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This study aimed at examining the relationship between parenting styles and depression in adolescents. Convenient sampling was used to collect 100 adolescents (Mean age = 15.25 years, Sd = 0.90) from two colleges of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Parental Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ) was used to measure parenting styles and two other self-report measures, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) were used to assess depression in adolescents. From multiple regression analysis significant relationship was found between parenting style and adolescents' depression measured by one self-rating scale. The overall regression model for investigating the relationship between parenting style and depression in adolescent was significant with HADS, (F = 3.77, p = 0.007) but not significant with SMFQ scores (F = 0.880, p = 0.454). For the dependent variable of depression measured by HADS, the strongest predictors were authoritative parenting style (β =-0.28, p = 0.03) and monthly income of the family which is also significant (β = 0.25, p = 0.01). Implications of the findings for child rearing and research are discussed.
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Dhaka Univ. J. Biol. Sci. 28(1): 49-59, 2019 (January)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLES AND
DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS
SANCHARY PRATIVA AND FARAH DEEBA*
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
Key words: Parenting style, Depression, Adolescent
Abstract
This study aimed at examining the relationship between parenting styles and
depression in adolescents. Convenient sampling was used to collect 100
adolescents (Mean age = 15.25 years, Sd = 0.90) from two colleges of Dhaka city,
Bangladesh. Parental Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ) was used to measure
parenting styles and two other self-report measures, Hospital Anxiety and
Depression Scale (HADS) and Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ)
were used to assess depression in adolescents. From multiple regression analysis
significant relationship was found between parenting style and adolescents’
depression measured by one self-rating scale. The overall regression model for
investigating the relationship between parenting style and depression in
adolescent was significant with HADS, (F = 3.77, p = 0.007) but not significant
with SMFQ scores (F = 0.880, p = 0.454). For the dependent variable of depression
measured by HADS, the strongest predictors were authoritative parenting style
(β = –0.28, p = 0.03) and monthly income of the family which is also significant
(β = 0.25, p = 0.01). Implications of the findings for child rearing and research are
discussed.
Introduction
Parenting styles have been described as the collection of parental behaviors that can
made an environment of parent-child interactions across situations(1). Based on the work
of Baumrind several broad typologies of parenting styles such as authoritative,
authoritarian and permissive have been identified(2-4). These styles tend to differ along the
dimensions of warmth and control. Warmth refers to the degree in which parents display
involvement, responsiveness, and support to their children(5). Warm and supportive
parenting involve behaviors that are physically and emotionally affectionate, approving,
loving and caring(6). Parental warmth, expressed in both physical and verbal ways has
been found to be a universal phenomenon(7). Control includes the demands or
expectations parents place upon or hold for their children and the degree of monitoring
present in parenting(7). To Baumrind, these were choices between two extremes.
Authoritative parents tend to display both high control and high responsiveness and
warmth to their children. In such relationship expectations are clearly stated, rules are
*Author for correspondence: <farahdeeba@du.ac.bd>.
50 PRATIVA AND DEEBA
firm and rational, and discipline is administered in a consistent manner. This parenting
style offers a balance between high nurturance and high control, in addition to clear
communication about expectations for the child(2). According to Baumrind authoritarian
parenting is restrictive and punitive, and places firm limits and controls on children with
little or no verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting in contrast is associated with a
myriad of negative outcomes throughout development(8).In permissive parenting, few or
no rules and little or no controls are exerted over the children. Children under such
parenting style are given complete freedom to make their life decisions and behave
autonomously and independently(4). This type of parenting style was associated with
social incompetence and lack of self control(9). Permissive parents exhibit high levels of
warmth and low levels of control. Because warmth is displayed through overindulgence,
permissive parents tend to be non-demanding and avoidant of controlling behavior or
outlining boundaries in the children's environment(10). The overall idea of permissive
parenting is to allow the child extensive autonomy, corroborated by high parental
support, in the hopes of anything of child’s maturity and responsibility, is inconsistent
and confusing(7). These parents often surrender to the demands of their child. Bad
behavior of the child is seldom acknowledged or corrected by parents and rules are
either not enforced or are not clearly communicated. According to Baumrind children of
permissive parents are often left to regulate their own activities, behavior, and emotions
at a young age(2).
Parenting is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work
individually and together to influence child outcomes In the 1960s, Baumrind was
interested in the different ways that parents attempted to control or socialize their kids.
She noted that the very idea of parental control-of adults acting as authority figures-had
fallen into controversy. Maybe that is because people were equating "control" with blind
obedience, harsh punishments, and domineering, manipulative behavior(11). Some other
studiesfound significant associations between parenting style and depression. It is found
that positive correlation exists between authoritarian parenting style and depression(12,13).
Human beings change and develop most dramatically during adolescence in the life
cycle. Various biological, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that take placein
adolescence and the parent-child relationship get affected by parenting styles(4,5).Many
studies have shown a link between parent-child interaction and emotional and
behavioral adjustment in early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence(14).
Therefore, it seems necessary to clarify which factors influence parenting styles in this
particular period of life.
Beginning in early childhood, authoritative style of parenting has been shown to
produce higher levels of social competence(3) a greater ability to regulate emotions, high
social skills and self-regulation(10). Adolescents of authoritative parents have higher self
esteem, are socially confident and competent(3) are self-reliant, have greater respect for
PARENTING STYLE AND DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS 51
their parents, display increased academic performance, possess higher levels of self-
esteem, engage in fewer acts of deviant behavior and more pro-social behavior(15).
As originally conceptualized by Baumrind parenting typologies consist of
authoritative, permissive, and authoritarian parenting styles, which affect the overall
behavior of the child. Magnusse(16) found that both adolescents and parental over-control
are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Some other studies found
significant associations between parenting style and depression(12-14). It is found that
positive correlation exists between authoritarian parenting style and depression.
Depression is one of the most widespread mental disorders among adolescent's
population, second only to alcohol abuse in Western society and the scenario is not so
bright in Asian societies(17). Depression is an affective, or mood disorder. It is an illness
that immerse its sufferers in a world of self-blame, confusion and hopelessness. It is an
illness of the mind and the body. Depression in adolescents has been acknowledged as a
problem(14). Depression is the main problem faced by the mental health professionals as
an independent disease and it is a major associated factor in other problems like suicide,
substances abuse and common cause of school failure and school dropout among
adolescent(17).. In our country there is a scarcity of research findings on whether parenting
style has any relationship with emotional problems of children especially of adolescents.
Thus, the main purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship of depression
with parenting style among adolescents.
Materials and Methods
Purposive sampling was used to collect the sample for this study comprised of 100
adolescents (girls = 53 and boys = 47) drawn from two different colleges of Dhaka
city.Some similar types of schools in Dhaka city were approached for conducting the
research and only two gave permission to work. Students were contacted in their
respective classes through their class teachers. The students age ranged from 14 to 18
years (Mean age = 15.25 year; Sd = 0.90; Girls’ Mean age = 15.36 years, Sd = 0.87; Boys
Mean age = 15.15 years, Sd = 0.93). Among them 86 were muslims, 10 hindus, one
buddhuist and three christians. Monthly income of their families were mostly 20 - 70
thousand BDT per month (N=70), next highest group was with 20 thousand and below
(N = 16) and finally 70 thousand and above (N =14) respectively. Most of the families
were nuclear type (N = 82), then joint type (N = 13) and then only father and child (N = 3)
and only mother and child (N = 2). Most of the mothers of the children were housewives
(N = 76) and some different types of works (job, N = 21; business, N = 2 and others, N = 1).
Fathers were mostly government officials (N = 55). And others were businessman (N =
22), non-government organizations’ employees (N = 21) and other occupants (N = 2).
Numbers of siblings ranged from none to 4 for our sample (no siblings, N = 5; one sibling,
N = 21; 2 siblings, N = 40; 3 siblings, N = 28 and 4 siblings, N = 6). Most of the children in
52 PRATIVA AND DEEBA
the sample were first born (N = 43), then second born (N = 42), third born (N = 12), fourth
born and fifth born. All these demographic variables are given in the Table 1 according to
the gender of the participants.
For data collection, present study used the following instruments.
Demographic and personal information questionnaire: By this questionnaire, the data on
age, sex, monthly family income, mothers’ and fathers’ occupation, family type, number
of siblings and birth order were collected.
The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ): The PAQ originally developed by Buri(19)
is a 30-item questionnaire that measures different parenting styles, that are authoritative,
authoritarian and permissive. It is a 5-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (disagree) to
5 (agree) and the information are to be given by the child of a parent(s).The internal
consistency (Cronbach's α) of the English version PAQ ranges from 0.74 to o.87 and the
test-retest reliabilities range from 0.77 to 0.87(19). The Bangla version of the scale has good
content validity. The split-half reliability of the Bangla version of the full PAQ was found
to be 0.72(14). Cronbach α for the subscales and full scale of PAQ were found ranged from
good to satisfactory with our adolescent sample (permissive = 0.43, authoritarian = 0.60,
authoritative = 0.67 and full scale = 0.85),
The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ): It was developed by Angold
et al.(20). It is an 13-item short scale from a longer 33-item questionnaire (the original
MFQ). The child must rate whether the provided phrase is indicative of their feelings
and actions on three options ("Not True", "Sometimes", or "True") over the time frame of
the previous two weeks. Each item is rated on a 3-point Likert scale with values of 0 - 2
assigned to response statements of “True” (0), “Sometimes” (1), and “Not True” (2) given
a timeframe over the previous two weeks. The internal reliability coefficient for the
survey has been found to be good (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.85), suggesting that this
shortened version of the survey adapted from the long version is sufficient. Cronbach's
alpha of the Bangla version to this scale was strong at 0.80 found with Bangladeshi
children and adolescents in a nationwide stusy(21). Similar internal consistency was found
with our adolescent participants too in current study (Cronbach α = 0.813).
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): It was originally developed by
Zigmond and Snaith(22) and is commonly used by doctors to determine the levels of
anxiety and depression that a client is experiencing. The HADS is a 14-item scale that
generates ordinal data. Seven of the items relate to anxiety and seven relate to
depression. One can score in between 0 - 21 one a three point Likert-scale rating for both
sub-scales. Cut-off score 8 and above are found to be indicative of depression and anxiety
for adults(23). The measure was found to have satisfactory level of reliability and valid
when administered with adolescents(24).. The correlation co-efficient of the Bengali
translation of HADS was found 0.76 for anxiety sub scale and 0.94 for depression
subscale, with stroke patients(25). The measure was used as anxiety may be strongly
PARENTING STYLE AND DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS 53
comorbid with depression in adolescents(26, 27). The internal consistency for HADS total
(Cronbach α = 0.673), depression (Cronbach α = 0.575) and anxiety (Cronbach α = 0.622)
subscale of HADS were found good with our sample.
Standard data collection procedure was followed to collect data from the
participants. After getting written consent from the participants and their parents the
paper-based survey was administered to the participants in a classroom of the respective
college. Participants were assured of voluntary participation and that all collected data
would be kept confidential. Participants were informed that they could withdraw from
the study at any time. After that the test tools were administered with the participants.
These tests were also administered following the instructions specified in the respective
test manuals. The general testing conditions were satisfactory and the procedure was
uniform all through. All the tests were scored as per the procedure described in
respective test manual.
Results and Discussion
Multiple regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between
major variables such as parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and
depression. For this purpose, data were analyzed in multiple regression using three
parenting styles as predictors, and depression as dependent variable. Before this analysis,
the major assumptions of multiple regressions such as assumption of linearity,
assumption of multicollinearity, homoscedasticity and independence of observation were
tested. The linearity was tested by graph, the multicolinearity was approximated by
coefficients, homoscedasticity was tested by scatterplots and independence of
observation were assessed by model summary box. To investigate the association
between parenting styles and depression in adolescents, data were analyzed in multiple
regression using parenting styles as a predictor and depression in adolescents as
dependent variable. Correlations of the variables were also calculated to find out the
relationships among variables.
Correlations have been found in different demographic variables and parenting
styles (independent variables) measured by PAQ*. Significant positive correlations were
found in age and authoritarian parenting style (r = 0.23, p < 0.05), monthly family income
and father’s occupation (r = 0.29, p < 0.01), family type with both mother’s (r = 0.48,
p < 0.01) and father’s occupation(r = 0.23, p < 0.05), birth order with number of siblings
(r = 0.52, p < 0.01) and authoritative parenting style (r = 0.25, p < 0.05). Negative
correlation was found between monthly family income and authoritative parenting style
(r = –0.20, p < 0.05).The only demographic variable monthly income of the family
correlates with depression score of HADS (r = 0.29, p < 0.01). Correlation among the
*The table for correlation coefficient parameters in between different demographic variables and parenting
styles measured by PAQ can be obtained from corresponding author on request.
54 PRATIVA AND DEEBA
scores of SMFQ (Mean = 10.03, SD = 5.26), subscales of depression (M = 8.55, Sd =
3.41),anxiety (M = 9.90, Sd = 3.80) of HADS, and HADS full scale (M = 18.45, Sd = 5.97),
and were found all positively correlated and significant at 0.01 level. However,
correlation with SMFQ and HADS scores and PAQ scores were not significant for all
cases except two sub-scales PAQ (authoritative parenting style) and HADS (Depression),
which were negatively correlated to each other. Correlation coefficients are given in
Table 1.
Table 1. Correlation coefficients of measures of parenting style and emotional states of
adolescents.
Scales SMFQ 1 2 3 4 5
1. HADS (Depression) 0.350**
2. HADS (Anxiety) 0.426** 0.353**
3. HADS (Total) 0.474** 0.800** 0.844**
4. PAQ (Permissiveness) –0.053 –0.065 –0.109 –0.107
5. PAQ (Authoritarian) 0.040 0.035 0.003 0.022 0.325**
6. PAQ (Authoritative) –0.110 –0.208* –0.043 –0.147 0.467** 0.548**
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level. **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate whether depression in
adolescents varies as a function of parenting style(s). We examined this by keeping
monthly income in the model with three different parenting styles as measured by PAQ.
Results are presented by the measures used in the study.
The model with the predictors for depression measured by SMFQ was not significant
[F(4,95) = 0.896, p = 0.496]. Beta values of the predictors for SMFQ are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Regression of depression measured by SMFQ on permissive parenting, authoritative
parenting, authoritarian parenting and monthly family income.
Unstandardized coefficients Standardized
coefficients
Model B Std. error Beta
T
Sig.
Permissive –0.014 0.096 –0.016 –0.143 0.227
Authoritarian 0.109 0.094 –0.140 1.161 0.249
Authoritative –0.104 0.085 –0.160 –1.216 0.887
1
Monthly income 0.958 0.984 0.100 0.973 0.333
PARENTING STYLE AND DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS 55
Interestingly overall predictors could account for 13.7% variance for depression as
measured by HADS and the model was significant [F(4,95) = 3.765, p = 0.007]. Beta values
of the predictors for HADS are given in Table 3.
Table 3. Regression of depression measured by HADS on permissive parenting, authoritative
parenting, authoritarian parenting and monthly family income.
Unstandardized coefficients
Standardized
coefficients
Model B Std. Error Beta
T
Sig.
Permissive 0.010 0.059 0.018 0.165 0.870
Authoritative –0.115 0.052 –0.275 –2.207 0.030
Authoritarian 0.100 0.058 0.199 1.739 0.085
1
Monthly income
1.57 0.609 0.254 2.605 0.011
It is interesting that here authoritative parenting style was found negatively related
and monthly income of the family was positively related with the children depression.
We ran the regression model with predictors for anxiety measured by HADS as well
and it was not significant [F(4,95) = 0.336, p = 0.853]. Beta values of the predictors for
anxiety score on HADS are presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Regression of anxiety measured by HADS on permissive parenting, authoritative
parenting, authoritarian parenting and monthly family income.
Unstandardized coefficients
Standardized coefficients
T Sig. Model
B Std. Error Beta
Permissive –0.072 0.070 –0.118 –1.022 0.309
Authoritative –0.008 0.062 –0.018 –0.135 0.893
Authoritarian 0.028 0.069 –0.050 –0.410 0.682
1
Monthly income –0.099 0.720 –0.014 –0.138 0.891
Kantrowitz and Wingert(28) noted that today's teens are richer, more educated and
healthier than ever before and yet there seems to be an overwhelming rise of serious
emotional problems in this population. The immense pressure and responsibility brought
on by juggling work, extra curricular activities, homework, social life, and other events
going on in the home such as divorce of parents, parenting style, abuse or neglect can
only increase the likelihood of attracting some form of emotional impairment(13,14,28). Our
findings resonate the similar facts that are existent in the lives of adolescents of Dhaka
city.
56 PRATIVA AND DEEBA
As per Baumrind(4), authoritarian parents imposes high control and lower levels of
warmth upon their children, therefore this style allows minimal freedom for the child in
decisions making. Further, in this form of one-way communication, the child is not
permitted to express views or opinions. They have very strict rules for their children that
they expect to follow unconditionally. These parents often utilize punishment, but are
not willing or able to explain the reasoning behind their rules(3). They have affection for
their children but lack in understanding of how their actions shape their child
development(2). Thus, authoritarian parenting encourage compliance, not communication
and it may encourage untruthful communication. As a result, children of these parents
may not develop good communication skills and not feel free to share anything with
their parents(2,3).
We have found that the authoritative parenting style has a negative correlation with
depression. As we had mentioned earlier that authoritative parents tend to display both
high control and high responsiveness and warmth to their children(2,3), therefore this
parenting style offers a balance between high nurturance and high control, in addition to
clear communication about expectations for the child(4,10,11). Authoritative parenting is a
two-way interaction between parents and a child. This style is based on mutual respect
between parents and children. Families, which use this style, set a number of rules that
are vital for all family members. Children are supposed to follow these rules because the
rules were discussed, understand, agreed and therefore children are not in fear of their
parents. This style of parenting helps the child become an independent and responsible
person. The child knows exactly what he allowed to do and what he is not supposed to. It
reasoned that children of authoritative parents tends to develop better cognitive-
emotional functioning on their children(16). Also, in permissive parenting, children mostly
take over the controlling of family rules; therefore, the level of stress is not much in their
own life(2,3,14). However, this is not very helpful for mental health since discipline and
lifestyle of such children usually do not remain in healthy ways leaving them susceptible
to other mental health problems, which is beyond this paper’s capacity to discuss.
Most interesting finding of the study is that high monthly family income is not
related to depression. This is a significant finding for child rearing practice. Many of the
times it is assumed that higher income may led to better mental health of the family
members, however, present findings clearly states that high economical condition cannot
ensure better mental health, which is supported by the previous findings(30,31). We have
found strong negative relationship with family income and authoritative parenting and
very strong relationship between family income and father’s occupation. These findings
suggest the possibility that once the fathers are earning higher then they either become
permissive or authoritarian. These imply the importance of fathers’ authoritative
presence in the lives of children. Different other studies have found and emphasized
similar notions as well(32).
PARENTING STYLE AND DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS 57
This study has some limitations. First, it was conducted with small number of
participants. Secondly, the sample was taken from only two colleges. Thirdly, scores
obtained through the Bengali version of HADS was not checked with Bangladeshi
children. This makes it difficult to assure how much of these findings can be generalized
to the completely adolescent population of the country. Due to shortage of time and
other relevant supports (e.g. fund, access, etc.), data were collected from Dhaka city only.
Thus, it cannot be claimed that the sample was representative. Further, the study could
not control some of the extraneous variable like socioeconomic condition, number of
siblings, family type and others that could affect the result of the study. However, the
findings of the present study are important for clinical implications and further research.
Therefore, in future a large survey may be conducted with a large number of participants
from different areas of Bangladesh.
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(Manuscript received on 27 July, 2017; revised on 8 October, 2018)
... Studies have consistently indicated the optimal child outcomes of authoritative parenting. Authoritative parenting has been associated with greater life satisfaction in youth [26], positive child behaviour [27], higher academic achievement [27,28], and a lower level of adolescent depression [29,30]. However, Keshavarz & Baharudin have suggested that Malaysian collectivistic nature is mostly associated with authoritarian parenting [31]. ...
... Hassan & Sen [30] To determine the relationship between parenting styles, undergraduates' academic performances and sociodemographic factors (ethnic group and socioeconomic status) among undergraduates at Universiti Putra Malaysia ...
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The multicultural nature of Malaysian parents expectedly gives rise to heterogenous parenting practices. Despite this heterogeneity, the country’s common collectivistic background that values familism may have shaped parenting behaviours. Since there is a great influence of culture on parenting, there appears to be a need to explore the Malaysian way of parenting. This review aimed to assess, synthesise, and organise the available research evidence on parenting behaviours and parent-child interactions in Malaysia. Recent publications from 2002 to 2021 were examined using a narrative approach. A literature search was conducted using the Scopus, Dimensions.ai, Google Scholar databases, and citation tracking using keywords such as parenting style, parenting, parent-child interaction, parent-child relation, and childrearing. Twenty-four papers on parenting styles, 13 on parenting practices, and 19 on parent-child interactions were included for review. The majority of the studies were quantitative and published in the last couple of years. While findings revealed diverse parenting styles in the country, culturally-conformed parenting behaviours are thought to be more effective than the standard authoritative parenting. Recommendations are made for future research.
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Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations. We used the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) from the Philippines to assess associations between parenting styles reported by offspring at age 18 and depressive symptoms reported by offspring at age 21 (N = 1,723). Using adjusted linear regression models, we found that authoritarian and neglectful mothering styles were positively associated with daughters' depressive symptoms, whereas authoritarian mothering was negatively associated with sons' depressive symptoms. Findings suggest both cross-cultural similarities and variability in positive parenting. Results may have implications for family-based depression prevention interventions in the Philippines.
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The present meta-analysis integrates research from 1015 studies on associations of parenting dimensions and styles with internalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Parental warmth, behavioral control, autonomy granting, and authoritative parenting showed very small to small negative concurrent and longitudinal associations with internalizing symptoms. In contrast, harsh control, psychological control, authoritarian and, in part, neglectful parenting were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. Parental warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, autonomy granting as well as authoritative parenting predicted change in internalizing symptoms over time, with associations of internalizing symptoms with parental warmth, psychological control, and authoritative parenting being bidirectional. Moderating effects of study characteristics are identified. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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The classical scientific approach for understanding human social development has been to isolate particular phenomena, examine their components, and identify cause-effect patterns. This tradition, often referred to as positivism, has dominated the study of parent-child relationships in recent decades (Peterson & Rollins, 1987; Stafford & Bayer, 1993). Until quite recently, research on this fundamental aspect of family life was conceptualized largely in isolation from its social context, with parents being viewed as the “socializers and shapers” of the young (Arnett, 1995; Baumrind, 1978; Collins & Repinski, 1994; Maccoby & Martin, 1983; Rollins & Thomas, 1979; Stafford & Bayer, 1993). During the past 2 decades, however, more comprehensive models of the parent-child relationship have received substantial attention (Maccoby, 1992; Peterson & Rollins, 1987).
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Two contemporary theoretical explanations of adolescent self-esteem, symbolic interaction and social learning, were investigated and compared. Special attention focused on the relative effect of selected variables, representing each explanation, on four dimensions of self-esteem. A stratified random sample of 184 families with adolescents provided self-report data. Multiple regression and bivariate analysis resulted in evidence for the general conclusions that: (1) adolescent self-esteem was more a function of the reflected appraisal of the parents than it was of adolescents modeling their parents' self-esteem; and (2) female adolescents were more likely to be influenced by their parents than were male adolescents. In addition, the study suggests that when researchers investigate adolescent self-esteem, it is essential that they take into account its various dimensions, as well as the sex of the parent and the-adolescent.
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