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Bat guano: a rich source of macro and microelements essential for plant growth

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Bat guano: a rich source of macro and microelements essential for plant growth

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Bats are unique among mammals, widely distributed and often live gregariously. The bat guano is being used traditionally as natural fertilizer. The present study was carried out to examine the nutritional value of different species of insectivorous bat guano and validate over vermicomposting. Elemental compositions of bat guano belong to six insectivorous bats such as R. hardwickii, R. microphyllum, S. heathii, S. kuhlii, T. nudiventris and M. lyra were analyzed using SEM-EDS and compared with the elements of vermicompost. The guano of insectivorous bats such as S. heathii, S. kuhlii, R. hardwickii, M. lyra and R. microphyllum showed high contents of elements such as N, K, Ca, P, Na, Cl, S, Al, Fe, Mg and Si. The elemental composition of the vermicompost did not show the traces of Cl, S and Ti. The highest content of nitrogen was observed in the guano of insectivorous bat R. microphyllum (11.17 %) while highest contents of Ca (5.74%) and P (6.17%) were found in a carnivorous bat, M. lyra. The abundant source of nutritive elements in the bat guano suggests its suitability as organic manure. Further, the elemental composition in the bat guano is the nutritive source for the growth of microbiota in the cave ecosystem.
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Corresponding author email: elango70@yahoo.com; Phone no. +919235565647
1Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India
Annals of Plant and Soil Research 21(1): 82 86 (2019)
Bat guano: a rich source of macro and microelements essential for plant growth
PAWAN KUMAR MISRA, NEELAM KUMARI GAUTAM1 AND VADAMALAI ELANGOVAN*
Department of Zoology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University),
Lucknow - 226025, India
Received: December, 2018; Revised accepted: February, 2019
ABSTRACT
Bats are unique among mammals, widely distributed and often live gregariously. The bat guano is
being used traditionally as natural fertilizer. The present study was carried out to examine the nutritional value
of different species of insectivorous bat guano and validate over vermicomposting. Elemental compositions of
bat guano belong to six insectivorous bats such as R. hardwickii, R. microphyllum, S. heathii, S. kuhlii, T.
nudiventris and M. lyra were analyzed using SEM-EDS and compared with the elements of vermicompost. The
guano of insectivorous bats such as S. heathii, S. kuhlii, R. hardwickii, M. lyra and R. microphyllum showed
high contents of elements such as N, K, Ca, P, Na, Cl, S, Al, Fe, Mg and Si. The elemental composition of the
vermicompost did not show the traces of Cl, S and Ti. The highest content of nitrogen was observed in the
guano of insectivorous bat R. microphyllum (11.17 %) while highest contents of Ca (5.74%) and P (6.17%) were
found in a carnivorous bat, M. lyra. The abundant source of nutritive elements in the bat guano suggests its
suitability as organic manure. Further, the elemental composition in the bat guano is the nutritive source for the
growth of microbiota in the cave ecosystem.
Keywords: Bat guano, Micro and macronutrients, Insectivorous bats, Vermicompost, SEM-EDS
INTRODUCTION
Bats are ubiquitous and play vital role
in ecological balance, nutrients cycling and
redistribution of forests. Nutritional studies of
bats have dealt with energy or water demands
(Bassett and Studier, 1988), only few studies of
insectivorous bats guano were carried out on
nitrogen and mineral budgets (Studier et al.,
1994a,b). The bat guano is being widely used as
a natural fertilizer due to its high nitrogen content
and also the guano shows some nematocidal
effects (Keleher and Sara, 1996). The bat guano
is also very important for the growth of microflora
as it contains all essential nutritive elements for
their growth. Unfortunately, the bat guano was
ignored and chemicals fertilizers became the
nutritional source of plants. The use of chemical
fertilizers and pesticides in modern farming
enhanced the food productivity but deteriorated
soil and environment conditions which in turn
affect the human health and environment. The
use of vermicompost for sustainable agriculture
is very important because it contains beneficial
microorganisms, macro and micro-nutrients,
enzymes and hormones. Vermicompost has a
desirable aesthetics like reduced levels of
contaminants (Ndegwa and Thompson, 2001).
Although, the bat guano is being used at
different regions as organic manure since long,
the nutritive values, and existence of macro and
microelements of bat guano still lacking.
Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate
the nutritional values of guano belong to different
species of insectivorous bats such as
Rhinopoma hardwickii, R. microphyllum,
Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Taphozous
nudiventris, Megaderma lyra and Hipposideros
fulvus, and compared with the vermicomposting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was carried out
between June 2012 and May 2015. The guano
samples of R. hardwickii, R. microphyllum, S.
heathii, S. kuhlii, T. nudiventris, M. lyra and H.
fulvus were collected by spreading 2 x 2 m
polythene sheet beneath their roosting sites.
Guano sample of bats were collected from
Balister Singh, Purwa, Unnao (26°26'47"N,
80°44'19"E), Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Inter College,
Hardoi (27°18'31"N, 82°32'33"E), Allipur,
Kashipur villages and Railway station of Hardoi
(27°24'83"N, 80°06'42"E), Babasaheb Bhimrao
Ambedkar University campus, Lucknow
(26°46'01"N, 80°55'12"E), Atala mosque,
Jaunpur (25°44'57"N, 82°41'04"E), Diyara,
Sultanpur (26°13'01"N, 82°14'46"E), Jhansi
Fort, Jhansi (25°27'20"N, 78°34'54"E), and King
Rudra Pratap Singh Shahi palace, Kal Kothary,
83 Bat guano: a rich source of macro and microelements
Chunar Mirzapur (25°06'10"N, 82°52'22"E),
Thar Ganga Ghat, Varanasi (25°18'45"N,
83°00'57"E), Jhushi fort and Khusurubagh fort,
Allahabad (25°26'47"N, 81°48'58"E), Bhuragrah
fort, Banda (25°28'34"N, 80°18'11"E), Gupt
Godavari, Chitrakoot (25°05'54"N, 80°46'06"E).
Guano samples were stored in 5 ml sample vials
and kept in the refrigerator (4°C) until the
analysis. Vermicompost was procured from the
Biotech Park, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The
aseptically collected guano samples and
vermicompost were kept in desiccators overnight
for removal of moisture. The samples were
coated with palladium sputter coater and
analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope
(JEOL JSM 6490 LV, Japan) at different
accelerating voltage. Scanning Electron
Microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-
ray spectroscopy (Oxford INCA) was used for
elemental analysis. Each sample was subjected
to three-points analyses. In addition, the nitrogen
contents of samples were analyzed by following
Kjeldahl method.
Statistical analysis
All statistical analyses were performed in
SPSS (version 20). We set the null hypothesis,
Ho: differences of elements in different bats
guano were equal. i.e. p1= p1. We also set
alternate hypothesis, H1: differences of elements
in different bats guano were not the same. i.e. p1
p1. Differences between the elements of bats
guano samples were evaluated with ANOVA
followed by a posteriori Tukey test (Zar, 1999).
The unpaired t-test was used to determine
possible differences between the bat guano and
vermicompost. The level of statistical
significance was p 0.05. Graphs were
prepared using Graph-Pad Prism (Version 5).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The results of the present study revealed
that the guano of bats contained a wide range of
mineral constituents including macronutrients
and micronutrients. A total of 12 elements such
as aluminium, calcium, chlorine, iron, potassium,
magnesium, sodium, phosphorous, sulfur, silicon
and titanium were found in different species of
bat guano (Fig. 1). Beside these elements,
boron, manganese, copper, zirconium and zinc
were also found but in trace amounts. On an
average, oxygen was the most abundant
element found in the guano (54.94%) while Ti
(0.38%) was the least abundant element (Fig. 1).
Figure 1: Percent elemental share in the guano of different species of insectivorous bats and vermicompost
PAWAN KUMAR MISRA, NEELAM KUMARI GAUTAM and VADAMALAI ELANGOVAN 84
Though, the elemental composition of
the guano varied among different bat species,
the highest percentage of elements such as Al
(4.76), Fe (3.76), Mg (4.05) and Si (15.91) were
observed in the guano of S. heathii, while higher
compositions of K (9.18) and Na (2.29) found in
S. kuhlii (Fig. 2, Table 1). The guano of R.
hardwickii showed highest percentage of Cl
(3.57%) and S (7.86%), while the guano of
carnivorous bat M. lyra showed more Ca
(5.74%) and P (6.17%). The elemental
composition of the vermicompost did not show
the traces of Cl, S and Ti. However, the most
abundant element apart from oxygen in the
vermicompost was Si (15.05%). Statistically,
there was no significant difference in the
elemental compositions among the guano of
bats and vermicompost (Table 1). Further, an
unpaired t-test also revealed non-significant
difference between the elemental composition of
bat guano and vermicompost, except
phosphorus (t = 3.89, p ˂ 0.05). Results showed
that the guano of all six insectivorous bats
showed high differences in their nitrogen
contents. The nitrogen content was high in the
guano of R. microphyllum (11.17 %) while it was
very low (0.73%) in R. hardwickii. In the guano of
S. kuhlii, T. nudiventris, M. lyra and S. heathii the
nitrogen contents were 9.95 %, 6.38 %, 5.45 %
and 2.57 %, respectively.
Table 1: Elemental composition of different species of bat guano. The values are given as Mean ± SD
Species
RH
RM
SH
SK
ML
VC
ANOVA
Elements %
F
p
AL
1.93 ±
2.43
4.16 ±
5.92
4.76 ±
4.86
2.80 ±
2.63
4.37 ±
3.56
2.83 ±
2.83
4.33 ±
2.32
(6,68) =
0.872
0.520
Ca
2.95 ±
4.55
2.17 ±
2.43
4.08 ±
6.35
3.86 ±
5.44
4.81 ±
6.64
5.74 ±
5.39
1.95 ±
0.72
(6,67) =
0.722
0.633
Cl
3.57 ±
4.30
2.95 ±
3.38
1.74 ±
2.50
2.31 ±
1.51
2.71 ±
3.57
3.54 ±
4.36
-
(5,67) =
0.507
0.770
Fe
3.20 ±
4.14
3.11 ±
3.11
3.76 ±
3.21
3.49 ±
4.72
2.41 ±
3.62
3.69 ±
5.37
1.97 ±
1.48
(6,69) =
0.164
0.985
K
7.00 ±
4.96
6.34 ±
4.99
6.25 ±
4.20
9.18 ±
8.05
8.29 ±
5.45
7.07 ±
4.83
1.79 ±
0.45
(6,69) =
0.924
0.483
Mg
1.49 ±
1.57
1.84 ±
1.78
4.05 ±
3.95
3.20 ±
1.97
1.62 ±
1.41
3.11 ±
2.96
2.28 ±
0.43
(6,68) =
1.765
0.120
Na
1.68 ±
1.56
0.83 ±
0.86
1.62 ±
1.84
2.29 ±
2.14
0.70 ±
0.84
1.82 ±
1.53
1.11 ±
1.69
(6,69) =
1.501
0.191
O
56.84 ±
12.37
59.30 ±
14.21
51.28 ±
10.16
52.84
±12.54
59.44 ±
13.39
49.97 ±
8.58
67.60 ±
9.00
(6,69) =
1.759
0.121
P
3.43 ±
3.08
2.74 ±
3.73
3.97 ±
7.29
4.20 ±
3.79
2.63 ±
2.46
6.17 ±
5.65
0.75 ±
1.30
(6,68) =
1.131
0.354
S
7.86 ±
6.78
4.35 ±
3.85
3.54 ±
5.11
5.64 ±
3.27
2.52 ±
2.40
3.89 ±
2.96
-
(6,67) =
2.259
0.058
Si
8.09 ±
9.19
9.04 ±
9.75
15.91 ±
16.02
7.22 ±
6.57
13.62 ±
16.01
15.05 ±
8.87
15.05 ±
8.87
(6,69 =
0.898
0.501
Ti
0.17 ±
0.52
0.28 ±
0.52
0.23 ±
0.27
1.47 ±
4.91
0.11 ±
0.32
0.06 ±
0.13
-
(6,68) =
0.679
0.667
Others
1.75 ±
3.06
2.85 ±
3.13
0.24 ±
0.51
1.76 ±
4.08
0.22 ±
0.66
0.08 ±
0.30
1.27 ±
2.19
(6,69) =
1.801
0.112
Note: RH = R. hardwickii, RM=R.microphyllum, SK=S. kuhlii, SH=S.heathii, TN=T.nudiventris, ML=M.lyra and VC=vermicompost
The macro-nutrients such as nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium
and sulfur were abundant in the bat guano. It
has been already reported that guano of
Hipposideros speoris amended in soil at a ratio
of 1:20 serves as a good fertilizer (Sridhar et al.,
2006). Bat guano also serves as soil builders,
nematicidal (Keleher and Sara, 1996), compost
activator and improved the quality of poor
roughage (Paul and Sagamiko, 2008). Studies
on Eptesicus fuscus indicate that insects are
inadequate sources of calcium, excellent
sources of nitrogen and magnesium, marginal
sources of potassium, iron, and sodium (Studier
85 Bat guano: a rich source of macro and microelements
Figure 2: Macronutrients (%) P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Si, and micronutrients (%) Al, Cl, Fe, Na, and Ti of different
species of bat guano. RH = R. hardwickii, RM = R. microphyllum, SK = S. kuhlii, SH = S. heathii, TN = T.
nudiventris, ML = M. lyra and VC = vermicompost
et al., 1994a,b), the current study reflects similar
outcome. The percentage of nitrogen varied
among six insectivorous bat guanos. Guano of
R. microphyllum showed highest percenrage of
nitogen while a least quantity was observed in
the guano of R. hardwickii. Nitrogen percentage
in the guano of S. kuhlii, S. heathii and T.
nudiventris were almost constant, not much
PAWAN KUMAR MISRA, NEELAM KUMARI GAUTAM and VADAMALAI ELANGOVAN 86
variation found as in R. microphyllum and R.
hardwickii. Sodium and potassium were highest
in the guano of S. kuhlii and presence of high-
level potassium suggests that they consume a
large amount of lepidopteron insects (Studier et
al., 1994a,b). In the present study, the
percentage of calcium was ranged from 1.95 to
5.74 compared to an earlier observtion stated
that calcium was inadequate source in the guano
of insectivorous bats (Studier et al., 1994a,b).
Presence of sufficient quantity of calcium in the
guano of insectivorous bats indicates their
diverse feeding habits.. Among the guano of six
bat species the highest percentage of P was
observed in the guano of M. lyra and the
phosphorus contents in the bat guano were
much higher than the vermicompost. Chlorine
was found in the guano of almost all the bat
species. Magnesium (Mg) was found in all the
guano samples of all six insectivorous bats
except R. microphyllum and their percentage
was also sufficient. Sulphur present in all six
insectivorous bats guano, but the highest
percentage of S was observed in the guano of R.
hardwickii, while absernt in vermicompost.
Therefore, the abundant source of macro-
nutrients in the bat guano and the presence of
higher amount of nitrogen and phosphorous
suggest its suitability as organic manure. The
results of the study showed the presence of wide
range of elements in the guano of different
species of bats. Along with its higher fertilizing
value, use of guano as a fertilizer can become
popular like other non-conventional organic
manures in agriculture. It is known fact that
varying amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in
the guano of bats can be used for differential
growth of plant parts. It prompted a novel
suggestion to use of guano from selected groups
of bats as fertilizer in selective crops to enhance
the production and quality.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the University Science
Instrumentation Centre for extending scanning
electron microscope facility and the
Archaeological Survey of India for permitting us
in the monuments to collect guano samples. The
financial assistance provided by University Grant
Commission through a UGC-RGN fellowship
(F/2012-13/RGNF-2012-13D-GEN-UTT-56331).
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Demidchik, V. (2002) Non selective cation
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Keleher, H. and Sara, A. (1996) Guano: bat’s gift
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... Bat characteristics, such as the ability to fly and orientate themselves acoustically, have enabled them to exploit different types of resources and consequently perform different and important ecological functions in different ecosystems (Ghanem and Voigt, 2012;Vilas, 2016), such as, insect predation (Maas et al., 2016), seed dispersal (Preciado-Benítez et al., 2015), and plant pollination (Sritongchuay et al., 2019). Moreover, bats may contribute to cycling and redistribution of nutrients by guano deposition (Misra et al., 2019). Bats may also increase recruitment rates of plant populations (Ragusa-Netto and Santos, 2015) and control the population of small vertebrates (Santana and Cheung, 2016). ...
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Changes in landscape environmental characteristics may influence habitat use by bat species as well as species composition and community functional structure. Landscape features may drive the functional role variability of bat species on the ecosystems. Consequently, landscapes may change the degree of functional differentiation between species. We have evaluated the effect of pine forest monoculture and their environmental characteristics on the distribution and functional attributes of bat species. We sampled bat communities in areas with high (three sites) and low (three sites) forest land use management practices including six mist-netting locations in order to sample for bats at each site. In addition, we have also measured temperature, humidity, percentage of land use coverage (managed forest, agriculture, and native forest), and percentage of canopy openness at each site. We captured 87 bats belonging to eight species representing two families: Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. For the functional analysis, we used three functional attributes to describe wing morphology: wing loading, aspect ratio, and forearm length. No significant effect of any environmental variable was observed on bat species composition. However, bat species distribution was driven by the ability associated with their functional attributes to occupy the space. Moreover, forearm length was positively correlated with forest cover, canopy openness, and humidity. Species with similar wing morphology have responded in a similar way to environmental variables in the studied areas. Functional dispersion was high in the native forest. The monoculture of exotic species may increase the functional attributes related with vulnerability as described by bat wing morphology. Therefore, the native forest conversion to pine forest monoculture may increase the loss of functional attributes in the bat community.
... Guano deposits are mainly made of insect chitin accumulations, together with other minor organic compounds. The composition of guano includes the usual organic elements: C-H-O-N, with P, S, and secondary K, Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and Si (Martini & Kavalieris, 1978;Wurster et al., 2015;Misra et al., 2019). The decay of organic matter results in gaseous volatilization, leaching of most soluble compounds, and precipitation of phosphates (Frazier et al., 1963 , SO 4 2-, Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and K + , are easily leached away. ...
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Full paper available here: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/ijs/vol50/iss1/8/ The decay of bat guano deposits in caves produces mineral accumulations, mainly phosphates and secondary sulfates. Chameau Cave, Eastern Morocco, is located in the semi-arid Bni Snassen Mountains. It is composed of semi-active and dry passages, and is featured by strong condensation-corrosion on the walls, presence of fluvial sediments, and old corroded flowstones. Due to forced and convective airflow, the cave is generally very dry, with some damp sites related to condensation. Samples collected on the surface of different passages and along two sediment profiles yielded minerals related to bat guano decay. On recent or fresh guano, precursor minerals correspond to sulfate (gypsum), phosphate-sulfate (ardealite) and phosphate (brushite). Phosphates (hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite) occur at the interface with host rock or carbonate speleothems. At the contact of phyllosilicates contained in allogenic fluvial deposits or shale partings, or with pyrite-rich sediments, various phosphates occur (Al-rich strengite, Fe-rich variscite, phosphosiderite, leucophosphite, spheniscidite, crandallite, minyulite, variscite, and strengite), the latter two minerals being the stable end-members. Black seams of oxyhydroxides (goethite, hematite, birnessite) line the contact between carbonate host rock and weathered fluvial deposits. After “digestion” by acidic guano leachates, fluvial deposits only display the most resistant minerals (quartz, muscovite, K-feldspars and Na-plagioclases) and weathering byproducts (kaolinite). We discuss the origin of a pure gypsum particle cone, possibly related to evaporation at the edge of a wet cupola and subsequent detachment of sulfate particles. Among environmental conditions, humidity is required for decay. In this dry cave, most of the damp originates from either permanent or seasonal condensation. Dust particle advection seems to be essential in providing compounds that are not present on fresh guano (quartz, clay minerals). Bat guano phosphatization has probably occurred since >100 ka. The Chameau Cave appears as an outstanding site for bat guano-related minerals (n = 12), including rare phosphates (spheniscidite and minyulite).
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Çağımızın en önemli çevre sorunları arasında yer alan iklim değişikliği, türler, komüniteler ve ekosistemler üzerinde önemli olumsuz etkiler oluşturmaktadır. Dünyada geniş yayılış gösteren ve ekosistemlerin işleyişinde önemli rollere sahip olan yarasalar, iklim değişikliğinden önemli ölçüde etkilenecek canlılar arasındadır. Bu çalışmada, iklim değişikliğinin yarasalar üzerindeki olası etkileri, dünyanın farklı biyom ve coğrafyalarında gerçekleştirilen gözlemsel, deneysel ve modelleme odaklı çalışmaların derlenerek ortaya konmuştur. Bu çalışmalarda, yarasa türlerinin alansal yayılımı, bolluğu, fizyolojisi, fenolojisi, habitatları, diğer türlerle olan etkileşimleri, yiyecek arama aktivitesi ve patojen yayma etkinliği üzerine iklim değişikliğinin etkileri olduğuna ilişkin bulgular elde edilmiştir. Mevcut veriler, yarasa popülasyonlarının iklim değişikliğine karşı verdiği tepkilerin karmaşık olduğunu ve türe özgü tepkiler nedeniyle genelleme yapmanın zor olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu derleme çalışması, yarasaların iklim değişikliğine verdiği ve vereceği tepkiler hakkında sahip olduğumuz bilgilerin sınırlı olduğunu göstermiştir. Farklı biyocoğrafi bölgelerde yayılım gösteren ve farklı iklimsel gereksinimleri olan yarasaların iklim değişikliğine tepkilerinin özellikle tür seviyesinde daha çok araştırılması gerekmektedir.
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Recent viral zoonotic epidemics have been attributed partially to the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem biodiversity. Agricultural activities, particularly conventional crop protection (CP) practices, are a major threat to global biodiversity, ecosystem health and human health. Here we review interactions between CP practices and viral zoonoses (VZs), the first time this has been done. It should be noted that a) VZs stand at the interface between human, animal and ecosystem health; b) some VZs involve arthropod vectors that are affected by CP practices; c) some crop pests, or their natural enemies are vertebrate reservoirs/carriers of certain VZs, and their contact with humans or domestic animals is affected by CP practices. Our review encompasses examples highlighting interactions between VZs and CP practices, both efficiency improvement-based (i.e. conventional with agrochemical insecticides and rodenticides), substitution-based (i.e. mainly with physical / mechanical or biopesticidal pest control), and redesign-based (i.e. mainly with conservation biological pest control, including some forms of crop-livestock integration). These CP practices mainly target arthropod and vertebrate pests. They also target, to a lesser extent, weeds and plant pathogens. Conventional and some physical / mechanical control methods and some forms of biopesticidal and crop-livestock integration practices were found to have mixed outcomes in terms of VZ risk management. Conversely, practices based on biological control by habitat conservation of arthropod or vertebrate natural enemies, falling within the Agroecological Crop Protection (ACP) framework, result in VZ prevention at various scales (local to global, and short-term to long-term). ACP addresses major global challenges including climate resilience, biodiversity conservation and animal welfare, and helps integrate plant health within the extended “One Health” concept.
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Inceptisols is known as one of the less-fertile dryland soil order that is widely used for corn cultivation. Proper type and dose of fertilizer can overcome the plant nutrition deficiency and increase corn yield in Inceptisols. This research aimed to examine whether the application of Urea with different doses, N-fixing biofertilizer and ameliorant can affect pH, Organic C, N-fixing bacteria population, and corn yield. The research was conducted at Balai Pengembangan Benih Hortikultura dan Aneka Tanaman Pasir Banteng, Jatinangor from January to June 2020. This research used Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments. The result showed that application of Urea with different doses, N-fixing biofertilizer and ameliorant significantly affected N-fixing bacteria population and corncob weight. 40% dose of Urea and 2 ton ha-1 ameliorant gave the best increase in corncob weight per plant of Bisi-2 by 345 g.
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This study aimed at assessing the physicochemical characteristics, microflora and manure quality of guano of an endemic insectivorous cave bat Hipposideros speoris. The impact of bat guano on crop growth was also assessed. Results indicated that organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen and phosphate were high in faecal pellets. Calcium, magnesium, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were higher in humus-like guano than faecal pellets. Physicochemical features and microbial load between faecal pellets and humus-like guano significantly differed (p<0.05). One set control pots received red loamy soil; four sets of experimental pots received soil amended with different quantity of guano (w/w); one set each with guano + farm yard manure (FYM) and FYM. After three weeks (finger millet) and six weeks (black gram) of growth, crops were harvested and assessed various parameters. Both crops, in soil amended with guano at the ratio of 20:1 showed the highest shoot length, total dry matter, nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake. The shoot length, total dry matter, nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake in both crops were significantly differed between treatment 20:1 and control (p<0.05). The results clearly indicated that incorporation of low amount of bat guano into the soil enhances crop production. Importance of conservation of insectivorous bats in agricultural fields and their guano have been emphasized. Key words: Hipposideros speoris, insectivorous cave bat, bat guano, organic manure, crop production.
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An experiment was carried out on six rumen fistulated cows to determine the potential of bat guano in the treatment (GU) of poor quality roughage in comparison with the use of urea (UR) alkali from "Magadi" (MG) with untreated straws as a control (C). One kg DM of rice straws were sprayed with one litre each of either 5% Urea, or "Magadi", or Bats' guano suspensions. The treated straws were kept in covered plastic buckets for 14 days after this, followed by sun drying, then ground by laboratory hammer to pass through a 2.5mm screen. One gram was weighed into Dacron bags (36×36) µm pore size measuring 7.5×10.0 cm. The open ends of the bags were tightly secured on a rubber bong and incubated in the rumen of cows (in triplicates) for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Samples were withdrawn according to the incubation schedule and immediately deep- frozen at -150 C. Finally the samples were manually washed until the washing water was clear and oven dried at 100 0 C for 24 hours. The residues in the bags were weighed as the DM left and the percentage degradation for each sample calculated. The treated straws had significantly higher P (
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Nonselective cation channels are a diverse group of ion channels characterized by their low discrimination between many essential and toxic cations. They are ubiquitous in plant tissues and are active in the plasma membrane, tonoplast, and other endomembranes. Members of this group are likely to function in low-affinity nutrient uptake, in distribution of cations within and between cells, and as plant Ca2+ channels. They are gated by diverse mechanisms, which can include voltage, cyclic nucleotides, glutamate, reactive oxygen species, and stretch. These channels dominate tonoplast cation transport, and the selectivity and gating mechanisms of tonoplast nonselective cation channels are comprehensively reviewed here. This review presents the first classification of plant nonselective cation channels and the first full description of nonselective cation channel candidate sequences in the Arabidopsis genome.
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Concentrations of nitrogen and minerals in individual fecal pellets of Noctilio leporinus directly reflect composition of the fish, crustaceans, beetles, or moths originally consumed. Among Neotropical bats that feed primarily on plant parts (fruits, nectar, pollen, and flowers), animal parts (insects and vertebrates), or both, differences in measured concentrations of nutrients are present in feces. Nitrogen levels are markedly higher and sodium levels are marginally higher in feces of carnivores and omnivores than in frugivores. Calcium levels are higher and potassium levels are lower in feces of bats that primarily consume insects. Total iron levels in feces of frugivorous species are marginally lower than in carnivores or omnivores. Magnesium concentrations seem unrelated to feeding habits. Intake of nitrogen, potassium, and magnesium appears to be adequate for bats of all feeding habits. Periodic deficiencies for calcium exist for insectivorous species and for sodium, and possibly iron, in some frugivorous species.
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Samples of typical guano, collected weekly during the summer roosting period from six maternity roosts of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), were analyzed for levels of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Total time and variability patterns, unique for each nutrient, suggested limiting or inadequate dietary intake of calcium for most of the summer and of iron from the end of lactation onward. Samples of atypical guano often contained high levels of calcium or iron. Levels of some nutrients in guano, and, therefore, nutrient budgets, differed between roosts within weekly collections, especially early in the roosting period, and generally reflected differences in levels of those nutrients from insects available as prey near those roosts. Certain insects (e.g., plecopterans and noctuids) apparently were not consumed in proportion to their availability. Big brown bats foraging over permanent streams showed nutrient budgets that differed from those of bats feeding over land.
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Traditional thermophilic composting is commonly adopted for treatment of organic wastes or for production of organic/natural fertilizers. A related technique, called vermicomposting (using earthworms to breakdown the organic wastes) is also becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. The integrated approach suggested in this study borrows pertinent attributes from each of these two processes and combines them to enhance the overall process and improve the products qualities. Two approaches investigated in this study are: (1) pre-composting followed by vermicomposting, and (2) pre-vermicomposting followed by composting. The substrate was biosolids (activated sewage sludge) with mixed paper-mulch as the carbon base. Eisenia fetida (red wigglers) was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting processes. The results indicate that, a system that combines the two processes not only shortens stabilization time, but also improves the products quality. Combining the two systems resulted in a product that was more stable and consistent (homogenous), had less potential impact on the environment and for compost-vermicomposting (CV) system, the product met the pathogen reduction requirements.
Methods for determining water balance in bats: Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats
  • J E Bassett
  • E H Studier
Bassett, J. E. and Studier, E. H. (1988) Methods for determining water balance in bats: Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats (T. H. Kunz, ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., PP. 533.
Guano: bat's gift to gardeners
  • H Keleher
  • A Sara
Keleher, H. and Sara, A. (1996) Guano: bat's gift to gardeners. Bats 14:15-17.