the changes in technology enable the shift from Marketing 1.0
to Marketing 4.0. As markets, behaviors and values of consumers have altered
align with technological developments, businesses have been obliged to comply
with these changes, so new marketing applications have been emerged.
The Eects of Technological Developments on Marketing Mix
The developments in technology enable marketing activities to develop,
simplify and accelerate with the use of new tools and new techniques (Jayaram et
al., 2015). In the latest form of marketing, one of the most valuable assets of the bu-
sinesses is the capability of adaptation to technological improvements. Therefore,
businesses reshaped their marketing mix elements namely product, price, place
and promotion strategies based on the present technology.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
It is seen that the developments in technology cause dierent changes in
physical products and services. To begin with physical products, the salient chan-
ges in physical products can be listed as product standardization with mass pro-
duction, product shelf life extension, product diversication, personalized pro-
ducts and smarter products.
As industries have developed with technologies, the capacity and the speed
of production have increased with the use of assembly line technologies in manu-
facturing so that businesses started to mass production (Adetayo et al., 1999, p.
691). As a product-based approach, Marketing 1.0 focused on production in large
amounts. Regardless of the desire of consumers, businesses aimed to maximize
their prots by diminishing cost of manufacture with standardized products. The-
refore, it was understood that variety of products in the market was low in that
term. As competition has increased and manufacturing technologies have impro-
ved, businesses tried to dierentiate themselves with high quality products. For
this reason, key marketing concept of Marketing 1.0 was product development.
The developments in communication and transportation technologies have
allowed businesses to trade in global markets. With the eect of globalization, the
variety of the products in markets began to rapidly increase. The only obstacle
on trade in the global market was the shelf life of the products (Karafakioğlu,
2013, p. 75). Shelf life was considered as a very restrictive factor especially for
products that need to be consumed in a short time. Advances in technology, such
as heat treatment, rapid cooling, microltration, high hydration pressure techno-
logy, stressed electric eld and genetic modication applications, are important
to extend the shelf life of the product (Capon and Glazer, 1987, p. 3; Çelik and
Turgut –Balık, 2007, p. 15).
Information technologies caused to emergence of Marketing 2.0 applications.
Internet provided consumers easy access of product information and wide variety
of product choice. Consumers became more conscious and demanded personalized
products that exactly met their particular needs and desires (Rust and Espinoza,
2006, p. 1073). Thus, it can be understood that production, which became massive
with the industrial revolution, began to become individualized with information
technologies. Therefore, consumers engaged in the production process with Marke-
ting 2.0. As technology develops, the products continue to change as well.
With the transition to information technology, a new era for products has be-
gun. In this period, the rise of technological products in markets aracts aention. It
is seen that technological products such as mobile phone and laptops become smal-
ler, lighter and smarter in Marketing 3.0. On the other hand, environmental sensi-
tivity is another signicant feature of the products in Marketing 3.0. Products such
as household appliances are designed in order to consume less energy and water.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
In Marketing 4.0, human-machine connection increases. Therefore, busines-
ses produce and packages products in order to encourage this interactivity. Bu-
sinesses start to use barcodes and QR codes on the package of the products and
advertising messages so that consumers can access all information by scanning
these codes. Besides, a radical change in product strategy occurs thanks to in-
ternet of things (Zhang et al., 2012, p. 1069). Internet of the things technology
connects physical things to the Internet so that machines can be controlled with
remote sensor (Kope, 2011, p. 307).
In addition to physical products, technology has also aected the basic cha-
racteristics of the service. Consumers can easily get information about the services
they are interested in through search engines, web sites, social media environ-
ments, blogs, forums, satellite images, animations, videos and photos (Sarı and
Kozak, 2005, p. 261). Moreover, virtual reality applications provide consumers a
digital experience of service. Thus, the intangibility feature of the service is con-
verted to almost tangible (Guentag, 2010, p. 644). Variability arising from the
service organizations can be reduced with the technological improvements so that
the quality of service can be standardized with the use of interoperability techno-
logy (Buhalis and Law, 2008, p. 614). Thus, the variability feature of the services
can be controlled over. Taking into consideration the dierences in product stra-
tegy till Marketing 4.0, it is observed that the developments in technology have
essential impacts on both physical products and services.
Technological developments play an important role in determining the pri-
cing strategies of products. Developments in globalization and information tech-
nologies have transformed countries into open markets (Albay, 2010, p. 214). The
ability of businesses to access resources all over the world has provided a signi-
cant cost advantage to businesses. On this account, enterprises can provide cost
savings by directing to regions where they can recruit raw materials easier and
cheaper. Moreover, mass production also diminishes the unit production cost of
the products. Therefore, these kinds of cost savings strategies of businesses indu-
ce a decline in price of the products.
In addition to providing cost savings and competitive advantage, modern
technologies have also reduced the cost of accessing information and joining
global markets (Acs and Preston, 1997, p. 1). Particularly selling on the internet
provides specic advantages to businesses such as employing fewer employees,
reducing cost of establishing store front and eliminating intermediaries. Further-
more, e-commerce transactions are taxed at lower rates, or taxes are not levied on
e-commerce transactions in some countries, such as the United Kingdom, (Shar-
ma and Sheth, 2004, p. 700). The dierence in the cost elements of the businesses
in the electronic environment can also be reected in the prices of the products
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
and therefore, it is seen that the prices in the electronic environment are lower
than the prices in the physical environment (Çıtır, 2013, p. 484).
Another eect of information technology in prices is the shift to open pricing
instead of closed pricing (Sharma and Sheth, 2004, p. 700). Thanks to the Internet,
businesses have become transparent and businesses share their products and pri-
ces so that consumers can compare the prices easily. Because products are similar
in terms of quality, qualication and price, the price of the product determine the
purchasing decision of the consumers. Thus, consumers become more sensitive
about price (Kotler, 2012, p. 100).
Information technology also altered the agent who sets the price. Price-deter-
mining role passes from the seller to the consumer. The consumer can determine
the price of the product by auction or open auction method. During the auction
process, consumers indicate price quotations. When the time has completed, the
consumer who oered the last bid purchases the products. However, on sites such
as, the vendor indicates to the merchant how much they will pay
for a product without the auction or open auction. If the seller accepts the price
oered by the consumer, the sales transaction takes place (Kotler, 2012, p.100).
The most noteworthy aspect of the impact of technological developments in
distribution channels on businesses is that the innovations in information and
communication technologies enable the distribution channel management to be
carried out more eciently (Waters, 2003, p. 29). The Internet, intranet and extra-
net, which provide communication between distribution channel members, ensu-
re more open, more frequent and timely communication among channel members
(Kopczak, 1997, p. 231). The increase in communication facilitates and accelerates
the share of information in businesses so that it improves the ability of channel
members to work in coordination. Ecient communication among channel mem-
bers ensures ecient inventory management as well (Tekin et al.,2005, p. 118). In
addition, as a result of developments in information technology, businesses can
communicate with their channel members and consumers in real-time at less cost.
This provides a signicant competitive advantage to businesses (Closs and Xu,
2000, p. 882).
In addition to communication technologies, businesses use various labelling
technologies namely barcode, frame code and RFID code. Dierent software that
scan these labels provides information to businesses about qualication, price and
availability of the products. Businesses take advantage of labelling technologies
not only to operate inventory management eciently but also to take precautions
for fault of employees (Sun, 2012, p. 108). Since businesses record transactions
at the moment of sale by scanning these codes, the frequency of sales of specic
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
products can be apparently observed (Moncrief and Cravens, 1999, p. 331). Based
on these data derived from labelling technologies, the businesses evaluate how to
manage inventory in the future. Thus, inventory management can be carried out
more eectively by using labelling technologies.
Another technological development used in the management of distribution
channels is the monitoring of the position of the products with the general positi-
oning service (GPS) technology. Through the satellite systems, the location of all
vehicles can be tracked and the businesses and consumers can be simultaneously
informed about the exact location of their products.
Technological developments does not only improve inventory management
but also reduce the number of channel members between producers and consu-
mers. Nowadays, consumers are able to order their products from the web or
mobile application of businesses. This situation allows businesses to work with
fewer intermediaries and employees.
Promotion is the last element of marketing mix. Since it depends on commu-
nication with consumers in order to persuade them to purchase more, the deve-
lopments in information and communication technologies have reshaped promo-
tion activities. The fundamental transformation in promotion has been regarded
as the changes in the way and the channel of communications. As it is shown in
Table 1, in Marketing 1.0 businesses used traditional media to convey adverti-
sing message to customers. The nature of traditional media allows one-way com-
munication for mass population so that customers were passive listener of mass
message of businesses in this term (Chen and Hsieh, 2012, p. 543). However, in-
formation technologies have initiated a new era for promotions with Marketing
2.0. On the one hand, Web 2.0 technologies enable interactive communications;
on the other hand, the communication message can be personalized for each con-
sumer. Businesses initiated one-to-one interactive relationship with consumers.
With Web 3.0 and Web 4.0, intensity of one-to one relationship with customers
increases. Social media and semantic web give businesses signicant opportu-
nity for observing customer behavior. Based on the data taken from new internet
technologies, businesses can manage more personalized behavioral advertising
campaign (Li and Du, 2012, p. 4). Personalized advertising also increases with
the mobile technologies. Consumers always carry their mobile devices. Therefore,
instantaneous location of customers can be determined by the signals received
from mobile phone of customers and businesses send a message to customers’
mobile phone based on their locations (Chen and Hsieh, 2012, p. 545). Thus, with
developments in technology, marketing communication has varied from one-way
communication to interactive communication and the advertising message of bu-
sinesses transforms from mass content to personalized content.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Another feature that distinguishes traditional media from internet and mo-
bile technologies is that push-type strategies are applied in traditional advertise-
ment, while pull-type strategies are applied in internet and mobile advertisements
(Li and Du, 2012, p.2). In push-type advertising strategies, businesses transmit
their marketing messages directly to consumers, while in pull-type strategies, bu-
sinesses have to take permission from consumers in order to send advertising
messages (Chen and Hsieh, 2012, p. 544). Hence, while the consumers are exposed
to advertising in the push strategy, consumers receive advertising voluntarily in
the pull strategy (Peaie and Peters, 1997, p. 148). Consequently, it is understo-
od that consumers don’t want to read irrelevant advertisings in magazines and
newspapers and they switch the channels when advertising starts on radio and
TV (Kotler, 2012, p. 110). However, consumers voluntarily search the advertising
content of businesses that is aractive for themselves on search engines and fol-
low the social media accounts of businesses in order to be informed on promotion
activities (Xiang and Greel, 2010, p. 180). For this reason, internet and mobi-
le platforms are thought to be more eective advertising channel. Additionally,
businesses altered their advertising content into viral content in order to arouse
curiosity in the consumers and enjoy them.
Beside to advertising, other elements of promotions such as sales promotions
and public relations adopt new technologies. Businesses either send coupon as
a message or share coupons on social media platforms. Compared to traditional
coupons, coupons delivered to consumers via social media and mobile devices
are said to be more readable and used (Chen and Hsieh, 2012, p.545). Social media
also enables the businesses to manage the crisis or complaints more eectively. In
this way, businesses suered from negative word of the mouth in the past whereas
social media helps businesses to control over customer complaints at the present.
This paper has aempted to reveal the transformative inuence of technology
in marketing activities. Marketing activities have rstly emerged after industrial
revolution and as technology has developed, marketing has converted into Mar-
keting 2.0, Marketing 3.0 and Marketing 4.0 respectively, aligns with the changes
in industries, markets and costumers. It is pointed out that the focus points, basic
objectives and implementations of each marketing concepts are dierent from one
another. Particularly, information and communication technologies have induced
a substantial change in both marketing concepts and marketing mix elements.
Thanks to technological improvements, marketing has gained more innovative,
interactive and personalized point of view and this provides businesses to operate
more ecient marketing activities.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
Although marketing concepts have varied in time, unfortunately not all busi-
nesses have complied with these changes. It is known that some of the organiza-
tions still imply previous marketing concepts. However, businesses should move
to Marketing 4.0 in order to survive in the digital era. Marketing 4.0 depends on
management of big data therefore businesses should invest in talent management
in order to train and/or hire employees who make advanced analysis by using big
data. Moreover, technology continues to improve rapidly. Thus, fast movement is
the most important business asset now. Businesses should speed up their marke-
ting activities and follow the changes continuously in order to thrive.
In order to enhance our understanding on these issues, there is a still need for
intensive empirical research which can be the focus of further research.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
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Genişletilmiş Özet
Teknolojik gelişmeler sonucunda üretim sistemlerinde, pazarlarda ve tüketici
davranışlarında gözlemlenen değişimler pazarlama faaliyetlerini de etkileyerek,
pazarlama stratejilerinde önemli değişimlere neden olduğu görülmektedir. Böy-
lece pazarlama stratejilerinin, teknolojideki gelişmelerden etkilenerek, Pazarlama
1.0, Pazarlama 2.0, Pazarlama 3.0 ve Pazarlama 4.0 olmak üzere farklı dönemlere
ayrıldığı görülmektedir.
Literatürde, teknolojideki gelişmelerin pazarlama faaliyetleri üzerindeki et-
kisini inceleyen sınırlı sayıda çalışma olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmalarda
pazarlama faaliyetlerindeki değişimlerin genel hatlarla ele alındığı ancak, detaylı
bir incelemenin yapılmadığı görülmüştür. Literatürde tespit edilen bu boşluğu
doldurmak için bu çalışma, teknoloji ve pazarlama arasındaki ilişkiyi kapsamlı
bir şekilde ele alarak, teknolojideki gelişmelerin pazarlama stratejilerine olan et-
kisini ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu çerçevede, öncelikle pazarlama stra-
tejileri, kullanılan teknolojilere göre Pazarlama 1.0, Pazarlama 2.0, Pazarlama 3.0
ve Pazarlama 4.0 gibi dönemlere ayrılarak ele alınmıştır. Pazarlama dönemleri
arasındaki farklılıklar detaylı bir şekilde ortaya konduktan sonra, teknolojideki
gelişmelerin ürün, yat, tutundurma ve dağıtım stratejileri üzerindeki etkisi lite-
ratürden faydalanarak derinlemesine incelenmiştir.
Bu kapsamda, Pazarlama 1.0, sanayi devrimi sonucunda gelişen üretim,
ürün, satış ve pazarlama anlayışını kapsayan ilk pazarlama dönemidir. Pazar-
lama 1.0 döneminin başlangıcında işletmeler, üretim faaliyetlerine odaklanarak,
kitlesel üretim ile üretim maliyetlerini düşürmeyi hedeemektedirler. Ekonomik
gelişmeler sonucunda pazarda rekabetin artmasıyla birlikte işletmeler, rekabet
avantajı elde etmek için daha kaliteli ürünler üretmeye odaklanmışlardır. Böylece
üretim anlayışını, ürün anlayışı takip etmiştir. Kaliteli ürünlerin zamanla pazarda
alıcı bulmamaya başlaması sonucunda işletmeler satış anlayışını benimseyerek,
tüketicileri satın almaya ikna etmeyi amaçlamışlardır. Bu dönemde tüketicilere
iletilen mesajların doğruluğu veya geçerliliğinin önemli olmadığı dikkat çekmek-
tedir. Ancak 1950’lerin ortalarına doğru, yanıltıcı satış mesajlarının uzun vadede
işletmeye faydalı olmadığı anlaşılmıştır. İşletmeler, uzun vadede başarı elde et-
mek için müşteriyi tatmin etmek gerektiğini fark etmişlerdir. Böylelikle işletme-
ler pazarlama anlayışına geçerek, tüketicilerin ziksel ihtiyaçlarını karşılayacak
ürünler üretmeye odaklanmışlardır. Pazarlama 1.0, zaman içinde farklı anlayışla-
rının etkisinde kalarak değişmesine rağmen, genel olarak ürün temelli pazarlama
olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu dönemde tüketici ile geleneksel medya araçları
kullanılarak iletişim kurulmaya çalışılmıştır. Dolayısıyla pazarlama iletişiminin
tek taraı olduğu görülmektedir.
Teknolojideki gelişmeler ve küreselleşme toplumda olduğu gibi pazarlama-
da da önemli değişimlere neden olmuştur. Bu dönemde küreselleşme neticesinde
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
pazardaki ürün çeşitliliği artmıştır. Bununla birlikte, Web 2.0 teknolojileri tüke-
ticilere ürünler hakkında detaylı bilgi edinme ve ürünleri karşılaştırma imkânı
sunarak, tüketiciler daha bilinçli hale gelmesine neden olmuştur. Tüketicilerin
satın alma güçlerinin artması sonucunda tüketiciler sadece ziksel değil aynı za-
manda duygusal ihtiyaçlarını da karşılayacak ürünler talep etmeye başlamışlar-
dır. Bu durum müşteri ilişkileri yönetiminin ağırlık kazanmasına neden olarak,
işletmeleri müşteri merkezli işletmelere dönüştürmüştür. Bu dönemde pazarlama
karması unsurları tüketici açısından ele alınarak, tüketiciye sunulan fayda, tüketi-
cinin ödediği bedel, uygunluk ve iletişim olarak yeniden yorumlanmıştır. Web 2.0
teknolojileri çift taraı iletişimi desteklediği için pazarlama iletişiminde yeni bir
dönemi başlatmıştır. Bu sayede, tüketiciler pazarlamadaki pasif rollerini geride
bırakarak işletmelerin iş süreçlerine katılabilecekleri aktif roller üstlenmişlerdir.
Böylelikle Pazarlama 2.0 ile birlikte işletmeler müşteri kraldır bakış açısıyla hare-
ket etmeye başlamışlardır.
Teknolojideki gelişmeler sonucunda hızla artan sanayileşme çevre kirliliği
gibi toplumsal sorunları beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu dönemde ortaya çıkan Pa-
zarlama 3.0, değer temelli pazarlama uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilmektedir.
Pazarlama 3.0 ile birlikte işletmeler tüketicileri aklı, kalbi ve beyni olan bireyler
olarak betimleyerek, tüketicilere ziksel, duygusal ve manevi faydalar sunmaya
odaklanmışlardır. Böylelikle işletmeler üstlendikleri sosyal sorumluluk faaliyet-
leriyle Dünya’yı daha iyi bir yer yapmayı amaçlamışlardır. Bununla birlikte Web
3.0 teknolojileri ile tüketiciler tarafından yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaya başlanan
sosyal medya platformları tüketici davranışlarında ve pazarlama stratejilerinde
önemli değişimlere neden olmuştur. İşletmeler sosyal medya platformlarını -
ketici verisi toplama, iletişim kurma ve tutundurma amaçlı kullanırken, tüketi-
ciler ise, bu platformlarda geniş kitlelere seslerini duyurabilmektedir. Bu neden-
le tüketiciler işletmelere karşı önemli bir güç elde etmişlerdir. Tüketicilerin bu
gücünden faydalanmak amacıyla, Pazarlama 3.0’da işletmelerin viral pazarlama
uygulamalarına ağırlık verdikleri dikkat çekmektedir.
Pazarlama 4.0, yoğun küresel rekabet, yeni nesil tüketiciler ve hızlı teknolojik
gelişmeler sonucunda ortaya çıkmıştır. Pazarlama 4.0’da tüketici pazarlamanın
merkezinde yer almaya devam etmektedir ancak, pazarlama faaliyetleri RFID,
NFC, bulut teknolojileri, nesnelerin interneti gibi yeni nesil teknolojilerinden
destek alarak yürütülmeye başlanmıştır. Bu dönemde, büyük veri yönetimi öne
çıkarak, çevrimiçi tüketici davranışlarının takip edilmesi, verilerinin toplanması
ve analiz edilmesi tüketicilerin gelecekteki davranışlarını tahmin etmek için kul-
lanılmaya başlanmıştır. Enformasyon teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler neticesinde
geleneksel ticaret önce e-ticarete, sonra m-ticarete dönüşmüştür. Böylece, bu -
nemde siber teknolojiler hayatın merkezine yerleşerek, pazarlama karması unsur-
larında da köklü değişimlere neden olmuştur.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
Marketing 4.0: Impacts of Technological Developments on Marketing Activities
Bu çerçevede, bu çalışmada teknolojinin pazarlama faaliyetleri üzerindeki
dönüştürücü etkisi detaylı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır. Teknoloji hız kesmeksizin
ilerlemeye devam etmektedir. Bu nedenle işletmelerin dijital çağa uyum sağla-
yabilmeleri için bu değişimleri takip etmelerinin önem taşıdığı düşünülmektedir.
Özellikle Pazarlama 4.0 büyük veri yönetimine dayanmaktadır. Bu dönemde iş-
letmelerin yetenek yönetimine önem vermeleri gerektiği düşünülmektedir. İşlet-
meler mevcut çalışanları büyük veri yönetimi konusunda eğiterek veya bu konu-
da bilgili çalışanlar istihdam ederek değişimi takip etmelerinin rekabet avantajı
kazanabilmeleri için önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir.
Temmuz 2018 / Cilt: 8, Sayı: 2
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