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Two new goby species of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae)

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Abstract

Two new species of goby, Eviota ancora and Eviota rubriguttata, are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota ancora belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group 2, has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, simple pectoral-fin rays, and a distinctive hook-shaped orange mark on the side of the head in life. Eviota rubriguttata belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group 1, has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, branched pectoral-fin rays, the body peppered with tiny black chromatophores, and round red spots on the dorsal and anal fins in life.
Accepted by M. Craig: 17 Mar. 2011; published: 8 Apr. 2011
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 2812: 6368 (2011)
www.mapress.com/zootaxa/Article
63
Two new goby species of the genus Eviota
from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae)
DAVID W. GREENFIELD1,2 & TOSHIYUKI SUZUKI3
1California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Dr., Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118-4503, USA.
E-mail: greenfie@hawaii.edu
2Research Associate, Department of Ichthyology, California Academy of Sciences and Emeritus Professor, University of Hawaii. Mail-
ing address: 944 Egan Ave., Pacific Grove, CA 93950
3Kawanishi Senior High School, 1-8 Kouyoudai,Kawanishi, Hyogo 666-0115, Japan.
E-mail: trimma-toshiyuki@hop.ocn.ne.jp
Abstract
Two new species of goby, Eviota ancora and Eviota rubriguttata, are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota
ancora belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group 2, has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, simple pec-
toral-fin rays, and a distinctive hook-shaped orange mark on the side of the head in life. Eviota rubriguttata belongs to the
cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group 1, has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, branched pectoral-fin rays, the body
peppered with tiny black chromatophores, and round red spots on the dorsal and anal fins in life.
Key words: Ichthyology, systematics, Gobiidae, Eviota, new species, Japan
Introduction
This is the second paper describing species of the tiny gobiid genus Eviota collected by the second author in Japan
(Greenfield and Suzuki, 2010). As in the first paper, the species described here were previously illustrated in the
photographic guide to gobioid fishes in Japan and referred to by number (Senou et al., 2004). In this paper we
describe Eviota sp. 7 and Eviota sp. 15.
Material and methods
Counts and measurements, descriptions of fin morphology and the cephalic sensory-canal pore patterns follow
Lachner and Karnella (1980). Measurements were made to the nearest 0.1 mm using an ocular micrometer and dial
calipers, and are presented as percentage of Standard Length (SL). Cyanine Blue 5R (acid blue 113) stain was used
to make pores more obvious (Akihito et al., 1993; Saruwatari et al., 1997; Akihito et al., 2002). Type material has
been deposited at OMNH—Osaka Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan.
Eviota ancora n. sp.
Hookcheek Pygmygoby
New Japanese name—Bonbori-Isohaze
(Figs. 1– 3)
Eviota sp. 7. Senou et al., 2004: 147 (underwater photograph, Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, 6 m depth).
Holotype: OMNH-P21096, 14.0 mm SL male, Japan, the Ryukyu Islands, Iriomote-jima Island, Uehara Beach,
(24°25’03.27”N, 123°48’07.36”E), T. Suzuki & M. Suzuki, August 19, 2005.
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
64 · Zootaxa 2812 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes E. ancora from congeners: cephalic sen-
sory-pore system pattern group 2 (lacking only IT pore); dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 8/7; pectoral-fin rays simple;
5th pelvic-fin ray 10% of 4th; no conspicuous dark marks on body; scales not strongly pigmented; caudal fin with
five irregular bands of circles of dark chromatophores crossing the fin; live or fresh specimens with a hook-shaped
orange mark on side of the head.
Description. Dorsal-fin rays VI+I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; pectoral-fin rays 16, rays not branched; 5th segmented
pelvic-fin ray 10% of 4th ray; branches on 4th pelvic-fin ray 4, 4 segments between branches; 12 branched caudal-
fin rays; segmented caudal-fin rays 17; lateral scale rows 23; transverse scale rows 7; breast and pectoral-fin base
scaleless; anterior spines of first dorsal fin extending just past origin of second dorsal fin; pelvic fins reaching to
third anal-fin ray; cephalic sensory-pore system pattern group 2 (only IT missing); male genital papilla non-fimbri-
ate. Measurements. Standard length 14.0 mm; head length 32.5; origin of first dorsal fin 37.5; origin of second
dorsal fin 58.2; origin of anal fin 61.1; caudal-peduncle length 27.1; caudal-peduncle depth 13.6; body depth 20.7;
eye diameter 8.2; snout length 4.3; upper-jaw length 12.5; pectoral-fin length 31.1; pelvic-fin length 35.7.
Color. Color of freshly collected male holotype, OMNH-P21096: (Fig. 1) Body translucent with a series of
eight internal dark dashes spaced above vertebral column, with silver dashes between them. Another series of dark
triangular spots below the vertebral column, the ones over the abdomen larger. Six internal dark marks between the
anal-fin origin and caudal-fin base with silver between them. Abdomen silver, with two orange bars crossing it dor-
soventrally. Head translucent with an orange bar under the eye and another orange stripe behind the eye extending
posteriorly to the opercle. A silver area above this orange stripe extending across the cheek and onto the pectoral-
fin base. A short orange area above the silver area behind the eye. A crescent shaped orange mark on the posterior
portion of the opercle, joining the orange stripe from the eye to form a hook-shaped mark. Orange extends from the
crescent to the ventral portion of the pectoral-fin base. Tubular nostrils orange. Entire side of head with a heavy
peppering of small, black chromatophores. Nape with four distinct orange spots extending from behind the eyes to
the first dorsal-fin base. Nine dark spots on dorsal midline extending from first dorsal fin to caudal-fin base. First
dorsal fin with a band of small, black chromatophores along its base. Lower third of second dorsal fin with scat-
tered dark chromatophores and some orange pigment; distal two thirds crossed by three bands of dark chromato-
phores on rays. Anal fin dusky. Caudal fin with five irregular bands of circles of small, black chromatophores on
larger red spots crossing the fin; lower portion of caudal fin dusky. Pectoral and pelvic fins clear.
Color in life: (Fig. 2) Color similar to fresh specimen except: area under eye is white; spots on dorsal midline
dark orange; dorsal portion of eye white with orange marks; black and orange areas over silver abdomen more
obvious; pupil green surrounded by an orange ring and the iris is black; and the hook-shaped orange mark on side
of head obvious.
FIGURE 1. Freshly collected male holotype of Eviota ancora, OMNH-P21096. Photograph by Toshiyuki Suzuki.
Color of holotype in preservative: (Fig. 3) Background color of body and head pale yellowish with no bold
markings. Scattered small black chromatophores on snout, both jaws, top of head behind eyes, and on side of head
on cheek and opercle. A few scattered small, black chromatophores on pectoral-fin base, with some extending onto
the ventral part of the fin. Three small clusters of small, black chromatophores spaced out along midline of nape in
front of first dorsal fin. A scattering of small, black chromatophores along base of first dorsal fin. A few clusters of
Zootaxa 2812 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 65
EVIOTA SPECIES FROM JAPAN
chromatophores, similar to those on the nape, along the base of the second dorsal fin and the dorsal and ventral sur-
faces of the caudal peduncle. Second dorsal fin with a few small chromatophores scattered over entire fin, with a
greater concentration on the distal margin. Anal fin more heavily peppered than second dorsal fin, making it darker
than the other fins. Caudal fin with five irregular bands of circles of small chromatophores crossing the fin. Pelvic
fins immaculate.
FIGURE 2. Underwater photograph of Eviota ancora, about 2.2 cm TL, Kasari-wan Inlet, Amami-oshima Island, the Ryukyu
Islands, Japan, 14m depth. Photograph by Hiroyuki Kanehara.
FIGURE 3. Preserved holotype of Eviota ancora, OMNH-P21096. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
Distribution. Amami-oshima Island, Kume-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan
(Senou et al., 2004; In this study).
Etymology. The specific epithet is an adjective from the Latin ancora (hooked) referring to the distinctive
orange hook-shaped marking on the side of the head.
Comparisons. Eviota ancora belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore pattern group 2 of Lachner and Karnella
(1980), lacking only the IT pore. Eviota ancora differs from all other species of Eviota by its distinctive color pat-
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
66 · Zootaxa 2812 © 2011 Magnolia Press
tern, particularly the hook-shaped orange coloration on the side of the head. It differs from species in cephalic sen-
sory-pore pattern group 2 as follows: the following species have branched pectoral-fin rays whereas they are
simple in E. ancoraE. afelei, E. bimaculata, E. hoesei, E. indica, E. japonica, E. latifasciata, E. pellucida, E.
prasina , E. punctulata, , E. queenslandica, E. rubra, E. rubrisparsa, E. saipanensis, E. tigrina, E. variola, and E.
zonura; from those with simple pectoral-fin rays by having a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7 whereas, E. cometa,
E. sigillata, E. spilota, and E. zebrina usually have values of 9/8 or 9/7; from those with dorsal/anal values of 8/7
by having a shorter 5th pelvic-fin ray, 10% the length of the 4th ray, whereas it is longer (modally 40%) in E. pellu-
cida and E. prasites; and from E. storthynx, with shorter 5th pelvic-fin rays, by lacking the dark occipital spot pres-
ent in that species.
Remarks. Eviota ancora shares the most characters with E. storthynx, but differs greatly from it in color.
Eviota rubriguttata n. sp.
Redspotfin Pygmygoby
New Japanese name—Hanabi-Isohaze
(Figs. 4–6)
Eviota sp. 15. Senou et al., 2004: 154 (underwater photograph, Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, 6 m depth).
Holotype: OMNH-P35645, 13.2mm SL female, Japan, the Ryukyu Islands, Iriomote-jima Island, Uehara Beach,
(24°25’57.16”N, 123°48’53.34”E), T. Suzuki & M. Suzuki, August 27, 1994.
Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes E. rubriguttata from congeners: cephalic
sensory-pore system pattern group1 (complete); dorsal/anal fin-ray formula 8/7; pectoral-fin rays branched; ante-
rior spines of first dorsal fin not elongated; female genital papilla non-fimbriate; 5th pelvic-fin ray absent; body rel-
atively deep, 25% SL; no occipital spot or spots on pectoral-fin base; internal blotch over ural centrum above
midline, faint when preserved; both dorsal fins and anal fin with small, distinct, round red spots when fresh; sides
and belly peppered with tiny black chromatophores both when fresh and preserved.
Description. Dorsal-fin rays VI+I, 8; anal-fin rays I,7; pectoral-fin rays 17, lower 7 rays branched; pelvic fin
I,4, 5th ray absent; branches on 4th pelvic-fin ray 6; 2 segments between branches; 14 branched caudal-fin rays; seg-
mented caudal-fin rays 17; lateral scale rows 23; transverse scale rows 7; breast and pectoral-fin base scaleless;
anterior spines of first dorsal fin not elongated; pelvic fins reaching to urogenital papilla; cephalic sensory-pore
system pattern group 1 (complete); female urogenital papilla non-fimbriate.
Measurements. Head length 30.7; origin of first dorsal fin 39.4; origin of second dorsal fin 61.4; origin of anal
fin 62.1; caudal-peduncle length 22.3; caudal-peduncle depth 15.9; body depth 25.0; eye diameter 10.2; snout
length 5.3; upper-jaw length 10.6; pectoral-fin length 34.1; pelvic-fin length 29.5.
Color. Color of freshly collected female holotype, OMNH-P35645: (Fig. 4). Body semitranslucent with a blue
tinge, with six internal black bars spaced along vertebral column from pectoral-fin base to caudal-fin base. Dark
internal bars extending dorsally from bars on vertebral column, similar bars extending ventrally from anal-fin ori-
gin to caudal-fin base. Posteriormost bar on caudal peduncle darker, a rectangular spot above midline, a separated
dark spot on ventral surface below it. Abdomen orange, covered with a peppering of small black chromatophores.
Head with a bluish tinge, overlaid by many redish brown reticulations that extend to ventral surface of head and
onto the nape. Those on the nape forming bars across the head in advance of the dorsal fin. Entire head and body
overlaid with a peppering of small black chromatophores. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins dusky. First dorsal fin with
four rows of distinct large red spots on the membranes. Second dorsal and anal fins with similar rows, but on the fin
rays. Caudal fin without red dots. Rays of pectoral and pelvic fins dusky. Iris of eye golden with orange blotches,
pupil black.
Color in life: (Fig. 5) Head and body semitransparent overlaid by orange markings and orange scale pockets on
sides. Internal markings dark orange and as in fresh specimen, but not as obvious. Many spots and reticulations on
side and top of head, those on nape and under first dorsal fin distinct, wide bars with silver-white between them.
Dorsal surface under dorsal fins with short orange bars, also separated by silver-white. Head and body overlaid
with a peppering of small black chromatophores. Pectoral-fin base cream. Dorsal and anal fins crossed by rows of
distinct red-orange spots. Iris of eye cream with spoke-like orange bars radiating from black pupil.
Zootaxa 2812 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 67
EVIOTA SPECIES FROM JAPAN
Color of holotype in preservative: (Fig. 6) Head and body pale yellowish. No bold dark marks on body, internal
mark over ural centrum barely visible. Snout, jaws, and nostrils without any dark marks. Side of head with many
dark spots and reticulations extending from under eye back to opercular membrane. Those on top of head form four
broad bands from behind eyes to dorsal-fin origin. Pectoral-fin base adjacent to opercular membrane peppered with
small, black chromatophores, remainder of base with no markings. Sides, belly, breast, and under head peppered
with small black chromatophores. Both dorsal and anal fins peppered with light brown chromatophores, distal mar-
gins of both dorsal fins with heavier peppering. Pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins immaculate.
FIGURE 4. Freshly collected female holotype of Eviota rubriguttata, OMNH-P35645. Photograph by Toshiyuki Suzuki.
FIGURE 5. Underwater photograph of Eviota rubriguttata, about 2cm TL, Kasari-wan Inlet, Amami-oshima Island, the
Ryukyu Islands, Japan, 9 m depth. Photograph by Hiroyuki Kanehara.
FIGURE 6. Preserved holotype of Eviota rubriguttata, OMNH-P35645. Photograph by D.W. Greenfield.
GREENFIELD & SUZUKI
68 · Zootaxa 2812 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Distribution. Amami-oshima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Senou et al., 2004;
In this study).
Etymology. The specific epithet is an adjective combining the Latin ruber (red) and guttatus (spotted), refer-
ring to the distinctive red spots on the dorsal and anal fins.
Comparisons. Eviota rubriguttata belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore pattern group 1 (complete) of Lachner
and Karnella (1980). With the addition of E. rubriguttata, the total number of species in this group is now 27
(Greenfield & Randall, 2010b). Eviota rubriguttata has a dorsal/anal formula of 8/7 and branched pectoral-fin rays.
The only other Eviota species in this group sharing those characters is E. pardalota Lachner and Karnella (1978).
Eviota pardalota has two distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base that are lacking in E. rubriguttata, as well as a
series of 10 dark spots on the dorsum along the bases of the two dorsal fins to the caudal fin, also absent in E.
rubriguttata.
Remarks. Eviota rubriguttata again presents an example of considerable differences in the coloration between
preserved and fresh specimens and live individuals (Greenfield and Randall, 2010a; Greenfield and Suzuki, 2010).
Acknowledgments
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Hiroyuki Kanehara (Diving Service Amaniensis, Amami-oshima
Island, the Ryukyu Islands) and Masatomi Suzuki (Kawanishi, Hyogo, Japan).
References
Akihito, K., Sakamoto, Iwata, A. & Ikeda, Y. (1993) Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes, p. 1088–1116. In: Fishes of
Japan with pictorial keys to the species. (Ed. T. Nakabo). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan [In Japanese]. 1474pp.
Akihito, K., Sakamoto, Ikeda, Y. & Sugiyama, K. (2002) Gobioidei. In: Fishes of Japan with pictoral keys to the species (Ed. T.
Nakabo). English edition. Vol. II, Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1139–1310; 1596–1619.
Greenfield, D.W. & Randall, J.E. (2010a) Four new gobiid fishes of the genus Eviota from the Western Pacific, with clarifica-
tion of Eviota guttata and Eviota albolineata (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences
Series, 4, 61(3), 269–289.
Greenfield, D.W. & Randall, J.E. (2010b) Eviota karaspila, a new gobiid fish from Fiji (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Zootaxa, 2672,
61–68.
Greenfield, D.W. & Suzuki, T. (2010) Eviota nigrispina, a new goby from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae).
Zootaxa, 2655, 57–62.
Lachner, E.A. & Karnella, S.J. (1978) Fishes of the genus Eviota of the Red Sea with descriptions of three new species (Teleo-
stei: Gobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 286, 1–23.
Lachner, E.A. & Karnella, S.J. (1980) Fishes of the Indo-Pacific genus Eviota with descriptions of eight new species (Teleo-
stei:Gobiidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 315, 1–127.
Saruwatari, T., Lopez, J.A. & Pietsch, T.W. (1997) Cyanine blue: a versatile and harmless stain for specimen observations.
Copeia, 1997 (4), 840–841.
Senou, H., Suzuki, T., Shibukawa, K. & Yano, K. (2004) A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan. Heibonsha Co.,
Japan, 536 pp.
... Comparisons. Of the 39 described species with a complete cephalic sensory-pore system, only two have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/7 as is found in E. sodwanaensis: E. pardalota Lachner & Karnella, 1978, occurring in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf; and E. rubriguttata Greenfield & Suzuki, 2011, known from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota pardalota has two dark prominent spots on the pectoral-fin base in preservative (absent in preserved E. sodwanaensis, but orange spots when fresh) and lacks an obvious dark occipital spot (vs. ...
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p>A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota sodwanaensis, is described from Sodwana Bay, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The species has a complete cephalic sensory-pore system (pattern 1), a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, branched pectoral-fin rays, a short 5th pelvic-fin ray, a dark occipital spot, a dark spot on the preural centrum, black first dorsal and anal fins, and dark second dorsal fin. The description is based on 9 type and 5 non-type specimens. </p
... Suzuki et al. (2004), in their book on the gobioid fishes of Japan, illustrated 19 undescribed species in the genus Eviota, many from the Ryukyu Islands, identifying them by numbers (1-15) or letters (A-D). Six of these have now been described (Greenfield & Suzuki 2010, 2011. In this paper we describe another species from the Ryukyu Islands collected by the third author, but not included in Suzuki et al. (2004). ...
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A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota occasa, lacking all head pores, is described from Palau and Japan. It has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, some of the pectoral-fin rays are branched, the 5th pelvic-fin ray is absent or rudimentary, the 4th pelvic-fin ray has 5 branches, the first dorsal fin is crossed by two dark bands separated by a diagonal light band, and there is a distinct dark spot on the caudal peduncle anterior to the caudal fin, followed by a pale bar and then a yellow-orange broad wedge-shaped bar at the caudal-fin base.
... In their book on the gobioid fishes of Japan, Suzuki et al. (2004) illustrated 19 undescribed species in the genus Eviota, identifying them by numbers or letters. Previously we have described four of these (Greenfield & Suzuki 2010, 2011. In this paper we describe one more of these species (Eviota sp. 3) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan collected by the second and author. ...
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Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base.
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Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes
  • K Akihito
  • Sakamoto
  • A Iwata
  • Y Ikeda
Akihito, K., Sakamoto, Iwata, A. & Ikeda, Y. (1993) Cephalic sensory organs of the gobioid fishes, p. 1088-1116. In: Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. (Ed. T. Nakabo). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan [In Japanese]. 1474pp.
Gobioidei. In: Fishes of Japan with pictoral keys to the species
  • K Akihito
  • Sakamoto
  • Y Ikeda
  • K Sugiyama
Akihito, K., Sakamoto, Ikeda, Y. & Sugiyama, K. (2002) Gobioidei. In: Fishes of Japan with pictoral keys to the species (Ed. T. Nakabo). English edition. Vol. II, Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1139-1310; 1596-1619.
  • D W Greenfield
  • T Suzuki
Greenfield, D.W. & Suzuki, T. (2010) Eviota nigrispina, a new goby from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae). Zootaxa, 2655, 57-62.
A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan
  • H Senou
  • T Suzuki
  • K Shibukawa
  • K Yano
Senou, H., Suzuki, T., Shibukawa, K. & Yano, K. (2004) A photographic guide to the gobioid fishes of Japan. Heibonsha Co., Japan, 536 pp.