Post-harvest treatments for extension of mango fruit var. Dashehari (Mangifera indica L.)

  • Himalayiya University
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Experiments were conducted to study the effects of post-harvest treatment of mango fruits (cv.Dashehari) on the extension of shelf life at two different storage temperatures (Cold store and ambient condition). The mango fruits were harvested at defined physiological maturity stage from a well-managed commercial mango orchard at Malihabad, Uttar Pradesh. The fruits were washed adequately and subjected to 6 treatments with different combinations of fungicide solutions with control viz.Carbendazim (500ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (Treatment 1; T1), Hexanal (250 ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (Treatment 2; T2), Hexanal (500 ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (Treatment 3; T3), Hexanal (250 ppm) + Carbendazim (500ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (Treatment 4; T4), Hexanal (500 ppm) + Carbendazim (500 ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (Treatment 5; T5) and distilled water (Treatment 6; T6). The fruits of various treatments were loosely packed in corrugated fibreboard boxes and were kept under ambient conditions (37 ± 2°C; 55-65% RH) and cold storage conditions (12 ± 2°C; 80-85% RH) and the physiological and biochemical parameters changes during storage were measured at regular interval of days till the fruits get deteriorated. The total soluble solids, reducing sugar, total sugar and total carotenoids were found increasing trend whereas total acidity, ascorbic acid and physiological loss in weight were found linearly decreasing during the ripening. The fruits treated with Hexanal (500 ppm) + Carbendazim (500 ppm) + Tween 80 (0.01%) (T5) were observed superior in respect to pre-ripening quality attributes. The treatments retarded the physico-chemical changes feasible for manifestation of ripening quality features and certainly helped considerably in delaying the ripening. This has profoundly notified the extended storage life of Dashehari mango. The observations on physicochemical changes and sensorial quality parameters were used as ripening and shelf life monitoring indices. Therefore, using the application of combined treatment with Hexanal, Carbendazimand tween 80 of mango at 10°C to 12°C is a feasible technology for maintainingfruit quality and prolonged storage life in order to expand marketability and export opportunities.

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... It has an excellent nutritious value with a specific taste and appearances. However, 25-40% of postharvest losses of mango fruits occur due to physical, mechanical and biological factors [5,6]. Mango fruits have a higher deterioration effect and are susceptible to chilling injury during the storage period [7]. ...
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The polysaccharide based composite biomaterial (coating) used in preserving fruits and vegetables during storage is attracting increased attention as it is biodegradable material that prolongs shelf life. In the present investigation, chitosan–pullulan (50:50) composite edible coating was prepared with pomegranate peel extract (0.02 g/mL) as an active antioxidant agent. The effect of treatment with pomegranate peel extract enriched chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating on the shelf life of mango fruits during 18 days of storage period at room (23 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature was evaluated. Results of the present study demonstrated that the application of chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influences the storage life of mango fruits at both storage temperatures. The chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating reduced the physiological loss in weight (PLW), and maintained total soluble solids (TSS), acidity and pH of coated mango fruits as compared to the control. In addition, fruit sensory quality such as freshness, color, taste and texture were also retained by the treatment. Furthermore, sustained firmness, phenolic content and antioxidant activity confirmed the effectiveness of the pomegranate peel extract enriched chitosan–pullulan composite edible coating on mango fruits. The phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of coated fruits were retained by pomegranate peel rich edible coating. Therefore, the chitosan–pullulan (50:50) combination with pomegranate peel extract can be used as an alternative preservation method to prolong the shelf life of mango fruits at room and cold storage conditions. However, more in-depth studies are required at farm and transit level without affecting the postharvest quality of mango fruits, providing more revenue for farmers and minimizing postharvest losses.
... Each treatment comprised of 80 fruits in 4 replications with 20 fruits for replicate. The fruit were packed in corrugated fibre board boxes (5 % ventilation) with newspaper lining and stored at 9-11 °C, 90-95 % RH [14]. Fruit were taken on the day of harvest and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of cold storage for analytical determination and fruit quality. ...
... Studies have shown that conversion of chlorophyll into carotenoids, starch into sugar etc varies with postharvest treatments and time [32]. Usually, mangoes are harvested at matured green stage for increasing shelf life. ...
... Kerusakan buah akibat penyakit dan benturan adalah salah satu kendala dalam akomodasi buah mangga. Beberapa cara telah dikembangkan untuk memperpanjang kesegaran dan umur simpan buah mangga, diantaranya dengan penyimpanan suhu dingin dan modified atmosfer packaging [2][3]. Beberapa penelitian tentang pelapisan pada buah mangga untuk menjaga kesegaran dan memperpanjang umur simpan telah banyak dipelajari. ...
Conference Paper
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Buah mangga (Mangifera indica L.) merupakan buah tropis yang memiliki umur simpan relatif singkat dan salah satu penyebab kerusakannya adalah serangan mikroba. Nanopartikel ZnO (NP-ZnO) mempunyai sifat antimikroba yang baik, yaitu menghambat pertumbuhan kapang dan bakteri. Nanopartikel ZnO disintesis dengan metode presipitasi pada suhu 80°C dan ditanur pada suhu 500°C. Nanopartikel dianalisis dengan menggunakan Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) dan diuji kapasitas antimikrobanya dan kemudian diinkorporasi ke edible coating berbasis pektin dan kitosan dan diaplikasikan pada buah mangga. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan terdapat puncak ke 474 cm-1 pada spectra yang merupakan titik serapan vibrasi dari ikatan Zn-O. Pengujian antimikroba menunjukkan bahwa NP-ZnO dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus dan kapang Penicillium sp. Perhitungan susut bobot menunjukkan buah mangga yang dilapisi Pektin+NP-ZnO mengalami penyusutan bobot paling rendah dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lain dengan rata-rata sebesar 9,31%. Pada buah mangga kontrol kerusakan terlihat pada hari keenam, sedangkan mangga yang dilapisi edible coating pektin+NP-ZnO dan kitosan+NP-ZnO masih dalam kondisi baik. Hasil pengukuran warna menunjukkan bahwa buah yang dilapisi dengan kitosan+NP-ZnO terlihat lebih cepat menguning, hal ini ditandai dengan nilai ∆b=298.71 yang merupakan nilai ∆b tertinggi dari perlakuan lain. Pengaruh perlakuan yang terbaik untuk memperpanjang umur simpan buah mangga diperlihatkan pada pelapisan menggunakan pektin+NP-ZnO. Kata kunci: Nanopartikel ZnO, edible coating, antimikroba, buah mangga, umur simpan
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides sample information on elemental scale. Current result depicts both qualitative and quantitative detection of most prominent organic elements like hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) and carbon (C) from mango pulp ripened under different post- harvest treatments. Similarly, it also indicates variable concentration of minerals such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) under these treatments. The concentration of Ca, Mg and K detected under different postharvest ripening techniques are 0.163 ̶ 0.257 mg\100 gm, 0.212 ̶ 0.431 mg\100 gm and 0.675 ̶ 1.802 mg\100 gm respectively. Moreover, the respective concentration H, N, O and C are 41.56 ̶ 46.51 gm/100 gm, 41.28 ̶ 44.91 gm\100 gm, 12.11 ̶ 14.49 gm\100 gm and 53.1 ̶ 100.1 mg\100 gm. Traces of arsenic (As) or phosphorous (P) were not found in samples treated with calcium carbide. Further studies on commercial grade fruits ripened with these agents are required to differentiate among nutritional elements of mango fruits treated under different ripening agents as well as to confirm the presence/absence of health hazardous elements.
Post-harvest loss negatively impacts food security, nutrition and economic stability of farmers, exporters, traders and consumers. Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of post-harvest techniques on the shelf life of Apple and Palmer mango cultivars under different storage conditions. Post-harvest losses of these fruit along the supply chain were also evaluated. A two-factors factorial experiment with six replications was used for each cultivar. Post-harvest techniques included dipping of fruit in hexanal solution (0.02% v/v), calcium chloride solution (2% w/v), smoke treatments and untreated fruit. The fruit were then stored at two different storage conditions namely: ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C) and cold storage (18 ± 2°C). Shelf life data was analyzed by using R-software. Mean separation was done by using Tukey Honestly Significant Difference at (p ≤ 0.05). Results showed that the major sites of post-harvest losses were at harvest, transport, wholesale and retail stages of supply chain. Furthermore, post-harvest treatments of fruit with hexanal and calcium chloride significantly increased shelf life and reduced disease incidences compared to untreated control and smoke-treated fruit. Cold storage significantly increased shelf life of mango fruit compared to ambient storage. Therefore, hexanal, calcium chloride and cold storage are recommended to extend fruit shelf life, maintain fruit firmness and to reduce disease incidences in mango fruit.
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Nutritional and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are important in relation to human health and palatability of products. Studies on changes of these compounds in green and black olives of the Portuguese 'Douro' variety during the preparation of black oxidized table olives were carried out. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylglycol, oleuropein aglycones, oleoside-11-methyl ester, oleuropein and other minor compounds were detected by GC analyses. Succinic, malic and citric acids were also found. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol content increased in the olives after two months of storage in brine, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, oleuropein aglycones, oleoside-11 methyl ester and oleuropein decreased greatly. The observed changes were probably due to microbial metabolism. Further degradations of these compounds were observed after alkaline and oxidation process. Variations of organic acids content were also observed. The level of all these compounds was also monitored in the storage liquids.
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Dissipation of carbendazim residues in mango fruits of cv. 'Dashehari' was studied following both pre-harvest foliar spray and post-harvest dip treatment in hot water. Carbendazim dissipated to 0.83 and 1.76 mg/kg in mature fruits during harvest after its spraying at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations, while its residue was very low in fruit pulp (0.24 and 0.51 mg/kg). The residues of carbendazim in whole ripe fruits, applied as post-harvest dip in hot water (52±1°C) for 10 min at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations, were 0.90 and 1.86 mg/kg after 10 days of storage at room temperature (32±2°C). The corresponding values for fruit pulp were 0.32 and 0.65 mg/kg after same period of storage. The residual half-life of carbendazim in whole fruits was approximately 7.0 and 6.5 days at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations, respectively from pre-harvest spray as well as post-harvest dip treatment. The safe waiting periods of 2 and 3 days are suggested for 0.5% dose after pre-harvest spray and post-harvest dip treatment, respectively.
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of postharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatment on alleviating chilling injury (CI), preserving bioactive compounds and extending shelf life of mango fruit during low-temperature storage. Physiologically mature mango fruit (cv. Chausa) were immersed in 1 mM and 2 mM SA solutions for 5 min and then stored at 8±0.5ºC temperature and 90±5% relative humidity. Before taking observations, the fruit were subjected to exposure at 25±2ºC temperature for 3 days to simulate shelf life. The results showed that SA treatments were highly effective in alleviating CI (11-25% lower) in mango fruit. Among the treatments, 2 mM SA proved best in lowering weight loss, fruit softening, disease incidence, pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase activities over control. Bioactive compounds like carotenoids, phenolics and antioxidant capacity were also maintained higher in SA-treated fruit. The findings confirmed that, SA (2 mM) can be potentially used as a pre-storage treatment during low-temperature storage of mango fruit. © 2014, The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. All rights reserved.
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Minimally processed fruits are an important area of potential growth in rapidly expanding fresh cut produce. However, the degree of safety obtained with the currently applied preservation methods seems to be not sufficient. The interest in the possible use of natural compounds to prevent microbial growth has notably increased in response to the consumer pressure to reduce or eliminate chemically synthesized additives in foods. The aim of this work is to give an overview on the application of natural compounds, such as hexanal, 2-(E)-hexenal, hexyl acetate and citrus essential oils, to improve the shelf-life and the safety of minimally processed fruits as well as their mechanisms of action.
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The effect on the quality of mango fruits (Mangifera indica) during modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. The fruits were kept in carton boxes whose top surface was covered with either chitosan film or with low-density polyethylene (positive control) or kept as such (control) and stored at room temperature (27ǃ C at 65% RH). The CO2 and O2 levels measured on day 3 were 23-26% and 3-6%, and at the end of the storage period they were 19-21% and 5-6%, respectively. Various quality parameters such as colour, chlorophyll, acidity, vitamin C, carotenoid and sugar contents were studied. The fruits stored as such had a shelf-life of 9ǃ days, whereas those stored in low-density polyethylene showed off-flavour due to fermentation and fungal growth on the stalk and around the fruits, and were partially spoiled. On the other hand, fruits stored in chitosan-covered boxes showed an extension of shelf-life of up to 18 days and without any microbial growth and off-flavour. Being biodegradable and ecofriendly, chitosan films are useful as an alternative to synthetic packaging films in the storage of freshly harvested mangoes.
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The effects of four different composite coating formulations based on polysaccharides on maintaining quality and an extended shelf-life of banana and mango at 27DŽ C were investigated and compared with commercial Waxol-coated and uncoated fruits. The formulations consisted of modified starch, cellulose and chitosan, blended with a suitable lipid component and a wetting agent. Quality parameters measured included firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Physiological parameters measured were CO2 evolved and weight loss due to respiration and transpiration. The polysaccharide-based coatings displayed retarded colour development, lower acidity and greater firmness values compared to Waxol and control. CO2 evolution and loss in weight were also reduced significantly. The data were also subjected to PCA, to differentiate the characteristics of the five types of films. Chitosan-based coatings were much superior in prolonging the shelf-life and quality of banana and mango.
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The effect of storage on physico-chemical changes such as weight loss (wt. loss), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluation such as skin color (SKC), flesh color (FLC), texture (TEX), taste (TAS) and flavor (FLA) of packaged Dosehari mango in cardboard carton of export quality, having one hole in each sidewall on four sides confronting each other, in order to maintain the modified atmosphere were recorded after an interval of 3 days at ambient temperature (32-35°C with 53.6-78.8% RH). The data obtained were statistically analyzed for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by using 2-Factorial Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and Duncan`s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was applied to compare the mean values obtained. A significant effect of storage (P<0.05) on Dusheri variety of mango was observed and had an increasing trend of average percent wt. loss (0.00 to 36.1 %), TSS (10 to 25.27 %), and decreasing trend of percent TA (0.5% to 0.094 %) with an average mean of 15.67 %, 11.55 % and 0.28% respectively during 15 days of storage period. The SKC score was increased from 5.0 to 8.70, FLC (5.0 to 8.44), TEX (6.00 to 8.68), TAS (5.00 to 8.46) and FLA score was increased from 5.0 to 7.61 with an average means of 4.22, 4.01, 4.43, 4.32, and 3.84 respectively during 15 days of storage at ambient temperature. It was also observed that in general the SKC score had increased up to (6.91) at 6<SUP>th</SUP> day, FLC (5.73), TEX (6.83), TAS (6.07) and FLA (5.67) score had increased at 3<SUP>rd</SUP> day of storage and then gradual decreased to 1.25, 1.83, 1.35, 1.67 and 1.57 respectively at 15<SUP>th</SUP> days of storage, therefore, showing an increasing trend first and then significant decreased of SKC, FLC, TEX, TAS and FLA score respectively during storage. Whereas control showed higher percentage of wt. loss (19.88%), lower retention of TSS (9.43%) or TA (0.15%), and very low score of other quality parameters such as SKC (1.71), FLC (1.58), TEX (1.82), TAS (1.61) and FLA (1.47), respectively during 15 days of storage period.
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Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fruits were harvested at three different times of the day: morning (7 a.m.), noon (12 p.m.) and evening (5 p.m.) and subjected to lime (@ 0.5%) and Mango Wash (@ 0.4%) treatments. No sap injury (0 score) was observed in the fruits harvested and de-sapped during morning whereas maximum sap injury was observed at noon in both the cases (0.5 score for lime, 0.75 score for Mango Wash). Both lime and Mango Wash showed significantly less sap injury as compared to control for all the three times of treatment application. Almost all of the physico-chemical attributes (except fruit peel colour and non-reducing sugar contents) were non-significantly affected by the desapping treatments. Fruit peel colour was slightly suppressed by Mango Wash. Lime was found to impart attractive appearance to the fruits; however the skin colour was not significantly improved as compared to control. The time of fruit harvest also exerted non significant effects on most of the fruit quality attributes. Significantly higher TSS value was measured in the fruit harvested at noon as compared to other times of the day. Minimum sapburn injury in the fruits harvested and desapped in the morning hours led to the conclusion that morning is the best time of harvest and desapping for the mangoes. Moreover, the potential of lime for controlling sapburn injury in mangoes was also confirmed and it was concluded that lime can be successfully used for mango fruit desapping as a substitute of highly expensive Mango Wash.
Studies were carried out to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in physico-chemical characteristics of mango fruits during ripening by making use of eight mango hybrids or varieties. The major changes were reduction in fruit weight (351 to 306 g), volume (338 to 309 ml), fruit length (11.04 to 10.55 cm), thickness (6.91 to 6.51 cm), firmness (28.96 to 17.46 lbs/sq.inch), pulp content (77.53 to 75.14%), pulp to peel ratio (7.83 to 6.23), acidity (2.71 to 0.04%), starch (10.7 to 0.43%), vitamin- C (40.83 to 11.08 mg/100 g) and increase in peel (9.00 to 12.06%), TSS 8.55 to 19.00 degrees Brix) pH (2.85 to 4.38), total sugars (2.69 to 11.16%), sugar:acid ratio (0.99 to 27.22) and carotenoids (498 to 8071 mug/ 1009). The peel colour turned from light green or green or dark green to light yellow or yellow or orange yellow, whereas pulp colour changed from white or pale yellow to yellow or deep yellow or orange yellow.
Mango Var. "Rataul" was ripened by using ethrel dip at 500, 1000, 1500 ppm and calcium carbide treatments in order to study the ripening and textural changes of fruit. Initiation of ripening was faster in ethrel-and calcium carbide-treated mangoes as compared to untreated fruits. Ethrel at 1000 ppm aqueous dip showed better ripening attributes and sensory quality. Untreated fruits exhibited maximum variation in pulp texture due to uneven ripening. Ripening initiation was found to take place from the periphery and proceeded towards the centre. A value of 4-6 Newton mean pulp rupture force on ripening was found to be acceptable on sensory evaluation. Physiological loss in weight showed a slight increasing trend due to ethrel treatment. Calcium carbide treatment resulted in more rotting on ripening. Ascorbic acid content was drastically reduced due to calcium carbide treatment.
Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit have a very short postharvest shelf life due to microbial decay and exocarp browning. The most common commercial means for prevention of longan fruit rot and browning is SO2 fumigation, but it is facing food safety regulations and alternatives are needed. The aims of this study were to determine if the natural volatile hexanal could inhibit mycelial growth and spore germination of common longan decaycausing fungi, and if hexanal could affect fungal-derived cell-wall degrading enzymes that are involved in pathogenicity. Four common longan fruit decay fungi, Lasiodiplodia theobromae; Pestalotiopsis sp.; Phomopsis sp.; and Curvularia sp., were exposed to hexanal vapour, and mycelial growth in vitro was measured. Also, hexanal vapour effects on spore germination, mycelial morphology, and activity of extracellular enzymes of L. theobromae were studied. L. theobromae growth was completely suppressed at a lower hexanal volume than the other fungi. Fumigation for 1 h with 15 μL hexanal per Petri dish was enough to completely suppress L. theobromae, with lower volumes for 1 to 48 h resulting in variable levels of suppression but not fungicidal effects. Spore germination was inhibited at 5 μL per dish for only 1 h, and the effect was fungicidal at greater than 15 μL. Hexanal vapour appeared to induce cell swelling with greater vacuolation and more mycelial branching of L. theobromae. Extracellular cellulase activity was reduced more than 80% by hexanal, but pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, and cutinase activities were not affected.
Mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Kensington Pride') fruit were dipped for 6 min in aqueous solutions containing different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mM) of various polyamines (PAs) including spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD) and putrescine (PUT), with 0.01% 'Tween-20' as a surfactant, to investigate their effects on shelf-life and fruit quality. Treated fruit were air-dried (22° ± 1°C), packed in "Ecopax" trays and stored in a cool room (13° ± 1°C, RH 85 ± 5%) for 3 or 4 weeks. Following storage, fruit were allowed to ripen to the "eating soft" stage (score 4) at ambient temperature (22° ± 1°C). Pre-storage dip application of PAs retarded development of mean fruit softness (10.3%) and visual colour (26.3%), and reduced weight loss (6.8%) during storage without significant (P ≤ 0.05) reductions in ethylene production and respiration rate. During ripening of 3 week-stored fruit, 0.5 mM SPM-treated fruit exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower mean respiration rates compared with the control. Application of PAs significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content, while reducing carotenoids, total soluble solids (TSS)/acid ratio and Hue angle of ripe fruit compared with the no-PA treatment. In conclusion, pre-storage dip application of PAs improved the shelf-life of mango fruit without impairing fruit quality.
Stem-end rot, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. and Maubl. was controlled in harvested mango fruit for up to 4 weeks by fungicidal dipping of pared fruit followed by storage at 13°C. Stem-end rot was significantly (P< 0.05) reduced by a 0.025% prochloraz dip at an ambient water temperature of 31°C or by a 0.05% benomyl dip at 50°C water temperature, com pared with ambient water dipping at 31°C. A hot water dip at 50°C, or 0.1% thiabendazole at 50°C water tem perature, did not significantly control stem-end rot.
Hexanal was taken as a model molecule to study the relationship between the antifungal activity of a volatile compound and its vapor pressure. A Central Composite Design (3 variables, 5 levels) was developed in order to modulate the hexanal vapor pressure and evaluate the effect of water activity (aw), temperature and hexanal dose on the inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus niger as well as the changes of the hexanal vapor pressure during incubation in model systems. The different indices taken into consideration evidenced the importance of the hexanal vapor pressure for its bioactivity against the mold. Moreover, the temperature increase enhanced the hexanal antifungal activity, due to its effect on vapor pressure. This indirect effect of temperature sustained the assumption that the volatile molecule effectiveness depends on the vapor pressure. Keywords: Vapor pressure; hexanal; antifungal activity; temperature; water activity
Article de synthese comprenant: Nomenclature taxonomique; Symptomes, spectre d'hotes et processus d'infection; Physiologie de la quiescence; Epidemiologie de l'anthracnose; Methodes de lutte. On aborde plus specialement le cas du manguier, de l'avocatier, du bananier et du papayer
Sweet cherry has a short post-harvest shelf life and this greatly affects the consumer preference and export of fresh fruits. In this study, the effects of pre-harvest application of a hexanal formulation (enhanced freshness formulation, EFF) and post-harvest application of hexanal vapour and 1-MCP on quality parameters and shelf life of sweet cherry were investigated. Cherries subjected to pre-harvest spray with EFF had better color, brightness and firmness than unsprayed cherries even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. These EFF-treated cherries also showed higher chroma values indicative of enhanced red color. Post-harvest application of either, hexanal vapour, 1-MCP, or a combination of both, enhanced the firmness of cherries. These treatments also resulted in higher levels of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. The levels of anthocyanins and phenolic components were either enhanced or maintained during the 30-day storage period. Our results suggest that a pre-harvest application of EFF combined with post-harvest treatment of hexanal and 1-MCP may enhance the quality and shelf life of sweet cherry.
Hexanal, an inhibitor of phospholipase D, has been successfully applied for the pre- and post-harvest treatment of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Changes in gene expression induced by hexanal and the ethylene antagonist 1-MCP, were analyzed by microarray using TOM2 tomato oligo-array containing approximately 12 000 unigenes. Mature green tomato fruits were treated with 1-MCP and hexanal, RNA isolated after 10 days of storage, and labeled cDNA synthesized for microarray analysis. A large variation in gene expression profile was observed in 1-MCP-treated fruits. Genes for ethylene biosynthetic pathway enzymes such as ACC- synthase/oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene response factors were heavily down-regulated in 1-MCP-treated fruits. In addition, genes for key enzymes involved in cell wall degradation and carotenoid development pathways were down-regulated. Hexanal treatment significantly down-regulated ACC-synthase, and to a lesser extent, other components of ethylene signal transduction. By contrast to MCP-treated fruits, hexanal-treated fruits gradually ripened and showed higher levels of lycopene and β-carotene. GC-MS analysis of volatiles showed a higher level of major volatile components in hexanal-treated fruits. Similarities in the modulation of gene expression by hexanal and 1-MCP suggest that hexanal, in addition to being a PLD inhibitor, may also act as a weak ethylene inhibitor.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars (`Kaew', `Rad', `Okrong', `Tongdum', `Nam Dok Mai' and `Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C (85–90␛H) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed by a color change in the pulp and the endocarp (seed coat). The seed tissue of most cultivars became brittle during storage at 4 and 8 °C for as little as 5 days, and the seeds did not germinate. In all cultivars studied, storage life was limited by skin discoloration. If acceptable skin color (no discoloration of more than 10␘f the skin surface) after 5 days of shelf life at room temperature (about 30 °C) was taken as a criterion, fruit of all cultivars, except `Rad' and `Okrong', could be not be stored for more than 5 days. According to this criterion, `Rad' fruit could be stored at 12 °C for 15 days and `Okrong' fruit for as long as 25 days. This variation in chilling injury (CI) sensitivity may be useful in breeding cultivars with improved storage life at low temperatures.
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