Book

The Economic Approach to Human Behavior

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... L'ère de la révolution numérique a provoqué l'extension du droit à la vie privée engendrant deux droits autonomes : le droit au respect de la vie privée et le droit à la protection des données 257 Débats parlementaires -Compte-rendu intégral, Séance du 4 octobre 1977, JO Année 1977-1978-N° 79 A.N., 5 octobre 1977. 258 offertes par les rédacteurs de ladite loi, la vie privée restait principalement conçue comme un espace fermé, assez délimité, devant être particulièrement protégée contre les intrusions des autorités publiques. ...
... 1996, p. 9-10. 4 Rapport n° 72 de M. Jacques THYRAUD fait au nom de la Commission des lois, sur le projet de loi, adopté par l'Assemblée Nationale, relatif à l'Informatique et aux libertés,Sénat, Session de 1977-1978, déposé le 10 novembre 1977 ; Disponible en ligne : https://www.senat.fr/rap/l77-072/l77-0721.pdf ...
Thesis
Recherche en droits et libertés fondamentales, en droit comparé et en politique criminelle, l’analyse contribue à l’étude de l’émergence de l’identité numérique à l’ère de la révolution numérique. Celle-ci a entraîné l’élaboration de l’environnement numérique, fondé sur les TIC, Big data, traitements de données à caractère personnel, code, surveillance, objets et dispositifs numériques et intelligents, qui imprègne et influence l’environnement juridique dans sa globalité et, à terme, l’individu dans sa singularité, l’identité dans sa dimension physique ou numérique. En analysant les interprétations sociojuridiques du concept d’identité numérique puis la réalité des enjeux l’affectant au regard des innombrables opérations de traitement dont il fait l’objet, l’étude montre que cet écosystème se développe au nom de la sécurité, la défense, la liberté, l’économie, l’innovation, la prévention, pour le bien-être de l’humanité, et ce au détriment de la liberté, des droits et libertés fondamentales, du respect de la vie privée et de la dignité, de la protection des données et des personnes concernées par les traitements entrepris couramment dans différents secteurs privés comme publics. Cette recherche propose une description de ce contexte, des relations dynamiques et interconnectées existant entre données, vie privée, liberté, autonomie dans la construction de soi, sécurité, TIC, cyberespace, RGPD et loi informatique et libertés, ainsi que des effets et enjeux que ces relations peuvent induire à l’échelle de la société, de l’humanité et, notamment, de l’identité numérique, le soi connecté, le prolongement technologique de l’identité, à l’époque de la numérisation de la société.
... The General Incentives Model by Patrick Seyd and Paul Whiteley is the standard model for explaining intra-party participation (Seyd and Whiteley 1992). It follows the tradition of the rational choice approach to the explanation of human behavior (Becker 1976) and is based on the assumption that people join a political party and become active within if the resulting benefits are greater than the associated costs. The General Incentives Model is essentially an attempt to systematically identify all conceivable positive and negative incentives for party membership and active involvement within a party. ...
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In this paper, the thesis is put forward that selective outcome incentives for party membership gain relevance over time. Two possible mechanisms are identified as the cause of this increase in importance: a supply-side mechanism based on processes of societal change that took place through generational succession and a demand-side mechanism focusing on shifts in the self-image and organizational structure of political parties. The supply-side mechanism should lead to changes in the motives of potential members, whereas the demand-side mechanism alters the incentives potential and current members are exposed to. The empirical analyses are based on the German Party Membership Studies of 1998, 2009 and 2017. These three studies are nationwide representative surveys of the members of the following six parties: Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU), Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance90/The Greens (Bündnis90/Die Grünen), and The Left (Die Linke). Within the German Party Membership Studies, both the motives for joining the party and the current membership motives are surveyed. Empirically, it is shown that there is indeed an increase in the importance of selective outcome membership motives over the period under study. The mechanisms behind this increase in importance are investigated using multivariate Age-PeriodCohort (APC) models based on the cumulated data of the German Party Membership Studies. These analyses are based on a total of nearly 30,000 cases. The results of the APC analyses are largely consistent with the supply-side explanation of the increased importance of selective outcome motives for party entry and membership. The demand-side explanation is only partially confirmed.
... 12 Callon (2015) has explicitly explored this idea in his concluding chapter to Making Other Worlds Possible: Performing Diverse Economies. 13 This view refers to perspectives (like Gary Becker's) that proceed from the supposition that market behavior is associated with a form of rationality that is already implicitly present everywhere (see Becker 1976). It thus neglects the role of material devices in facilitating and shaping any concrete form of market behavior. ...
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This article explicates and critiques an understanding of markets that is dominant in much contemporary political theory. Drawing on the insights of new materialist economic sociology, it argues that the divide between “the political” and “the market” that grounds many recent analyses cannot ultimately be sustained. Conceptualizing markets not as abstract, impersonal mechanisms but as polyvalent assemblages, the paper develops a view of markets as material devices subject to a wide variety of political inflections and deployments. This understanding is then used to clarify some of the disputes between market-friendly neo-republican theorists and their critics. The article argues that markets are best conceptualized as political institutions (rather than as alternatives to politics). It commends an approach to political theorizing that moves beyond “pro-” and “antimarket” positions, focusing instead on the material details of market configurations and their consequences for agency and social power.
... The design of a policy should involve cost-benefit analysis and economic forecasting to help policy makers opt for the maximum net benefit to the nation. Just as the rational choice theory indicates, the "logical decision-making process should take into account the costs and benefits of various options, weighing the options against each other" [15]. The government of developing countries should adopt policy output analysis by identifying potential policy options that can address problems and comparing them with other options to choose the most effective, efficient, and feasible one. ...
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The selfish interest of some government officials affects the smooth functioning of the pillars of public expenditure and accountability (PEFA) in public finance management (PFM) through their ‘‘invisible hands”, which deprive the government from achieving its objectives of fiscal policy. This study examines the shortcomings of the pillars of public expenditure and accountability (PEFA) in developing countries and its effects on public finance management (PFM) using a theoretical approach. The study critically examined the functionality of the pillars using a comparative regional and income analysis and why it has not been effective in developing countries. The paper ends up by suggesting key policies that can be used to avoid the selfish interest of individuals in PFM.
... ihrer Sicht beste Alternative auswählen. Das Ziel dieser Anstrengungen ist nicht mehr und nicht weniger alsin interdisziplinärer Kooperation aus Anthropologie, Psychologie, Politikwissenschaft, Ökonomik und Soziologieeine integrative Theorie menschlichen Verhaltens vorzulegen, die über wirtschaftliche Phänomene hinaus Erklärungskraft besitzt (z. B . Becker 1990;Coleman 1990;Frey 1990 Blaug 1980;Brinkmann 1997;Hollis 1994;Opp 1995;Rosenberg 1992). Dieser Aspekt darf nicht vernachlässigt werden, können doch aus falschen Prämissen wahre Konklusionen folgen. Grob gilt aber ungeachtet dessen Folgendes: Lassen sich die prüfbaren Aussagen einer Theorie bei regelmäßigen empirischen Tests nicht widerleg ...
... Although conducted within the standard analytical framework of a rational maximizing consumer, Becker's contribution on social interactions exerted minimal influence if compared to his other well-known works on discrimination, human capital, and the economics of family (e.g. Becker 1976). However, his approach established the basis for an extended utility approach (EUA) that conforms to the neoclassical apparatus (see Claveau 2009). ...
Article
Τhe idea that social influences and social interactions play a central role in individual economic decisions has had a long presence in the history of economics. With the emergence of marginalism, this idea retreated into the background and the concept of the atomistic individual became established in mainstream economic rationality. Starting in the 1970s, there were some attempts to reintroduce non-atomistic preferences in mainstream microeconomic theory in the form of social interactions, interdependent preferences, keeping up with the Joneses, social identity, social preferences, and status concerns. Social preferences have a growing impact among mainstream microeconomics with the advent of behavioral economics, but still they are not in the hard core of the standard theory of choice. The article argues that atomistic preferences are still prevalent, especially in the form of the assumption of the representative agent. It also focuses on the role of methodological individualism and on the theoretical implications of relaxing the assumption of the atomistic individual as the main explanations for the resilience of the notion.
... A major component of human reproductive decisions is tied to biology: people are naturally predisposed to manifest behaviors and experience feelings that encourage procreation (e.g., sexual drive, responsiveness towards infants; Miller, 1992;Morgan & King, 2001). Although advances in biology have played an important role in understanding human reproduction, over the past decades social theorists have recognized the growing role of rational choice in childbearing decisions (Becker, 1960(Becker, , 1986Burch, 1980;Crosbie, 1986;de Bruijn, 1999;Hoffman & Hoffman, 1973;Miller, 1983;Morgan & King, 2001). Along with growing access to modern contraception, as well as effective infertility treatments, humans' ability to successfully control and regulate their own reproductive processes has increased. ...
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Childbearing motivations are trait-like dispositions to feel, think, and act in a certain way in response to various aspects of parenthood. They shape human desire to have a child and underpin the decision about becoming a parent. A self-report tool to measure positive and negative childbearing motivations with their specific dimensions-the Childbearing Questionnaire (CBQ)-was developed in the US and has gained popularity over the past few decades as an increasing number of individuals choose not to have children. In the current article we present two studies, in which we developed and psychometrically validated a short version of the CBQ (The Childbearing Questionnaire-Short Form; CBQ-SF). In Study 1, we developed the CBQ-SF and verified its psychometric properties using a sample of 939 childless adults (25-44 years old). In Study 2, we cross-validated the CBQ-SF on a sample of 1803 childless adolescents aged from 18 to 20. Overall, our findings demonstrated that the CBQ-SF is a psychometrically sound instrument for comprehensively assessing childbearing motivations across different developmental periods (from late adolescence to middle adulthood). Most notably, our short measure preserves the multidimensionality of childbearing motivations and allows individuals' motivational profiles for parenthood to be identified. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.
... Some rational choice models assume perfect 'economic' or substantive rationality in which people have complete and coherent preferences, gather sufficient information, and, ultimately, make optimal decisions based on reliable information about alternative courses of action and their own goals and beliefs (e.g., Becker, 1976). Other scholars recognise that people are limited in their knowledge, time, capacity, and motivation, but can make boundedly rational choices given these constraints (Rubenstein, 1998;Simon, 1957). ...
Article
Rational choice theory explains and evaluates how individuals choose among alternative instruments to achieve their goals and objectives. Although much research on political decision-making highlights psychological biases that appear to interfere with rationality, the contrast between rational choice and the psychology of information processing is often narrowed by individual and contextual conditions that reduce cognitive biases and promote rational decision-making. This argument is developed by analysing research on heuristics (i.e., shortcuts and cues), motivated reasoning, and framing that pose challenges to rational choice. Three themes emerge from this review. First, there is systematic variation across individuals in the extent to which heuristics, biased reasoning, and framing produce unreasonable and suboptimal decisions. Second, there are definable informational and social contexts that provide incentives for people to engage in deliberate and accurate processing of information. Third, normative evaluations of empirical results have been hampered by inconsistent criteria for what constitutes good decision-making.
... The approach has long been the dominant model in economics, but it has become more widely used in recent decades in other disciplines such as Sociology, Political Science and Anthropology (Green, 2002). This spread of the Rational Choice approach beyond conventional economic issues is discussed by Green and Shapiro (1996), Radnitzky and Bernholz (1987), Hogarth and Reder (1987), and Becker (1976). The Rational Choice analysis assumes that an agent, or set of agents, maximises utility by picking the preferred alternative. ...
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This study investigated the land tenure system, harvesting time and marketing behaviour of cashew farmers in Ghana. Primary data was compiled from 120 cashew farmers, and the multinomial probit was used to assess the determinants of cashew marketing outlets. Types of land ownership (tenure system) for cashew production in Ghana were leasehold, stool, family, state and customary lands. The sales of cashew nuts to buying companies and/or exporters is positively influenced by the land tenure system, good road network, weekly harvest, contract agreements and grading of cashew nuts. Conversely, the experience of farmers coupled with less than one week of harvesting influences the choice of brokers' outlet. The result implies that, cashew cultivation on stool land, likewise harvesting time increases the probability of selling to buying companies and exporters who offered higher margins compared with brokers. Consequently, generic land reform for the whole country to enhance agribusinesses may be important but unnecessary. It is also suggested that the customary land arrangement provided the opportunity to sell to a profitable marketing outlet, it is suggested that Government and NGOs should rather be interested in strengthening the current customary land regime and consultatively recommend for review where necessary in the study areas.
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Postwar economists at the University of Chicago initiated an economic approach that focused on the analytical relevance of the basic principles of price theory to empirical problems arising from the actual operation of markets. The Chicago School provided key ideas in the development of applied economic policy in industrial organization, labour economics, financial economics, economic development, law and economics, public finance, monetary policy, education and social policy and international economics.
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In recent years, a future in which humans have attained Immortality by means of technology, and yet, this miraculous achievement remains a luxury of the rich, has become a staple not only of speculative fiction, but also of respectable assessments of the direction in which current technological trends are headed. In what follows, I want to advance a simple thesis, in three stages. The thesis is that more than anything else, the contemporary quest for immortality is a quest for a new form of distinction, which sheds some light on the crisis of the old. As such it should be understood as a symptom of a broader trend, to replace symbolic frameworks with real techno-scientific processes. In the first part of the article, “frameless,” technological immortality will be analyzed as displaying the logic of a luxury commodity. Immortality, in this scheme, is no longer a symbolic status attained, a place in the afterlife, but an advantage that has to be continuously produced. Inquiring after the ontological conditions of such an ethics, points to the significance of immortality now being conceived as a real possibility, signaling an ontological shift in the “distribution of the possible.” The possible, in this configuration, is not a mere option, but comes to occupy the place of the preordained. Second, to understand this shift, we turn our focus to the traditional significance of death as an intergenerational, symbolic pact. Finally, we take a look at how contemporary technological trends and the narratives that accompany them affect a shift in the symbolic performativity traditionally associated with death. The vision of ontological and technological “framelessness” utilizes a new kind of narrative structure, which is no longer bound to an intergenerational pact, or trust in posterity. While it is grounded in mistrust it is nonetheless capable of enlisting the commitment and fervent activity of its subjects.
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The cost of managerial labor, especially managers of the top, middle and lower levels of management, is estimated by various methods, the article proposes to assess through the tension, intensity and complexity of labor by levels of management. This is especially important in times of crisis, when it is required to actively seek better conditions for the enterprise, to organize the work of subordinates in accordance with the new requirements. With an increase in costs and a decrease in the effectiveness of the management staff, in particular, the risk of bankruptcy and a significant decrease in the competitiveness of the enterprise in such conditions of instability increases rapidly. The criticism of macroeconomic indices is carried out and a microeconomic analysis and a method for assessing the intensity, intensity and complexity of labor at different levels of management are proposed. It is known that the most significant costs that have reserves for reduction are personnel costs, including management costs. Based on the analysis of the correlation and mathematical dependence, the ratio of wages by levels of management on a contract basis was determined based on the minimum established level of wages at the enterprise.
Article
Video evidence depicting physical altercations has polarized public opinions and courtroom decisions about social issues including race relations and police use-of-force, we believe, in part because of the way people process dynamic visual stimuli across repeated viewing opportunities. We reanalyzed two studies that covertly collected eye-tracking data to quantify and model visual confirmation bias (VCB) – the degree to which eye movements replicate previous patterns of looking across multiple viewing opportunities. We tracked the location of eye gaze when participants (N1 = 320; N2 = 212) watched the same video twice depicting an altercation between an officer and a civilian (Study 1) or a Black and a White actor (Study 2). In pilot tests, we provided evidence regarding the construct validity of statistical measures of concordance tracking similarities in where perceivers directed eye gaze across viewings as an index of VCB. In our pre-registered analytic plan, we used these metrics to probe for relationships with punishment decisions made about targets after the first and second viewings. Contrary to predictions, our pre-registered analyses found no associations between VCB, consistency, and polarization in punishment. We present exploratory analyses probing potential moderators of the association between VCB and these outcome measures. We offer practical suggestions for researchers measuring and modeling eye gaze during the presentation of dynamic stimuli across multiple viewings, particularly in the context of intergroup decision research.
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The article deals with some basic questions of a political economy of the media under theoretical-historical, methodological, and application aspects within the media economy. Theoretically, the path from classical to neoclassical economics as well as from old to new political economy is shown (The term “economics” is used when emphasizing economic models and methods; the term “economy” refers to the economic (media) system in general.); methodologically, some programmatic contrasts of these approaches are briefly discussed, and the freedom from value judgment is questioned, which allows the inclusion of some discussion strands that are indispensable in the media and communication society, such as those around concentration, diversity, and regulation; as a specific example of application, the discourse on justice in society has been shaped by various theories (such as contractualist, utilitarian, deontological, or social choice approaches) and is still underrepresented in media economics as a sub-discipline of communication studies. A return to “classical” political-economic analyses to overcome existing theoretical contradictions represents the conclusion of the considerations.
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“Rationality” is a singularly central concept to sociology, beginning with the discipline's origins. Most famously and influentially, Max Weber posited the process of “rationalization” as the central organizing principle of the modern world. Later, rational choice theory aimed to supersede previous sociological theories and claimed to explain social behavior with an approach built upon the assumption that all social actors behave rationally. In this entry, we define and discuss “rationality” as – at successive levels of resolution – intentionality, consistency, and calculated maximization. Rationality remains central to sociology's future, primarily as a dependent variable to be explained and as an institutionalized cultural assumption to be accounted for.
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The article deals with the features of the institutional theory development, which is of practical value at the time of a new system of economic relations formation. The place and role of the institutional structure and institutional environment in boosting the efficiency of the macroeconomic regulation system in the Russian Federation are determined.
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The present paper is an exploratory study of the anchoring bias among individuals with autism. Anchoring bias is one of the most robust choice heuristics. The anchoring bias is measured and compared among adults with autism and age‐, gender‐, and education level‐matched, neurotypical controls. The study differentiates between high and low anchors. Results show that individuals with autism are generally equally susceptible to the anchoring bias as neurotypical individuals in judgment and decision making.
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Richard A. Posner was the most important actor in the transformation from “law and economics” to an “economic analysis of law”. Posner applied Chicago price theory to the analysis of law and legal rules. He not only contributed to the field but also structured it. This is what this chapter shows. We also show that Posner’s work illustrates the Chicagoan dimension of his economic analysis of law. That Posner, especially later in his career, introduced some elements that might seem to be at odds with Chicago economics—pragmatism, notably—or that he claimed having become a Keynesian, does not change much to the claim that it was Posner who crafted Chicago’s economic analysis of law.
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Rasyonellik, sadece ekonomide değil, sosyal bilimlerin büyük bir bölümünde insan davranışlarını kestirebilmek için yıllardır kullanılan temel varsayımlardan biridir. Rasyonel Seçim Teorisi de bu nedenle çok sayıda teoriye ve modele ilham olmuştur. Beklenen Fayda Teorisi, Oyun Teorisi ve Beklenti Teorisi gibi teorilerin temel dayanakları rasyonelliktir. Her ne kadar çokça eleştirilmiş olsa da Rasyonel Seçim Teorisi yıllardır farklı disiplinlerdeki araştırmacılarca kullanılmış ve bazı değişikliklerle de olsa, hâlâ birçok farklı alanda insanların seçimlerini ya da tercihlerini açıklamakta kullanılmaktadır. Turizm disiplini özelinde bakıldığında, teorinin araştırmalarda ne sıklıkla kullanıldığı ve hangi konuların incelenmesi için temel teşkil ettiği konusunda çok fazla bilgi bulunmamaktadır. Örneğin, Dogan (2022) tarafından ulusal turizm literatürüne yönelik yapılan araştırmada, 2016-2020 yılları arasındaki 171 teorik temele dayandırılmış makale incelenmiş ancak bunlar arasında Rasyonel Seçim Teorisi’ne dayanan herhangi bir çalışma tespit edilememiştir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmanın temel amacı, Rasyonel Seçim Teorisi hakkında bilgi vererek, geçirdiği evrimi ele almak ve genel olarak pazarlama, turizm ve turizm pazarlaması araştırmalarında kullanım alanlarını tespit edebilmektir. Bunu yapmak için, özellikle yabancı veri tabanlarından elde edilecek ikincil verilere başvurarak literatür taraması yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Çalışma iki ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, Rasyonel Seçim Teorisinin ortaya çıkışı, temel varsayımları, eleştiriler sonrasında yapılan gözden geçirmeler ve uygulama alanı bulduğu disiplinler ele alınmıştır. İkinci bölümde ise teorinin pazarlama ve özellikle turizm ve turizm pazarlaması disiplinlerindeki kullanım alanlarından bahsedilmiştir.
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Electricity plays a vital role in everyday life. However, electricity-dependent practices are often taken for granted, and the complex underlying infrastructure tends to be invisible—until power supply is disrupted. Drawing on qualitative interviews with rural Norwegian households, this chapter takes practices as the starting point for examining how daily life changes during power outages and how households experience the consequences of such outages. The aim is to use households’ perspectives to understand the consequences of power outages and show how disruption influences relations between infrastructures, practices, customers and providers. Using the three elements of practice—materials, competences, meanings—I demonstrate how power failures temporarily break the linkages between elements in electricity-dependent practices, and how households forge linkages between other items and technologies, embodied knowledge and competences, and new meanings, in order to continue daily life. This re-assembling of elements in practices demonstrates the complexity of power-outage consequences and explains how rural Norwegian households can cope relatively well with lengthy power outages. The chapter also sheds light on the difficulties of trying to reduce consequences to monetary terms. Rather than worrying about the economic costs of power outages, households focus on maintaining their daily routines. The ability to adapt during outages demonstrates a relatively high level of flexibility, but this does not mean that households do not value having secure power supplies.
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This chapter assesses the contribution that economics can make to help us understand consumer behaviour and, if necessary, to try and change it. Economic theory of consumer behaviour is sophisticated and rigorous, but very limited. It excludes from consideration many of the factors which are well-recognised by other social sciences as being important. These limitations stem largely from the standard model of homo economicus . Economists are not unaware of this problem, but it is difficult to resolve it: to establish models that are tractable—for example incorporating the idea of interdependent preferences. But even simple economic theory, in which income and price are the main explanatory factors of consumer behaviour, provides the basis for potentially very effective policy instruments. If incomes fall, consumption is indeed reduced; and taxes and subsidies can substantially alter consumer behaviour. The problem is that such instruments are politically very unpopular.
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Economists often credit the Chicago School of Economics with innovating the economics of information. An impression persists that its members shared a view of economic agency and a coherent position on information in markets. Focusing on four cases in point (the economics of search, human capital theory, rational expectations macroeconomics, and financial economics), this chapter challenges this impression: Chicago scholars did not adhere to a single position on information. It then explores whether and to what extent one might view these various strands as belonging to the same “school”.
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Gary Becker was one of the most influential and controversial economists of the second half of the twentieth century, especially in his role as the leading advocate of the so-called economics imperialism. Becker played a major role in the widespread adoption of a large body of technical apparatus used in price theory and econometrics as well as a variety of other topics that are not usually addressed by economists. In this chapter, we will analyse Becker’s career and efforts to develop what would become known as the “economic approach to human behaviour”, one which he considered to be more a method of analysis rather than an assumption about human motivations. We will also discuss his main contributions to economics and his impact on the discipline and beyond.
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Consumers may undertake various steps in order to increase the rationality of their choices. One of the options involves drawing up a shopping list. The study presents an innovative method of analysing consumer behaviour during shopping. Modern technologies were used to set up a virtual environment within which a store was created. A combination of methods was employed to assess the subjective opinions expressed during in-depth interviews. Another step focused on analysing the internal stimuli of the research subjects with the use of neuroscientific tools to evaluate the behaviour of the research participants. The aim of the study was to verify the impact of a shopping list on consumer rationality. The research results presented constitute a part of a broader research project, within the scope of which research method triangulations enabled an in-depth analysis of conscious and unconscious aspects of the subjects’ behaviour (Borawski et al. 2021).
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This book introduces a critical perspective on public law, the area of law that governs relationships between individuals and the state or its various government institutions and between different government institutions within the state. This perspective originates outside the field of public law—indeed, outside the framework of law entirely. This approach adopts the tools and methods of economics to interpret traditional questions of public law and is thus described as an economic analysis of public law. Because of its focus on the state and decision-making, it can also be characterised as a component of public choice theory. In an analysis of public law, the economic theory of public choice provides valuable insight into collective decision-making processes.
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In diesem Artikel beschäftigen wir uns mit der Transformation und Krise der Sorgearbeit. Dabei gehen wir auf die historischen Kontexte ein, aus der die Spaltung zwischen öffentlicher (bezahlter) und privater (unbezahlter) Sphäre resultiert und den Grundstein für die bis heute beobachtbaren geschlechterspezifischen Ungleichheiten (am Arbeitsmarkt) legt. Im Anschluss daran beschäftigen wir uns mit den gesellschaftlichen Transformationsprozessen, den technischen Entwicklungen, den Folgen des Wandels und dem daraus resultierenden Paradigmenwechsel – der beide Sphären nahhaltig verändert hat.
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In this chapter, we examine some of the distributive implications of using free or open source software (FS/OSS) as opposed to proprietary software (PS). Much of the discussion on the respective virtues of both systems has tended to focus on allocative (or ‘efficiency’) issues, whether in terms of the fundamental economics of the industry (Katz and Shapiro, 1998), the long-term viability of non-proprietary systems and their compatibility with market incentives (Boldrin and Levine, 2002) or more applied questions such as the balance, for users, of the benefits and costs of either system (Perens, 2005; Verprat, n.d.). By contrast, many issues related to their distributive (or ‘fairness’) implications have remained largely unexplored.
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Terror groups, like al-Shabaab and Boko Haram, have emerged in recent years as key drivers of conflict in some African countries, generating mass casualties from routine suicide bomb attacks. The strategies of these groups include the increasing mobilisation and deployment of women in suicide bombing operations. At the same time, women have been among the most victimised by the activities of the terror groups, both as direct targets of attacks and as internally displaced people. The focus of this study is to discuss the twin dynamic by which women are both agents and victims of the terror groups. The study seeks to explore what existing knowledge tells us about possible future trends in the ‘weaponisation’ of women and mass atrocities. It also considers the place of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) tools in stemming the tide of the weaponisation of women. The nexus of gender, suicide bombing and displacement and what these mean for R2P are the sub-components of the analysis that underpins the article. Cecilia Idika-Kalu, Graduate Lecturer, College of Fine Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA. Email: cecilia_idikakalu@student.uml.edu
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The paper re-examines the approach of conventional economics to social stratification, in particular class structure and distribution of wealth. It argues that conventional economics generally tends to assume an ambivalent, dualistic position on social stratification, especially class structure and distribution, expressed in a dual approach to the matter. The first approach consists in neglecting or downplaying stratification, plus treating it as transient and benign, and explaining and rationalising it by “natural” and/or transcendental causes. The second approach involves recognising and stressing the existence and relevance of class and generally social stratification, particularly the arbitrary institutional nature and adverse effects of the unequal distribution of wealth and income. The paper intends to make two contributions to the history of economic thought. They are, first, disclosing an implicit, rudimentary and partly overlooked debate on social stratification in the history of economic thought, and second, helping develop a more complete, explicit and systematic historical account of the subject. These goals and contributions can be of high relevance for the history of economic thought for at least two reasons. These are that, first, many economists seem unaware of some debates on social stratification within the latter, and second, a fuller historical account of the subject is necessary or desirable in view of its relative importance historically contemplated. These goals are consistent with the rebirth and growing pertinence of stratification economics. The paper can hence potentially be of interest and relevance to economists working on re-emerging stratification economics as well as to sociologists.
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This paper aims to investigate the effect of the introduction of the anti-money laundering (AML) law on trade misinvoicing in Vietnam. Trade misinvoicing is the deliberate falsification of the value or quantity of goods and includes overvalued imports and undervalued exports. The AML law can positively or adversely affect trade misinvoicing. Findings are practically important for investigating the real effect of future laws. A panel regression analysis is employed to isolate the effect of the AML law on trade misinvoicing. The hypotheses related to the effect of the introduction of the AML law are empirically investigated. Using panel data from 2000 to 2019, our empirical result is that the enactment of Vietnam’s AML accelerates trade misinvoicing. This finding supports the view that individuals and firms are shifting from traditional methods of money laundering through trade-based channels when the State Bank of Vietnam promulgated legislation that focuses on financial intermediaries. This paper specifically concentrates on the effect of Vietnam’s AML law on trade misinvoicing. We provide evidence that the introduction of the AML law encourages launderers to lean on cross-border trade to disguise their money. The findings suggest a number of important policy implications for combating money laundering, especially for transition economies, such as Vietnam’s.
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