Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 23 (2014), pp. 113-136
© 2014 Society for Armenian Studies Printed in the United States of America
A PRELIMINARY VISUAL ASSESSMENT
OF THE NEAR EAST RELIEF POSTERS
HAZEL ANTARAMIAN HOFMAN
With such mottos as Lest We Perish or They Shall Not Perish, the 1915
Near East Relief humanitarian efforts became memorialized by poster art. The
propaganda posters served a role as ‘publicity’ among other avenues of visual
material that communicated the needs of those affected by the massacres and
deportations after WWI. Lithographs became part and parcel to an overall
fundraising campaign soliciting donations from the American public in an
effort to address the tragedies of what would later be known as the Armenian
Genocide. Created by artists for the American Committee for Relief in the
Near East, illustrations of waif women and children were used to rouse the
hearts and minds of Americans and raise millions of dollars in relief funds.
From 1915 to 1930, relief funds amounted to over 116 million dollars of
assistance;1 American philanthropic efforts consisted of the delivery of food,
clothing, material for shelter, and the establishment of refugee camps, clinics,
hospitals, and orphanages. American historian Howard M. Sachar noted that
the philanthropy of the Near East Relief “literally kept an entire nation alive.”2
Within the sphere of evangelical Christian charity and citizenship, the
American humanitarian effort was driven by a national agenda of “American
internationalism and progressive idealism”3 in order to save the Armenians
from the Muslim Turks.
The function of the WWI posters was to appeal to the viewer’s conscious,
summoning a visceral individual emotion to take collective action. The artist’s
role was to render a design of illustration and text where the ‘victims’ were
fashioned within the perception of its target audience and/or through the styles
of contemporary graphic art. For the Near East Relief, the posters were the
first forms of artwork depicting perceived, generalized, or idealized Armenian
women and children to the general American public.
To date, there has not been any comprehensive visual study of the Near
East Relief Posters. To do so would provide information from which to
contextually analyze these posters and perhaps gain insight regarding the
1 James L. Barton, Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930), an Interpretation, (New York:
Macmillan, 1930), p. 414.
2Ruben Paul Adalian, Armenian National Institute website, “Near East Relief and the
Armenian Genocide,” http://www.armenian-genocide.org/ner.html, accessed August 13,
3 Sarah Miglio, “America’s Sacred Duty: Near East Relief and the Armenian Crisis, 1915-
1930” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Notre Dame, 2009).
114 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
perception of the ‘Armenian’ to their American audience of viewers among
other contextual subtleties. In this paper I initiate such an endeavor by
compiling information from readily available resources and conducting a
visual assessment of 15 Near East Relief images4 found in electronic and
printed publications and online library archives. By describing the
composition and stylistic treatment of the figures as part of the Near East
Relief effort, I study these illustrations individually as well as part of a
collective body of artwork. Expanding upon this initial assessment, it is hoped
that future study of the Near East Relief posters may be reviewed within the
general genre of Armenian diaspora art5 and within the context of American
World War I humanitarian poster art. Ideally, this would include the discovery
of new information regarding commission of the posters, the artists’ thoughts
and vision regarding the composition, and the distribution of the posters
alongside relief efforts.
The Near East Relief Posters
The Near East Relief was an extension of the late nineteenth-century
humanitarian efforts by the evangelical missionaries in response to the
Armenian crisis taking place in Ottoman Turkey. Newspaper coverage in the
United States raised national awareness of the plight overseas. After 1915,
humanitarian efforts were organized by a group, headed by influential men
with political and ideological ties to the Wilson administration.6 The multi-
million dollar humanitarian campaigns by the Near East Relief were supported
by such headlines as the October 4, 1916, New York Times article titled, “Asks
4The number of images referenced in this article does not include the movie marquee poster of
Ravished Armenia. For a detailed study of the poster, see Eugene L. Taylor and Abraham D.
Krikorian, “‘Ravished Armenia: Revisited:’ Some Additions to ‘A Brief Assessment of the
Ravished Armenia Marquee Poster’,” JSAS 19:2 (2010), pp. 179-215. The movie poster was
published in the January 18, 1919, The Saturday Evening Post. It was used to advertise the
screening of the black and white, silent film Ravished Armenia. Subtext under the image
reveals that the movie was to be shown “under the auspices of American Committee for
Armenian & Syrian Relief.” Extensive study of the Ravished Armenia marquee poster
confirms that the illustrator of the poster, Dan Smith, was influenced by the work of French
sculptor Emmanel Fremiet. Additionally, Figure No. 13 in this article is not a Near East Relief
poster. It is dated 1897 and it was created in England in reference to the plight of Armenians
at the turn of the nineteenth century and the Hamidian massacres. However, I use it as sample
of the image of the Armenian as created by the unknown poster artist and how it may have
been a source to the Near East Relief poster created by Louis Raemaekers (Figures 14a and
14b), as issued by the Lord Mayor’s Fund.
5 I do not define Armenian art in this paper, I merely reference it. I understand that the criteria
that defines Armenian art may be problematic: is it Armenian art based on its artist, subject
matter, and the place of execution, or all of the above? These questions and others pertaining
to this issue are outside the scope of this paper.
6 Miglio, “America’s Sacred Duty,” p. 3.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 115
for $5,000,000 to Succor Armenia, American Committee Starts Biggest
Undertaking of Mercy Since Relief of Belgium.” The campaign cited in this
particular article launched relief efforts to aid “1,000,000 destitute, exiled and
starving Armenians and Syrians scattered broadcast over Turkey, Persia, Syria
and Palestine.”7 Dispatches from overseas were filled with references to the
plight of the Armenians. There were calls pleading for assistance in order to
avoid the possible extermination of the surviving generation. James L. Barton,
one of the founders of the Near East Relief, commented that “the future of a
race depended upon the salvaging of this mass of childhood from the
wreckage of war, deportation and starvation.”8 Dispatches further read: “The
need of the orphans is particularly great. Orphanages should be established
immediately. Investigations indicate 40,000 fatherless children. Wait your
answer to our request for support.”9 It was in reaction to these types of news
reports that the campaign to raise awareness and relief funds intensified.
On November 3, 1917, the New York Evening Post printed a press release
of another campaign, this time using an image of a little girl named Shushan
(Lily), as shown by Figure 1a, a photograph taken of the publicity release.10
The text at the top of illustration states that the poster had been published in
newspaper runs in twenty New York papers that day.11 The little girl is
identified by her name in Armenian and English. The text with the image,
‘You won’t let me starve, will you?’ ushers the word starving that would
profoundly underpin an association with the ‘Armenian’ people in early
twentieth century America. The main body of the text found in Figure 1a
reads, in part:
This is Shushan (Lily). She is a little Armenian girl…Shushan is
only one of 400,000 little Armenian orphan girls and boys who are
slowly starving to death---growing blind. Thousands like her have
already died. Thousands are still alive---but barely alive. They can be
saved if they get bread quickly---quickly. 17 cents a day will save a
life. Belgium, Serbia and Poland—even these have not suffered as
Armenia is suffering. America alone can help. These Armenians and
Syrians can hope for no government grants in aid, such as Belgium
received. Help is needed at once. Send fifty dollars, ten dollars, five
dollars, one dollar, seventeen cents----send as much as you can today
7 “Asks for $5,000,000 to Succor Armenia,” The New York Times, October 4, 1916.
8 James L. Barton, Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930), An Interpretation, (New York:
Macmillan Company, 1930), p. 385, n. 1.
9 Ibid., p. 385.
10 The photograph was taken by archivist Brigette Kamsler of what seems to be the original
press release. Kamsler provided the illustration to the author electronically. B. Kamsler,
Henry Luce Foundation Project, The Burke Library at Union Theological Seminary,
Columbia University, July 14, 2014.
11 See Appendix for entire text.
116 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
and every penny of it will help give relief to starving millions. Five
dollars will keep Shushan alive for a month; 17 cents will feed her
for a day. Contribute TO-DAY. Big or little---mail or send your
contributions to-day. Send all contributions to the New York
Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, 1 Madison Avenue,
New York. Make checks payable to Cleveland H. Dodge, Treasurer.
‘Phone Gramercy 1024.12
In this image the figure of Shushan is depicted as a wing-less Eurocentric
cherub, and variants of the original press release maintain the use of her iconic
appearance as part of Near East Relief promotional material. Shushan is
placed within her own geometric space on the picture plane, without directly
confronting the gaze of her viewer. Rather, her eyes are slightly elevated and
directed toward the viewer’s right. With bare shoulders, her upper body
blends ethereally into the background, giving her an angelic appearance that
one might find in a Raphael painting. Along with this image, the information
in the text further pulls the viewer in toward her dilemma, thus revealing a
cherub-like waif who is on the brink of starvation. An innocent (Shushan)
against large graphic print (you won’t let me starve, will you?) and a
biographical narrative describing harsh realities establishes a scene soliciting
viewer reaction and response with visual language reminiscent of religious art.
The tour-de-force of the relief efforts in the Near East is largely attributed
to the philanthropy of Barton and his colleague Cleveland H. Dodge. In
response to Ambassador Henry Morgenthau Sr.’s urgent call for humanitarian
relief for millions of Assyrians, Armenians, Greeks, and other minority groups
affected by the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, on September 16, 1915,
Barton and Dodge organized a multi-million dollar relief campaign. Originally
from a family of missionaries, Dodge, turned his life toward philanthropy. He
was also a fellow Princeton classmate of Woodrow Wilson. Barton, on the
other hand, became an ordained Congregational minister in 1885 after
graduating from Hartford Theological Seminary. The year that Barton
graduated college he left for Kharpert/Harput13 in Turkey. Later he became the
President of Euphrates College and thereafter the foreign secretary of the
American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions in Constantinople. In
1915, the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was founded
under the leadership of Barton and Dodge, which raised millions of dollars
through public rallies, church collections, and assistance from other charitable
organizations and foundations. The raised funds were delivered through the
12 Correspondence with author, B. Kamsler, Archivist, The Burke Library, Columbia
University, July 14, 2014. Copy printed in 1917 in The New York Evening Post.
13 Kharpert province was located in the uppermost Euphrates valley in an area that was home
to many Armenians affected by events of the 1915 Genocide.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 117
American Embassy in Constantinople and distributed through missionaries
and consuls.14 In 1919, the scope of the committee changed and it became the
American Committee for Relief in the Near East, hence, the Near East Relief
committee.15 The change in scope was the result of a congressional charter,
and the Executive Committee was the entity of the organization that set policy
and administered the organization. Along with Barton and Dodge, other
notable Committee members would eventually include William Howard Taft,
Charles Evans Hughes, and Elihu Root.16
In remembrance of the committee’s extensive history of work, in 1930
Barton wrote his book, Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930), An
Interpretation. His accounts summarize the work of an organization, whose
mechanisms galvanized the support of the general populace about the
humanitarian crisis in a world far removed from American lives. In Barton’s
chapter “Letting the Public Know,” he describes very briefly the extent of the
promotional campaign used by the Committee to:
[M]ake the need for relief in the Near East known to the people
of America, to secure the confidence and approval of the
organization itself and then to persuade by letter, personal
solicitation, or through organizational channels, a large number of
generously inclined persons to contribute sufficient funds to carry on
an adequate relief program overseas.17
14 Brigitte Kamsler et al., Missionary Research Library Archives: Section 2 Finding Aid for
Near East Relief Committee Records, 1904–1950 (The Burke Library Archives, Columbia
University Libraries, Union Theological Seminary, New York, January 2013). Accessed by
author on August 13, 2014.
15 In 1930, ACASR was renamed the Near East Foundation, reflecting the organization’s shift
in emphasis from relief toward long-term social and economic development.
16 Merrill D. Peterson, “Starving Armenians”: America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915-
1930 and After (Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2004), pp. 51-52. By
August 6, 1919, Congress incorporated the committee as the Near East Relief as the
organization to administer food, medicine, and the care of refugees. The committee members
mentioned include a former President (Taft), American lawyer and Republican politician from
New York (Hughes), and an American lawyer and statesman (Root), who served as the
Secretary of War under two presidents, including President Theodore Roosevelt. Vicken
Babkenian, “Stories of International ‘Goodness’ During the Armenian Genocide,” pp. 2-3,
Genocide Prevention Now (website),
http://www.genocidepreventionnow.org/Portals/0/docs/International_goodness.pdf. In Barton,
Story of Near East Relief, there is a photograph of the Executive Committee, dated January
1916, that lists its members: Alexander J. Hemphill, Harold A. Hatch, Stanley White, William
W. Peet, Edwin M. Bulkley, Charles V. Vickrey, Henry Morgenthau, Cleveland H. Dodge,
James L. Barton, and Samuel T. Dutton.
17 Barton, Story of Near East Relief, p. 383.
118 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
While the modes of ‘letting the public know’ were limited as compared to
today’s channels of communication, the widespread use of print media and
public appearances helped raise tens of millions of dollars in relief aid. By
1921, every state in America had its own volunteer committee and could boast
an active fund-raising promotional campaign.18 Over three hundred American
religious publications received bulletins from the Near East Relief Committee,
including special communications addressed to editors of newspapers and
magazines requesting specific editorial write-ups. Eventually, a series of
bulletins early on in the public information campaign were compiled in a
small monthly magazine. The magazine, known as the New Near East, was
distributed to larger contributors. The publication contained pictures, news
items, short summaries from overseas reports and updates about Committee
work in America. This regular feed of information was useful in gaining
support from a dedicated public. Furthermore, speeches and church addresses
were given as part of the program in the public promotion of relief efforts.
Several of the speakers included individuals who had witnessed the horrors
and seen the conditions of surviving women and children, which strengthened
press accounts supporting the relief efforts. Speakers attended community
campaigns, church field days, public schools and organizational meetings on
behalf of the Committees that were established to disseminate information and
collect aid.19 Religious institutions were prominent among the long list of
organizations that helped the Committee carry its relief message to a wider
audience. Outreach began with a direct appeal to Protestant pastors, the
Catholic clergy and Jewish rabbis, followed by an effort to enlist the leaders
of each denomination to form and endorse denominational committees.
During the first year of working with churches, representatives of religious
education in each denomination worked with the Committee to develop
literature regarding the needs of orphans. This information was given to
individual Sunday schools, which organized appeals for orphan relief in their
church schools. The nationwide response by Sunday school children helped
raise nearly 1,000,000 dollars of relief needs in the first year of the church
The newspaper was a major contributor to the dissemination of
information. Barton noted that from October 1915, when the Committee
released the “first word pictures of the tragedy,” until 1930, the news reports
benefiting the organization’s efforts were generous with their coverage; and
editors, cartoonists, columnists were effective in rallying support with their
18 Ibid., p. 389.
19 Ibid., p. 384.
20 Ibid., p. 385.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 119
persuasive commentaries. 21 Adding support to the Near East Relief
Committee was The New York Times editor John H. Finley, 22 whose
compassionate commentaries helped mobilize favorable American opinion.23
Along with newspapers and religious journals, national magazines and trade
papers also helped lobby for the cause. The activities of the Committee were
so well publicized that upon reflection, Barton wrote that he was unaware of
any weekly or monthly periodical that had not published one or more special
articles upon some “phase of the work in the Near East.”24
Since very few overseas pictures penetrated the censorship barrier and
reached America, it was only after the First World War that photographs
became available to the press. With media access provided by the Committee
and its contacts following the armistice in 1918, doors opened for moving
picture companies and news reporters to capture the situation in the Near East.
Media access mutually benefited the Committee as well. Many of the
photographs and “moving pictures” taken of orphaned children and the
general situation in the Near East were used by the Committee for its public
campaigns in schools, churches and public gatherings.25
Woven within the plethora of publicity used by the Near East Relief
Committee were the illustrated posters. Among all the forms of visual
communication used, the art posters became memorable over time, forming a
distinctive visual relationship to the Armenian genocide.26 Today, print copies
have become poster memorabilia with little regard for context. Much is
missing from our understanding of these extant posters. We are unaware of
the artist’s creative process and ideas, correspondence regarding the artist’s
commission, and the extent of poster printing and distribution. What we do
know from Barton is that the posters (large and small) were used to
supplement the relief message presented in newspapers and magazines. Each
year, the relief campaign was condensed into simple text, and prominent
artists of the time would create the accompanying illustration composition.
21 Ibid., p. 383.
22 Peterson, “Starving Armenians,” pp. 52-53. From 1900 to 1903, Finley was a professor of
politics at Princeton and from 1903 until 1913 he was the president of the College of the City
of New York. During World War I, he headed the Red Cross Commission in Palestine. In
1921, he was appointed associate editor of the New York Times.
23 Ibid., p. 53.
24 Barton, Story of Near East Relief, p. 389.
25 Ibid., p. 391.
26 It must be remembered that the term “genocide” had not yet been coined at the time when
the Near East Relief was conducting its work for the benefit of the Armenians in the Near
120 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
Specific time-related needs in the Near East dictated the type of slogan and
pictorial presentation required to reflect the changed conditions. Two
examples of this are illustrated by Figures 2 and 3. After the armistice in
October 1918, when there were concerns that the American public would lose
its interest in helping the unsettled refugees, the Committee changed its
approach in its response re-stressing that the relief situation remained a
“picture of desolation.” For the revitalized campaign, artist M. Leone Bracker
created the 1919 art poster with the text, “Hunger Knows No Armistice,”
(Figure 2). Another example of the correlation between the needs of the
Committee for specified relief work and propaganda art is Figure 3. Barton
indicates that during a particular underwriting campaign there was a need to
visually address the “completion of a moral responsibility to thousands of
orphaned children.” 27 In response to this responsibility was the image titled
‘Don’t Let Go, Lift,’ referencing America, personified as a Boy Scout, who
climbs up a steep knoll while pulling up orphans who are reaching for his
hand in support.
Poster art was not a new phenomenon in early twentieth-century America.
Created during the end of the war and its aftermath, Near East relief posters
must be placed within the category of the American WWI poster. Used for
publicity and promotion, the Near East relief posters as the American WWI
posters are considered propaganda art. Within the space of a single picture
plane, propaganda art has the ability to influence and express an idea, product,
or event. Artists heightened and condensed the decorative and textual
elements inherent with the medium, commercializing a strong visual message
to arouse its viewer. The colorful lithograph poster, having strong commercial
beginnings in France during Belle Époque, pushed its popularity alongside
fine art paintings.28 The work of French artists Grasset and Lautrec eventually
became well-known across the Atlantic when their graphic art was seen on the
covers and inside pages of major American magazines.29 At the turn-of-the-
century everyone from businesses, merchants, theatrical producers, circus
owners, and political organizations helped popularize the American poster.
Subsequently, demands for these posters, using new advances in color
printing, were met by the increased growth of large lithographic firms in New
York, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Buffalo, and Cincinnati.
Publishers and editors knew that the use of lithographs by well-known or
27 Barton, Story of Near East Relief, p. 390.
28 Rawls, Wake Up, America!, p. 14.
29 Ibid., p. 17.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 121
popular illustrators such as Charles Dana Gibson,30 Edwin Austin Abbey, and
Frederic Remington,31 enhanced the sale of books and magazines.
So who were the artists of the Near East Relief posters? While there are
several unattributed posters, there are others where the artist signed or
monogramed the work. Of the ten artists that Barton credits for poster work in
his book, three are mentioned by the Library of Congress online collection of
World War I posters. These three artists are Louis Raemaekers, Douglas Volk,
and Władysław Teodor Benda.32 The other seven artists mentioned by Barton
include Charles S. Chapman, Frederick Madan, Carl T. Anderson, Dean
Cornwell, Casimir Mayshark, G. Patrick Nelson, and M. Leon Bracker.33
Surprisingly, Barton fails to mention two prominent Near East Relief poster
artists in his list of ten. They are Ethel Franklin Betts Bains and W.B. King,
creators of two of the most recognizable Near East Relief posters.34
Without the benefit of artist notes of their work for the Committee, a quick
visual analysis of these posters reveals a tendency by an artist to create
imagery of Armenians similar to his or her previous body of non-Armenian
work, composition evoking Christian religious paintings, and/or some
compatibility with the modes of fashion and female appearance common to
the American viewer. An example is Benda’s young woman in the ‘Give or
We Perish’ poster, Figure 4. He features Eurocentric physiognomy and
ambiguous-looking clothing. On the one hand, the subject can be viewed
wearing a large shawl that is commonly associated with Near Eastern
garments. Conversely, the shawl, which is rendered gracefully to drape her
head and shoulders, gives her a fashionable American appearance. 35
Comparatively, Benda illustrates his ‘Give or We Perish’ female figure with
an expression of vulnerability. The appearance that Benda has bestowed upon
30 Ibid., p. 39. Charles Gibson was instrumental in creating the poster art generation during his
time. He was also asked by George Creel, a strategist for the Wilson campaign and a
journalist, to head the Division of Pictorial Publicity (DPP) and act as a liaison with New
York-based volunteer artists. According to George L. Vogt (“When Posters Went to War:
How America’s Best Commercial Artist Helped Win World War I,” in The Wisconsin
Magazine of History, Vol. 84, No. 2 [Winter, 2000-2001], p. 44), there are no records of the
DPP in the National Archives of the Creel Committee and no major caches of Gibson papers
known to exist elsewhere.
31 Kiehl et. al., American Art Posters of the 1890s, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art,
32 Benda is included among those who Vogt mentions as “a number of talented European and
Latin American immigrants,” who lent their talents to the commercial art of WWI posters.
Benda, who was Polish, was one of many commercial artists who may have volunteered for
the DPP (“When Posters Went to War,” p. 41).
33 Barton, Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930), p. 390.
34 See Figures 5 and 11.
35 Rawls, Wake Up, America!, p. 150.
122 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
his Armenian woman is not necessarily foreign-looking to have the American
viewer dismiss her as alien. The rendition of the woman depicted in Figure 4
does not change much in the way Benda depicts his other female models for
other purposes. While the demeanor and expression are different, we find that
on the May 1927 cover of The Shrine Magazine Benda illustrates a young
woman with similar facial features as that of his ‘Give or We Perish’ young
Visually, subjects of the World War I posters are placed in the center of
the frame, emerging with a strong sense of presence and compositional
stability. The positioning of the main or larger human subject in the center
exalts the figure. This artistic device lends itself to a type of triangularity in
the composition. This compositional practice gives an image a sense of
stability; which applies to a pyramidal composition as well as what I refer to
as an isosceles composition.36 The pyramidal composition is an artistic device
attributed to the High Renaissance, in particular evoking the work of
Leonardo da Vinci’s late fifteenth-century painting Virgin of the Rocks.37
There are three Near East Relief posters where the main Armenian figure is
centralized.38 Two other posters have a centralized personified American
figure with an Armenian figure to its side.39 The centralizing of the last set of
figures gives the posters an isosceles composition, consisting of a large central
figure with smaller figures to its side.40
The most commanding of the Near East Relief posters presented in a
pyramidal composition is that of Ethel Franklin Betts Bains, an American
illustrator primarily of children's books of the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. The poster is one of five created for the 30 million dollar relief
campaign,41 Figure 5, as created by Betts Bains, is of a single figure
centralized on the picture plane. It is the image of a young girl in a patterned
dress with a shawl wrapped around her neck. The young girl is prominently
placed toward the foreground of an enclosed space appearing as a window.
Vegetation suspended asymmetrically hovers above the figure like an aura yet
set behind the framed space. The girl is placed in our interior world and the
36 One of the most stable of geometric shapes is the triangle. It is used frequently in the
construction of elements in two-dimensional compositions. The isosceles triangle has two
sides that are of equal length making it both stable as well as symmetrical.
37 Alessandra Fregolent, Leonardo, the Universal Man (San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay Press,
2004), p. 112.
38 See Figures 5, 6, and 7.
39 See Figures 9 and 10.
40 The pyramid composition consists of a large central object with smaller objects to its side.
The placement of the figures provides an opportunity to accentuate hierarchy, movement, and
depth. It is considered a hallmark of High Renaissance paintings.
41 See Figure 5.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 123
exterior world is behind her. The figure’s outstretched hands with open palms
are pushed forward past the framed window toward the viewer and further
into the foreground. The girl’s hands finish the lower points of the triangle and
are placed within the upper portion of the register where the text is located.
Betts Bains’s work is reminiscent of another World War I poster created by
another relief organization of the time, “The Fatherless Children of France,”
which was a branch of the American Society for the Relief of French Orphans,
Inc. The 1917 poster depicts a young woman draped in American flag motif
clothing looking down at the foreground of the picture plane that displays
orphaned French children and the textual details of the organization and its
appeal toward relief. The woman towers centrally over the orphans as she
extends her hands similar to the Betts Bains image.42
Then there is the isosceles composition of Figure 6, which is that of a
mother and child. The mother is draped in a shawl, clutching her child with
one hand and propping the child with the other. The child reaches out of the
picture plane toward the viewer with its right hand. The text of the Near East
Relief poster reads in part, ‘You Can’t Let Us Starve.’ The depiction of the
figures is similar in posture to that of the 1903 painting Madonna of the Roses
by Willian-Adophe Bouguereau (Figure 7). A modified version of the
Madonna compositional device is Alonzo Earl Foringer’s ca. 1918 WWI Red
Cross promotional poster, The Greatest Mother in the World.43 Forginer
depicts a motherly Red Cross nurse cradling an injured child as she holds a
pensive upward gaze similar to the gesture of a Pietà.
Finally, the last illustration that falls in the category of the isosceles
composition of the Armenian is Figure 8, a centrally-placed female directing
her downcast eyes back up to the viewer. The young girl’s head is draped by a
small scarf. With her arms bent at the elbows and her hands grasping the tail
ends of the head scarf, a triangle is formed. The text reads, “The Child at Your
Door…400,000 Orphans Starving.” Figures 9 and 10 also exhibit the isosceles
composition, but the central figure is characterized as a non-Armenian. One of
the two images is of two figures, a type of ‘Lady Liberty’ with a sword in the
hand of her raised right arm, and the second figure is of a young frightened
girl at the woman’s lower left. The young girl with an emotive facial
expression clings to the woman who wears a crown. The girl turns her face
away toward the right and directs her eyes to an unknown place off the picture
42 “Fatherless Children of France,” (Erie Litho, 1917) WWI poster (28 x 42 in). The
Fatherless Children of France, headquarters 666 Fifth Avenue, New York. The image
discussed in the body of this article refers to a scare poster of the charity work for the orphans
of the war during the 1920s. The artist of the poster is unknown and very few examples of it
43 Rawls, Wake-up, America!, p. 124.
124 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
plane. The young girl is slightly draped by the striped portion of the American
flag. The second image where a non-Armenian figure dominates the field
shows a depiction of Uncle Sam aiding two figures in a supportive embrace.
To the viewer, we see from left to right, a woman holding a baby (left), Uncle
Sam (center) and an old man (right). The towering central figure and the two
symmetrical side figures create the isosceles composition, almost pyramidal,
since a sense of depth is created by the overlapping figures. The two on each
side of Uncle Sam are located above text references to geographic locations,
Armenia and Syria. The main text reads, ‘Uncle Sam’s job,’ and second line
subtext reads, ‘Armenia and Syria.’ The image of the woman and child is
located above the written text “Armenia,” and the representation of the old
man is above the written text “Syria,” more than likely an attempt to personify
The mother and child motif continues in the poster identified as Figure 11.
The image is an intriguing illustration because the rendering of the mother and
child, dress, and landscape are all painterly and naturalistic. It is also the only
one that from a cursory view has the appearance of the mathematically-
derived Golden Ratio compositional layout.44 This particular ‘Lest They
Perish’ poster by W. B. King displays subjects in a setting rendered similar to
the paintings created by nineteenth-century French artists of the Orientalist45
genre paintings. Example paintings in the same genre include the oil by
Théodore Chassériau, Two Young Constantine Jewesses rocking a child, 1851,
and the 1871 oil on panel by John Frederick Lewis, The Coffee Bearer (Figure
12). In contrast to the romanticized depiction of the mother and child found in
King’s poster is Figure 13, which was created by an unknown artist in late
nineteenth-century England. It is presented here to show the difference in the
depiction of the Armenian as created by the artist. The woman of Figure 13 is
of a tattered-dressed mother with her two children at her side. She is not
centered on the picture plane, but positioned where her body is at a three-
quarter angle in a nondescript landscape setting. The image identified here is a
black and white print of an unknown medium, and it is one of three extant
posters printed in the United Kingdom and not in the United States. The other
images from the United Kingdom, presumably of a mother and son, are later
in period and taken from a prototype. Figures 14a and 14b show an appeal
from the Lord Mayor of London, Charles Johnson, who inaugurated the
Armenian Refugees Fund, also known as the Lord Mayor’s Fund at Mansion
44 See Figure 11b, where I superimpose a Golden Mean spiral onto the painting’s subjects.
45 Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage, 1979), p. 31, points out that the use of
the word “Oriental” in English dates to the time of Chaucer. Used by Shakespeare, Pope, and
Byron, the designation applied to anyone with the geographic, social, and cultural attributions
of Asia or the East.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 125
House. A Sunday was designated as ‘Armenia Sunday,’ where cathedrals and
churches would collect proceeds toward Armenian relief.46 The poster used
for the fundraising shows a solemnly distraught mother and her son. The
woman sinks her covered head into her layers of clothing of an ethnic design
while her son’s sullen expression adds to the scene of despair. The image was
used for general appeal posters, and for specific events. The poster shown by
Figure 14a announces Armenia’s Day on Wednesday, the 13th of June in
Shown as Figure 15, this image is perhaps the most dramatic of the poster
designs with the mother and child motif. The white diagonals and analogous
colors of red create a turbulent sky giving the illustration atmospheric
commotion, adding to the anguish of the mother-like figure in tattered
clothing. The woman raises her right hand above her head and holds the other
over her upward tilted face. Her facial features are partially visible as she is
shown kneeling upright on a black diagonal, which opposes the diagonals
created in the sky. The black diagonal horizon representing a steep hill runs
across the midpoint of the picture plane. Below the knees of the female figure
is a child supine along the upper part of the hill. If one breaks up the image
into two registers, then the composition can be viewed as two triangles
centered on the figures. Using such triangularity in the image gives
compositional stability to the tumultuous scene. The artist gives both mother
and child skin tones in cool blue. The hue gives the figures anonymity and
provides a somber mood to the entire image. The bold capital letters above the
entire scene states, “STARVING,” and the text to the lower right reads,
“HELP NOW.” It further reads, “Millions are Starving in Bible Lands,
Armenia, Syria, Caucasus, Egypt, Persia, Palestine. Ten cents per day will
save a life. Send money to your local treasurer or to Chas. R. Crane, 70 Fifth
Ave, Treasurer, Armenian, Syrian Relief Committee, General Office 1
Madison Ave. N.Y. All money goes for relief, none for expense. Relief Work
Not Stopped By War.” In the lower left hand corner of the poster are
presumably the initials of the artist, M.J. No other information is available
about the unknown artist. This image is listed with other political posters on
the Hoover Institute online database.
46 Only two have been identified in the early stages of research. They were found in the online
database of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog.
126 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
Golden Rule Sunday and its Imagery
An article in the September 1922 edition of The New York Times that read,
“Back from Syria, Tells of Smyrna,” was coverage of the recent travels to the
Near East by Charles Vernon Vickrey, general secretary of the Near East
Relief. Upon his return to the United States, Vickrey outlined a new campaign
program to help address what he described as being a “colossal” humanitarian
disaster of nearly 500,000 refugees around Smyrna and Western Anatolia,
among them orphans. By 1923, the Near East Relief was housing “27,000
orphans in Soviet Russia, 11,000 in Beirut, Jerusalem and Nazareth, 13,000 in
Eastern Anatolia and Greece.”47 As head of the International Near East
Association, Vickrey outlined a relief fundraising concept to sustain the
orphans and advance their development into a new generation of workers,
professionals, and leaders in the Near East.48 Launched as International
Golden Rule Sunday in 1923, 49 the faith-based idea of the program was to
restrain the consumption of a typical American meal and contribute the cost
savings to the Near East Relief.50 In the United States, participants were asked
to adopt a meager menu for one day of the year around the two major
American holidays in observance of the under-privileged children of the Near
East.51 From 1923 to 1929, on the first Sunday in December52 Americans ate a
one-course meal of stew, bread, fruit, and cocoa53 similar to a meal served in
The novelty of Golden Rule Sunday captivated the press and local
community organizations so much so that special campaigns were planned to
arrange relief campaign meals throughout the United States and abroad. 54
While local merchants funded the food served at Golden Rule luncheons and
dinners to the sponsors attending the functions, hotels provided banquet rooms
47 Nefissa Naguib, “A Nation of Widows and Orphans, Armenian Memories of Relief in
Jerusalem,” in Interpreting Welfare and Relief in the Middle East, ed. Nefissa Naguib and
Inger Marie Okkenhaug (Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2007), p. 40.
48 Babkenian, “Stories,” pp. 2-3.
49 “Back From Syria, Tells of Smyrna,” The New York Times, 24 September 1922, online.
Accessed by author 16 July 2014.
50 Barton, Story of Near East Relief, p. 392.
51 “Refugee Meal For Americans,” True Republican, 28 November 1923, online Illinois
Digital Newspaper Collections, http://idnc.library.illinois.edu/cgi-bin/illinois?a=d&d=
52 Hagop Martin Deranian, President Calvin Coolidge and the Armenian Orphan Rug,
(Arlington, MA: Armenian Cultural Foundation, 2013), p. 14.
53 Vassar Miscellany News, Volume IX, Number 18, 26 November 1924, “Miss McCaleb
Endorses Golden Rule Sunday, website accessed by author, August 12, 2014,
54 Barton, Story of Near East Relief, p. 395.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 127
and supplies at no cost to the relief organizations,55 and local organizations
supervised the program and service of the entire event. Program events
included ‘moving pictures’ and guest speakers, who gave presentations on
their overseas relief work. This fundraising approach also served as a platform
to appeal to supporters for non-monetary goods, such as used clothing, shoes,
and other vital commodities to be shipped overseas.
To publicize these efforts, new posters were created to encourage the
support of national and international Golden Rule Sunday observances.
Publicity was placed on large outdoor panels and used for smaller media
bulletins. The personification of America, Uncle Sam, continued to be
incorporated in the illustrations. However, this time it was part of the ‘Golden
Rule Sunday’ poster art. In 1925, eight thousand panels of the poster, “ ‘Stand
by us a little Longer’ Golden Rule Orphans,” were created showing Uncle
Sam surrounded by orphans as he holds another in his arms. These large
panels were displayed across the country (Figure 16a). Using a similar text
and design format as Figure 16a, in the smaller bulletin poster (Figure 16b),
the artist places Uncle Sam and the children within a seemingly pastoral
landscape. Hundreds of thousands of these posters were also distributed in
1925, as part of the ‘The Orphans’ Appeal to America’ campaign.56 Golden
Rule Sunday was a popular campaign and it was observed in more than 50
countries.57 In the International Golden Rule Sunday handbook,58 images from
the campaign provide a few available examples of the pictorial publicity used
by for the campaign. The text of one of these international posters (Figure 17)
reads, “International Golden Rule Sunday, December 5, 1926, HELP.” The
illustration shows two orphans in tattered garments, perhaps brother and sister.
The smaller of the two orphans weeps in her hand as the older orphan directs
his eyes toward the viewer.59 The artist is unknown and the distribution of the
poster is not well documented.
Functioning as propaganda art, the Near East Relief humanitarian posters
created a visual appeal that spoke to the viewer’s sensibilities, summoning
individuals to take action and help the ‘starving Armenians.’ The artist’s role
was to render compelling imagery with a target audience in mind. How were
the images of the Armenian woman and child, or the Armenian young girl to
55 Ibid., p. 392.
56 Charles V. Vickrey, International Golden Rule Sunday, a handbook by Vickrey, (New
York: George H. Doran Co., 1926), p. 88.
57 Ibid., p. 54.
59 Peterson, “Starving Armenians,” p. 145.
128 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
be perceived in order to realize the monetary goals set by the Near East Relief
Committee? Was the appeal to the images supported by the extension of the
Evangelical Christian missionary’s deliverance of the persecuted Old World
Christian as the future religious steward of the region? Did the artists receive
directives from the Committee when creating imagery of a people foreign to
their audience, and perhaps even to the artists engaged in the work? As a
major part of the overall pictorial publicity of the Near East Relief and based
on the amount of money collected by the organization, it would seem
reasonable to assume that the images along with other propaganda material
did the intended job. What we lack in our understanding of the visual program
of the Near East Relief humanitarian efforts are the artists’ notes regarding
their ideas, design sketches, composition considerations, and possibly their
directive or commission requirements.
In many of the poster illustrations, the Armenian or the personification of
Armenia do not seem to follow any particular pattern. However, depending
upon the artist, there appears to be a few cases where the style of the artist’s
illustrations for their Near East Relief work and those of their non-Near East
Relief work are consistent. We see this in the works of Ethel Franklin Betts-
Bain, Wladyslaw Teodor Benda, and W.B. King. A quick assessment based
on Benda’s figurative graphic style may be telling that he had free reign with
regard to the depiction of imagery that he applied to the Near East Relief
posters. There are several images where the posters use similar artistic
devices, such as, the centralization of its subjects or the use of an isosceles
composition. Finally, in those images profiled here, many evoke religious
imagery by way of composition or motifs. Aside from the visual evidence, this
last speculation may be better supported based on the missionary background
of the Near East Relief and American progressive politics of the time period.
However, without additional information about the artists and their detailed
involvement, going beyond the making of a visual assessment regarding each
poster is problematic. Needless to say, my preliminary visual analysis of the
15 posters profiled in this article is limited to the viewing availability of extant
poster images and their graphic accessibility. Furthermore, knowing the artist
and supportive information regarding their illustration for the Near East Relief
is the first step to consider contextual information of the illustration, followed
by in-depth searches in the committee records of the Near East Relief.
Unfortunately, not all artists of the Near East Relief posters discussed in this
paper can be identified. A few of the images that were found in Near East
Relief documentation material do not contextualize the poster art. If artists are
mentioned in print sources, it is only done so in passing or as a footnote.
The study of the Near East Relief posters based on a visual analysis is
unchartered territory. Such work will add to the various studies of the Near
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 129
East Relief as an organization, and it will provide additional contextual
material to the organization’s social and political place in the early twentieth
century. Lastly, the Near East Relief posters of the ‘starving Armenian’ are an
integral part of the field of American WWI humanitarian poster art, and only a
more thorough review of the art work and background details can the work be
placed in an art historical setting as the first poster illustrations of the
Armenian survivors of the Genocide. For this last point alone, these posters
warrant further scholarship.
FRESNO CITY COLLEGE
Hazel Antaramian Hofman
Appendix of Illustrations
Fig. 1a60 Fig. 1b61
The entire text of Figure 1a reads:
Printed November 3, 1917, by the New York Evening Post
Run in Twenty New York Papers that day
Subtitle: Shushan (Lily)
“You Won’t Let Me Starve, Will you?”
This is Shushan (Lily). She is a little Armenian girl. Before the Great War
she lived in Turkey with her father and mother. She was happy.
60 Photograph of a press release provided to the author electronically by Brigette C. Kamsler,
archivist, Henry Luce Foundation Project, The Burke Library at Union Theological Seminary,
Columbia University, July 14, 2014. Text has been transcribed partially in the body of this
paper. A complete transcription is in the appendix.
61 One of the well-known posters of ‘Shushan.’ You Won’t Let Me Starve Will You? The text
in the scrolled box is a partial quote from the text found in Image 1a. The text outside of the
box, states: The Opportunity for Our Sunday School. The remaining part of the text is
illegible due to the poor resolution of the image. A copy of this image can be found on the
Hoover Institution Political Poster Database. It is labeled US 3427. Further research is
required. Issued by the American Committee for Relief in the Near East, the date of
publication is noted as 1918-1919(?). The image located at the Hoover Institute is a 12 x 19
inch color print. No artist has been attributed to the image of Shushan, nor is there any other
background of Shushan except what has been written in the text on the image poster.
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 131
Her father was butchered. Her mother was outraged and driven naked
from home; she s-t-a-r-v-e-d to death, in the desert.
Shushan is only one of 400,000 little Armenian orphan girls and boys who
are slowly starving to death---growing blind.
Thousands like her have already died. Thousands are still alive---but
barely alive. They can be saved if they get bread quickly---quickly.
17 cents a day will save a life.
Belgium, Serbia and Poland—even these have not suffered as Armenia is
Picture famished children in desperation picking the last shreds of flesh
from skeletons of fallen beasts in the street. Famished men and women
watching for refuse with the eyes of hawks; pouncing upon it and devouring
America alone can help. These Armenians and Syrians can hope for no
government grants in aid, such as Belgium received.
Help is needed at once. Send fifty dollars, ten dollars, five dollars, one
dollar, seventeen cents----send as much as you can today and every penny of it
will help give relief to starving millions.
Five dollars will keep Shushan alive for a month; 17 cents will feed her for
Contribute TO-DAY. Big or little---mail or send your contributions to-
Send all contributions to the New York Committee for Armenian and
Syrian Relief, 1 Madison Avenue, New York. Make checks payable to
Cleveland H. Dodge, Treasurer. ‘Phone Gramercy 1024.’
Every Cent Buys Bread
Not a Penny Goes for Expenses
SPECIAL CAMPAIGN COMMITTEE
HON. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT
HON. CHARLES EVANS HUGHES
HON. JOHN PURROY MITCHEL
JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS
RT. REV. DAVID H. GREER
FREDERICK H. ALLEN
132 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
EDWIN M. BULKLEY
SAMUEL T. DUTTON
ALEXANDER J. HEMPHILL
HAROLD A HATCH
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES
VANCE C McCORMICK
CHAS S. MacFARLAND
WILLIAM B MILLAR
JOHN R MOTT
WM JAY SCHIEFFELIN
ALBERT A SHAW
JAMES M SPEERS
OSCAR S STRAUS
STEPHEN S WISE
Next Saturday, a week from to-day, is Armenian and Syrian Day. You will
have an opportunity to make your contributions to 2,000 Armenians and
Syrians—each of them has had relatives brutally massacred.
Fig. 262 Fig. 363
62 M. Leone Bracker, (artist), 1919. Hunger knows no armistice--Near East Relief. 1919 Color
Lithograph, 98 x 55 cm, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog:
63 Main body text under the captioned image states: Letter, H. S. Meredith to Mrs. Talcott
Williams, May 11, 1927. Credit to MRL 2: Near East Relief Committee Records, series 2,
box 7, folder 11, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union
Theological Seminary, New York. Copy of the image was accessed at
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 133
Fig. 464 Fig. 565
Fig. 666 Fig. 7 Fig. 867
f. More information is needed on this image. Was it a letterhead design rather than a full-size
64 Wladyslaw Teodor Benda (artist), 1917. Give or We Perish American Committee For Relief
in the Near East—Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia Campaign for $30,000,000. 1917, Alco-
Gravure Inc., New York. Lithograph poster print, 85 x 56 cm. Library of Congress Summary:
Poster showing a woman clutching her shawl around her shoulders.
65 Ethel Franklin Betts Bains (artist), 1918. Lest We Perish Campaign for $30,000,000 ;
American Committee for Relief in the Near East ; Armenia - Greece - Syria - Persia; One
Madison Ave., New York, Cleveland H. Dodge, Treasurer. Color lithograph, 20 in. x 28 in.
Conwell Graphic Companies, New York.
Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/wwipos/.
66!No artist listed, ca. 1917-1919.!Relief Poster: YOUR BIT SAVES A LIFE, 2½ Million
Women and Children Now Starving to Death, You Can’t Let Us Starve, Armenian and Syrian
Relief Campaign, 508 Wm. Penn Place (Union Arcade), Pittsburgh, PA. Source: National
Archives and Records Administration. Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives
Services Division (NWCS-S), Record Group 4: Records of the U.S. Food Administration,
134 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
Fig. 968 Fig. 1069
Fig. 11a70 Fig. 11b Fig. 1271
1917–1920, Series: World War I Posters, 1917–1919. National Archives, Online Public
67 No artist is listed for this illustration. There is an unidentified monogram (D-?) located in
the lower right corner. “The Child at Your Door.” 400,000 ORPHANS STARVING, No State
Aid Available, Campaign for $30,000,000, American Committee Relief in the Near East.
Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia. American Lithographic Co., 1917. 1 Madison Ave., New
York, Cleveland H. Dodge Treas. United States. Committee on Public Information. Division
of Pictorial Publicity. Color lithograph poster, 52 x 35 cm. Library of Congress Prints and
Photographs Division Washington, D.C. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002719422/
68 Douglas Volk, 1918. Signed and artist logo in lower left corner. Relief poster: They Shall
Not Perish Campaign for $30,000,000 American Committee for Relief in the Near East
Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia. Lithograph, color. American Lithographic Co., New York.
Library of Congress Summary: Girl, symbolizing Near East, clinging to woman with sword
and U.S. flag, symbolizing America. http://www.ww1propaganda.com/ww1-poster/
69 No artist is listed. 1917-1919 (?), Hoover Institution Political Poster Database, US 3441.
Text Reads: Uncle Sam’s Job, Armenia and Syria. Albert A. Reed, Treas. United States
National Bank, Denver. Color Lithograph, 22 in. x 32 in., Hoover Institute Notes: Drawing of
Uncle Sam with his arms around a woman and child and an old man.
70 W. B. King, 1917. Lest they perish Campaign for $30,000,000 - American Committee for
Relief in the Near East--Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia. One Madison Ave., New York,
Cleveland H. Dodge, Treasurer. Color Lithograph, 47 x 32 cm. Conwell Graphic Companies,
New York. Library of Congress Summary: Poster showing a woman carrying a baby on her
back among destroyed buildings. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002711981/
A Preliminary Visual Assessment of the Near East Relief Posters 135
Fig. 1372 Fig. 14a73
Fig. 14b Fig. 1574
71 This is an oil on panel painting of The Coffee Bearer (1857) by John Frederick Lewis. City
of Manchester Art Galleries.
72 This image has an unknown provenance and was not printed during the time of the Near
East Relief efforts. Because of its date, it seems to be in response to the Hamidian massacres.
Text above Image: The Friend of Armenia. Founded 1897. Organ of the Society of the
“friends of Armenia.” Published Quarterly. Office: 47, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1.
Telephone No.: “Victoria 1198.” Text below Image: London: Marshall Bros., Keswick
House, Patemoster Row, E.C.4 and the Society, 47, Victoria St., Westminster, S.W. 1.
Monogram SS. See footnote no. 4 for additional information.
73 Louis Raemaekers, Vincent Brooks, Day & Son, Ltd., Lith., “The Lord Mayor of London
Appeals for Help ARMENIA Donations Urgently Needed To Rebuild the Homes of the
Armenian People Before the Coming Winter Hon. Treasurer: The Armenian Refugees (Lord
Mayor’s) Fund, 96 Victoria Street, London, S.W. Telephone: Victoria 2103, size 22 x 34 in.
A limited number of Signed Artists Proofs of this Picture (which has been specially drawn for
the Fund by Mr. Louis Raemaekers) price 2 [pounds] 2s each and unsigned copies at 10/6
each, may be obtained at the above address.”
74 No artist is listed. 1918-1919 (?), Hoover Institution Political Poster Database, US 3423.
Text Reads: Starving. Help Now. Millions are Starving in Bible Lands!...Ten cents per day
136 Hazel Antaramian Hofman
Fig. 16a75 Fig. 16b76
will save a life. Send money to […]. Color Lithograph, 11 in. x 17 in. Hoover Institute Notes:
Drawing of a woman and child in postures of agony.
75 Vickrey, International Golden Rule Sunday, pp. 88-89.
76 This image is not discussed in the paper but it is presented here as part of the imagery used
for the Golden Rule Campaign. Source: Vickrey, International Golden Rule Sunday, p. 88.
77 This image was found in “Starving Armenians,” Peterson, America and the Armenian
Genocide, p. 145. Artist is unknown. There may be a signature at the lower left of the shoe of
the young boy who stands on the right side of the poster. 1926. Text Reads: “International
Golden Rule Sunday, December -5-1926, HELP.”