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Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Australia

Authors:
  • Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery

Abstract

Rinodina argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy, characterized by the presence of argopsin and zeorin, and R. teniswoodiorum Elix & Kantvilas, containing zeorin and arthothelin, are described as new to science from southern New South Wales and eastern Tasmania, respectively.
AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019 AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019
Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Australia
John A. Elix, Gintaras Kantvilas & Patrick M. McCarthy
Australasian Lichenology 84 (January 2019), 10–15
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AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019 AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019
10 11
broadly adnate or sessile and constricted at the base; disc brown to brown-black, epruinose,
plane or weakly convex; thalline margin concolorous with the thallus, entire, prominent,
persistent, in section 60–120 µm thick; proper margin thin, not prominent, concolorous with
the disc. Epihymenium 15–25 µm thick, pale brown to brown, K–, N–. Hypothecium 70–110
µm thick, colourless to pale yellow-brown, K+ yellow-orange. Hymenium 100–110 µm thick,
colourless, inspersed with oil droplets; paraphyses 1–1.7 µm wide, simple to sparsely
branched, capitate, with brown apices 3–3.5 µm wide. Asci of the Lecanora-type, with 8 or
fewer spores. Ascospores 1-septate, olive-brown then brown, ellipsoid, Teichophila-type (with
internal wall thickenings grading from Pachysporaria- to Milvina-, Physcia- and Mischo-
blastia-types at different stages of development), 18–[23.9]–30 × 10–[11.9]–17 µm, not
constricted at the septum, with ontogeny of type-A; torus present in mature ascospores only;
outer spore-wall smooth. Pycnidia rare, immersed; conidia bacilliform, 3–5.5 × 1–1.5 µm.
Chemistry: Thallus K+ yellow, P+ pale yellow; containing atranorin (major) and argopsin
(major).
Etymology: The species is named for its unique chemistry.
Remarks
This is the rst report of the depsidone argopsin from the genus Rinodina. However, the
closely related depsidone pannarin is known from a number of species, including the
Australasian R. murrayi H.Mayrhofer (Kaschik 2006) and nine species from North America
(Sheard 2010). Rinodina murrayi is also morphologically similar to R. argopsina in having
ascospores of the Milvina-type grading into Physcia-type, but those are smaller, 16–22 × 10–
13 µm; furthermore, this species lacks an inspersed hymenium. The ascospores of R. argopsina
are most similar to those of R. reagens, but that species lacks lichen substances and an
inspersed hymenium. Rinodina mbriata Körb., from Europe and North America, also grows
on irrigated rocks, but it differs in having Mischoblastia-type acospores and in lacking an
inspersed hymenium and secondary chemistry (Mayrhofer & Poelt 1979; Mayrhofer &
Moberg 2002; Sheard 2010).
At present the new species is only known from seasonally inundated granite at the type
locality in south-eastern New South Wales. Associated species include Halecania subsquam-
osa (Müll.Arg.) van den Boom & H.Mayrhofer, Porina leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) A.L.Sm.,
Porpidia albocaerulescens (Wulfen) Hertel & Knoph var. albocaerulescens and Rinodina
oxydata (A.Massal.) A.Massal.
ADDITIONAL SPECIMEN EXAMINED
New South Wales: ● type locality, on seasonally inundated granite rocks in stream bed, P.M.
McCarthy 4688, 4.xi.2017 (CANB).
Rinodina teniswoodiorum Elix & Kantvilas, sp. nov. Figs 3, 4
MycoBank number: MB 828251
Similar to Rinodina thiomela (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., but differs in having smaller ascospores, 19–
27 × 10–14 µm, and in containing arthothelin as the major xanthone present.
Type: Australia, Tasmania, Windsong Property, Ronnies Spur, 42°21’14”S, 147°55’01”E, 30
m alt., on rocks in dry sclerophyll forest, G. Kantvilas 255/17, 25.x.2017 (holotype – HO).
Thallus crustose, up to 30 mm wide, continuous, verrucose-areolate to subsquamulose; areoles
0.1–0.4 mm wide, rounded or irregular, up to 0.15 mm thick; upper surface pale yellow to
yellow-green, matt, smooth or becoming granular; prothallus marginal and black or absent;
vegetative propagules absent; medulla thin, pale yellow, I–, lacking crystals of calcium oxalate;
photobiont cells 7–12 µm diam. Apothecia 0.2–1 mm wide, lecanorine, broadly adnate then
sessile and constricted at the base; disc brown to brown-black, epruinose, weakly concave then
plane; thalline margin concolorous with the thallus, prominent, entire but soon dentate, in
Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from southern Australia
John A. Elix
Research School of Chemistry, Building 137
Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia
e-mail: John.Elix@anu.edu.au
Gintaras Kantvilas
Tasmanian Herbarium, PO Box 5058 UTAS LPO,
Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7005, Australia
e-mail: Gintaras.Kantvilas@tmag.tas.gov.au
Patrick M. McCarthy
64 Broadsmith St, Scullin, A.C.T. 2614, Australia
e-mail: pmcc2614@hotmail.com
Abstract
Rinodina argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy, characterized by the presence of argopsin and
zeorin, and R. teniswoodiorum Elix & Kantvilas, containing zeorin and arthothelin, are de-
scribed as new to science from southern New South Wales and eastern Tasmania, respectively.
The saxicolous species of Rinodina (Ach.) S.F.Gray in Australia are relatively well known
following the initial treatment by Mayrhofer (1984), further additions by Mayrhofer et al.
(1990), Matzer & Mayrhofer (1994), Matzer et al. (1998) and Trinkaus et al. (1999), and the
more recent revisions by Kaschik (2006) and Elix (2011); also the description of two additional
species (Elix & Giralt 2015; Mayrhofer & Elix, 2018). In this paper we describe two further
new saxicolous species of Rinodina, one from New South Wales and the other from Tasmania.
Methods
Observations and measurements of photobiont cells, thalline and apothecial anatomy, asci and
ascospores were made on hand-cut sections mounted in water and 10% KOH (K). Asci were
also observed in Lugol’s Iodine (I), with and without pretreatment in K. Medullary sections
were treated with 10% sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and apothecial sections with 50% nitric acid (N).
Chemical constituents were identied by thin-layer chromatography (Elix 2014) and com-
parison with authentic samples. Nomenclature of ascospore types and their ontogeny follows
that of Kaschik (2006).
The new species
Rinodina argopsina Elix & P.M.McCarthy, sp. nov. Figs 1, 2
MycoBank number: MB 828250
Similar to Rinodina reagens Matzer & H.Mayrhofer and R. murrayi H.Mayrhofer, but differs
in having an inspersed hymenium and in containing atranorin and argopsin.
Type: Australia, New South Wales, Southern Tablelands, South-East Forests National Park,
Rutherfords Creek Picnic Area, 19 km SE of Nimmitabel, 36°34’29”S, 149°26’36”E, 850 m
alt., temperate rainforest, on shaded, seasonally inundated granite boulder in stream bed, J.A.
Elix 46514, 4.xi.2017 (holotype – CANB).
Thallus crustose, up to 50 mm wide, continuous, rimose, to 0.15 mm thick; upper surface pale
whitish green to yellow-green, smooth, shiny or matt; prothallus marginal, dark brown, very
thin, arachnoid; vegetative propagules absent; medulla thin, white, I–, lacking crystals; photo-
biont cells 7–10 µm diam. Apothecia 0.2–0.7 mm wide, lecanorine, immersed at rst, then
AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019 AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019
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Elix, JA (2014): A Catalogue of Standardized Chromatographic Data and Biosynthetic
Relationships for Lichen Substances, 3rd edn. Published by the author, Canberra.
Elix, JA; Giralt, M (2015): Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Fiji
and Australia. Australasian Lichenology 77, 32–35.
Kaschik, M (2006): Taxonomic studies on saxicolous species of the genus Rinodina (lichenized
Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) in the Southern Hemisphere with emphasis in Australia and
New Zealand. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 93, 1–162.
Matzer, M; Mayrhofer, H (1994): The saxicolous Rinodina teichophila and three closely
related species from the Southern Hemisphere (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes). Acta
Botanica Fennica 150, 109–120
Matzer, M; Mayrhofer, H; Elix, JA (1998): Rinodina peloleuca (Physciaceae), a maritime
lichen with a distinctive austral distribution. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36, 175–188.
Mayrhofer, H (1984): The saxicolous species of Dimelaena, Rinodina and Rinodinella in
Australia. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 79, 511–536.
Mayrhofer, H; Elix, JA (2018): A new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from
eastern Australia. Australasian Lichenology 83, 22–25.
Mayrhofer, H; Moberg, R (2002): Rinodina. Nordic Lichen Flora 2, 41–69.
Mayrhofer, H; Poelt, J (1979): Die saxicolen Arten der Flechtengattung Rinodina in Europa.
Bibliotheca Lichenologica 12, 1–186.
Mayrhofer, H; Scheidegger, C; Sheard, JW (1990): Rinodina lecanorina and R. luridata,
two closely related species on calciferous rocks. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38, 335–
356.
Sheard, JW (2010): The Lichen Genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Lecanoromycetidae, Physci-
aceae) in North America North of Mexico. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
Trinkaus, U; Mayrhofer, H; Matzer, M (1999): Rinodina gennarii (Physciaceae), a wide-
spread species in temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Australasian Lichen-
olology 45, 15–21.
section 80–125 µm thick; proper margin prominent in older apothecia, concolorous with the
disc, in section 40–50 µm thick, brown to dark brown. Epihymenium 10–15 µm thick, pale
brown to olive-brown K–, N–. Hypothecium 80–100 µm thick, colourless to pale yellow-
brown, K–. Hymenium 80–100 µm thick, colourless, with prominent oil paraphyses 4–6 µm
wide; regular paraphyses 1–1.7 µm wide, simple to sparsely branched, capitate, with pale
brown apices 2.5–3 µm wide. Asci of the Lecanora-type, with 8 or fewer spores. Ascospores
1-septate, pale brown then brown, ellipsoid to citriform, with internal wall thickenings,
grading from Pachysporaria-type to Milvina-type at different stages of development, 19–
[21.7]–27 × 10–[12.3]–14 µm, not constricted at the septum; ontogeny of type-A; torus present
in mature ascospores only; outer spore-wall smooth. Pycnidia rare, immersed; conidia
bacilliform, 3.5–5 × 1 µm.
Chemistry: Thallus K–, C+ orange, P–, UV+ yellow; containing 2,5- and 4,5-dichloroliche-
xanthone (minor), arthothelin (major), zeorin (major), 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone (trace),
thiomelin (trace), ± lichexanthone (trace).
Etymology: The species is named for Tom and Jane Teniswood, owners of the property where
the type material was collected.
Remarks
This is the rst report of dichlorolichexanthones from the genus Rinodina. However, the
presence of arthothelin and zeorin is also observed in R. jiensis Elix & Giralt from the
Fiji Islands, but that species differs in lacking the dichlorolichexanthones and in having
smaller, Pachysporaria-type ascospores, 15–21 × 8–12 μm (Elix & Giralt 2015). In many
respects the new species closely resembles the common R. thiomela. Both have adnate to
sessile, lecanorine apothecia, Pachysporaria-type ascospores and prominent oil para-
physes, and they contain zeorin and xanthones. However, R. thiomela lacks 2,5-dichloro-
lichexanthone, and it contains thiomelin and satellites rather than arthothelin, as well as
having somewhat larger ascospores, 20–34 × 11–17 µm (Elix 2011).
At present this new species is only known from the type locality in eastern Tasmania, where it
grows on low rock outcrops in a very open, dry sclerophyll forest with widely scattered Eucal-
yptus globulus and E. viminalis and virtually devoid of shrubs and lesser trees. The rock type
at the site is very unusual for Tasmania, being a deep reddish, very coarsely gritty, remnant
tertiary laterite containing alluvial quartz pebbles, fragments of petried wood and pisolitic
ironstone (M. de Salas, pers. comm.). It supports a rich association of chiey crustose lichens,
with the most common species being Acarospora veronensis A.Massal., Buellia homophylia
(C.Knight) Zahlbr., Caloplaca rexlsonii S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt, L. farinacea Fée, Lecidella
sublapicida (C.Knight) Hertel, Paraporpidia leptocarpa (C.Bab. & Mitt.) Rambold & Hertel,
Ramboldia blastidiata Kantvilas & Elix, R. plicatula (Müll.Arg.) Kantvilas & Elix and Teph-
romela atra (Huds.) Hafellner.
ADDITIONAL SPECIMEN EXAMINED
Tasmania: ● type locality, on rocks in dry sclerophyll forest, G. Kantvilas 240/17, 4.xi.2017
(CANB).
Acknowledgements
GK acknowledges with thanks Tom and Jane Teniswood and the Friends of the Tasmanian
Museum and Art Gallery for their generous support for the TMAG Expedition of Discovery
2017, when one of the new taxa was discovered.
References
Elix, JA (2011): Australian Physciaceae (Lichenised Ascomycota). Australian Biological
Resources Study, Canberra. Version 18 October 2011.
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/PHYSCIACEAE.html
AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019 AUSTRALASIAN LICHENOLOGY 84, January 2019
14 15
Figure 1. Rinodina argopsina (holotype in CANB). Scale = 1 mm.
Figure 2. Ascospore ontogeny of R. argopsina. Scale = 10 µm
Figure 3. Rinodina teniswoodiorum (holotype in HO). Scale = 1 mm.
Figure 4. Ascospore ontogeny of R. teniswoodiorum. Scale = 10 µm
... The first two expeditions in this series were conducted at the Wind Song property at Little Swanport in 2017 (Baker et al. 2019), and the Musselroe Wind Farm at Cape Portland (Baker et al. 2021). Collectively, they have recorded approximately 2300 taxa, including several new to science or for Tasmania (McCarthy & Kantvilas 2018, Elix et al. 2019a, Elix et al. 2019b, Elix & Kantvilas 2020, Kantvilas 2021, Kantvilas et al. 2021. ...
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Rinodina peloleuca (Physciaceae) is an austral, maritime lichen species occurring in Tasmania and New Zealand, in southern South America, on subantarctic islands, and in maritime Antarctica. Together with other species, it indicates an austral connection in maritime lichens of the Southern Hemisphere. Chemically, the species is characterised by the presence of skyrin and triterpenes. Rinodina antarctica, R. deceptionis, R. endochrysodes, R. philomelensis, and, possibly, R. aspicilina are synonyms of R. peloleuca. The lichenicolous fungi Muellerella lichenicola, Polycoccum sp., Pyrenidium actinellum, and an unidentified coelomycete occur on the species.
The Lichen Genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Lecanoromycetidae, Physciaceae) in North America North of Mexico
  • J W Sheard
Sheard, JW (2010): The Lichen Genus Rinodina (Ach.) Gray (Lecanoromycetidae, Physciaceae) in North America North of Mexico. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version
  • J A Elix
Elix, JA (2011): Australian Physciaceae (Lichenised Ascomycota). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 18 October 2011. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/PHYSCIACEAE.html
A Catalogue of Standardized Chromatographic Data and Biosynthetic Relationships for Lichen Substances
  • J A Elix
Elix, JA (2014): A Catalogue of Standardized Chromatographic Data and Biosynthetic Relationships for Lichen Substances, 3rd edn. Published by the author, Canberra. Elix, JA; Giralt, M (2015): Two new species of Rinodina (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) from Fiji and Australia. Australasian Lichenology 77, 32-35.
Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version
  • References Elix
References Elix, JA (2011): Australian Physciaceae (Lichenised Ascomycota). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 18 October 2011. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/PHYSCIACEAE.html