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Formulation and characterization of nanostructured lipid carrier encapsulated Zingiber zerumbet oil using ultrasonication technique

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Abstract

This study presents the formulation of nanostructured lipid carrier encapsulated Zingiber zerumbet oil (NLC-ZZ) using ultrasonication technique. NLC is the blend of solid lipid, liquid lipid and surfactant for encapsulation of poor water soluble actives. The NLC-ZZ formulation was characterized with respect to particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta-potential, encapsulation efficiency and physical morphology. The NLC-ZZ formulation had an average diameter of 96.59 nm, PDI of 0.192, zeta-potential of-39.88 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 90%, respectively. The NLC formulation for Zingiber zerumbet oil encapsulation has been successfully developed and is suitable for transdermal delivery system due to their nano-size and stability.

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... Zingiber Officinale oil incorporated in nanostructured lipid carrier (ZO-NLC) was prepared according to the method reported by Rosli et al. (2015) with some modifications [20]. Tween® 80 was chosen as the surfactant. ...
... Zingiber Officinale oil incorporated in nanostructured lipid carrier (ZO-NLC) was prepared according to the method reported by Rosli et al. (2015) with some modifications [20]. Tween® 80 was chosen as the surfactant. ...
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Nowadays, nanostructured lipid carrier has been employed in pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals and biomedical formulations also other purposes. The aim of this study was to estimates the effect of high pressure homogenizer on the properties of zingiber officinale loaded nanostructured lipid carrier especially on size of particle and polydispersity index. Experiments were constructed using high pressure homogenizer by applying certain homogenizing pressure and cycle. The independent variables were homogenization pressure (0–2000 bar) and cycle (1-9) and the analysed responses were particles size and polydispersity index. The increase in the homogenization pressure up to 1300 bar and six cycle decreased the emulsion droplet size. However, the use of pressures above that pressure and cycle resulted in the formation of droplets with larger size.
... The NLCs also improved the stability of silymarin [72]. Rosli et al. (2015) reported that NLCs loaded with Zingiber zerumbet oil, a phytochemical found in Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone or shampoo ginger), were stable and suitable for transdermal delivery systems [73]. Zingiber zerumbet oil itself was found to have anti-P. ...
... The NLCs also improved the stability of silymarin [72]. Rosli et al. (2015) reported that NLCs loaded with Zingiber zerumbet oil, a phytochemical found in Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone or shampoo ginger), were stable and suitable for transdermal delivery systems [73]. Zingiber zerumbet oil itself was found to have anti-P. ...
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Acne vulgaris (acne) is one of the most common dermatological problems affecting adolescents and young adults. Although acne may not lead to serious medical complications, its psychosocial effects are tremendous and scientifically proven. The first-line treatment for acne is topical medications composed of synthetic compounds, which usually cause skin irritation, dryness and itch. Therefore, naturally occurring constituents from plants (phytochemicals), which are generally regarded as safe, have received much attention as an alternative source of treatment. However, the degradation of phytochemicals under high temperature, light and oxygen, and their poor penetration across the skin barrier limit their application in dermatology. Encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles is one of the strategies commonly used to deliver drugs and phytochemicals because it allows appropriate concentrations of these substances to be delivered to the site of action with minimal side effects. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are promising delivery systems developed from the combination of lipid and emulsifier. They have numerous advantages that include biocompatibility and biodegradability of lipid materials, enhancement of drug solubility and stability, ease of modulation of drug release, ease of scale-up, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs and occlusive moisturization, which make them very attractive carriers for delivery of bioactive compounds for treating skin ailments such as acne. In this review, the concepts of SLNs and NLCs, methods of preparation, characterization, and their application in the encapsulation of anti-acne phytochemicals will be discussed.
... NLC are fabricated by mixing solid lipids with spatially incompatible lipids leading to nanoparticulate structures with improved drug loading and controllable release properties [13]. To obtain NLC, there are several methods of preparation, microemulsions [14], high-shear homogenization/HSH [15,16], high-pressure homogenization/HPH [17,18], sonication [19], solvent diffusion [20] etc. Out of the numerous methods reported to prepare NLC, melting emulsification coupled with HPH is the most simple and preferred method [18,21]. ...
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The scope of this research was to identify optimal compositions for both lipid and aqueous phases, suitable for obtaining nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) based on vegetable oils-primrose oil (Po) and soybean oil (So)-with average dimensions of about 200 nm and to evaluate their physical stability by determining the mean particle size (Zave) and zeta potential (ξ) at different time intervals (3 days, 1÷4 weeks and 60 days). Results showed that the composition of 2.5% surfactant mixture, in a weight ratio Tween20: Poloxamer 188: Phosphatidylcholine = 4.66:1:1, is the most suitable for obtaining NLCs as efficient drug distribution systems.
... NLCs have a core that consists of solid and liquid lipids distributed in aqueous emulsifier solution. The use of NLC ensures the protection of active ingredients from external modifications such as chemical and temperature changes as well as enzymatic activities (Akademia Baru et al. 2015). There are multiple methods available for the preparation of NLC, some techniques that are used include, high-pressure homogenisation, ultrasonication, solvent emulsification evaporative technique, and high shear homogenisation (Jaiswal et al. 2016). ...
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... The pressure made because of sonication assists with defeating the van der Waal's forces of attraction and brings the functional components to the surface of the particles using Hielscher Ultrasound Technology, 2014, which gets captured by the wall material present in the solution. [34] In an ultrasonication technique, properties of treated particles may be changed by using high intensity waves, shear forces, temperature and pressure. [35] On the other hand, lower energy and emulsifier consumption, smaller particle size, lower polydispersity, and greater stability of nano-emulsions are among the key benefits of this technique. ...
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Nano-encapsulation in terms of nanotechnology is one of the wide ranged and rapid adopted technologies in food industry. Nanotechnology has modernized the whole food system from production to stored products for the improvement in quality and preservation of nutritional status. Nano-encapsulation is also known as promising technology to protect bioactive components and could be suitable for delivering such protected compounds to target biological systems. In this review, the recent literature highlights the formulation and fabrication of nano-encapsulation using the appropriate wall materials. Moreover, literature also focuses on different methods, which have been used for encapsulation purposes such as coacervation, inclusion complexation, nano-precipitation, emulsification, supercritical fluid technique, ultra-sonification and spray and freeze-drying. Furthermore, this review also discusses the advances in the applications of nano-encapsulation for phenolic compounds, antioxidants, natural food col-orants, antimicrobial agents, essential oils, minerals, flavors and vitamins as nano-carriers in food systems. As reviewed in this study, nanotechnology have ability to improve the food properties either in sensory attributes, storage, target delivery, along with to enhance its nutrition and make it healthier. Nano-encapsulation has played a vital role in approaching the way of advancement of bioactive compounds including their therapeutic potential especially in allied fields, food, and pharmaceutical industry during last decades. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The pressure made because of sonication assists with defeating the van der Waal's forces of attraction and brings the functional components to the surface of the particles using Hielscher Ultrasound Technology, 2014, which gets captured by the wall material present in the solution. [34] In an ultrasonication technique, properties of treated particles may be changed by using high intensity waves, shear forces, temperature and pressure. [35] On the other hand, lower energy and emulsifier consumption, smaller particle size, lower polydispersity, and greater stability of nano-emulsions are among the key benefits of this technique. ...
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Full-text available
Nano-encapsulation in terms of nanotechnology is one of the wide ranged and rapid adopted technologies in food industry. Nanotechnology has modernized the whole food system from production to stored products for the improvement in quality and preservation of nutritional status. Nano-encapsulation is also known as promising technology to protect bioactive components and could be suitable for delivering such protected compounds to target biological systems. In this review, the recent literature highlights the formulation and fabrication of nano-encapsulation using the appropriate wall materials. Moreover, literature also focuses on different methods, which have been used for encapsulation purposes such as coacervation, inclusion complexation, nano-precipitation, emulsification, supercritical fluid technique, ultra-sonification and spray and freeze-drying. Furthermore, this review also discusses the advances in the applications of nano-encapsulation for phenolic compounds, antioxidants, natural food colorants, antimicrobial agents, essential oils, minerals, flavors and vitamins as nano-carriers in food systems. As reviewed in this study, nanotechnology have ability to improve the food properties either in sensory attributes, storage, target delivery, along with to enhance its nutrition and make it healthier. Nano-encapsulation has played a vital role in approaching the way of advancement of bioactive compounds including their therapeutic potential especially in allied fields, food, and pharmaceutical industry during last decades.
... Based on the study done by Rosli et al. (2015) and Suhaimi et al. (2017), the size of the particle was depend on the different lipid percentage inside the formulation. The power and time for ultrasonication was fixed throughout the experiment and formulation with 3 % solid lipid and 2 % liquid lipid had effectively reduced the size of the particle. ...
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... Zeta potential represents the aggregation of the preparation, i.e., a high zeta potential, both negative and positive, indicates a colloidal system that tends to be stable and can prevent particles from aggregating. In general, particles with a zeta potential higher (more positive) than +30 mV or lower (more negative) than -30 mV are considered stable (Rosli et al., 2015). ...
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Curcumin is a chemical compound that has low solubility and bioavailability and, for these reasons, limited biological effectiveness. For improvement, the solubility needs to be increased by nanotechnology and nanoparticles, among others. Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) is a new drug delivery system that offers several advantages, including a significant increase in drug solubility and entrapment efficiency. This study aimed to formulate curcumin into curcumin-loaded NLC preparation and determine its characteristics, absorption efficiency, and drug loading. The formulation used evaporation and solvent diffusion methods with three different concentrations, namely 5%, 10%, and 15%. Spectrophotometry and HPLC were employed to test the absorption efficiency and drug loading capacity. The results showed that the curcumin-loaded NLC preparation containing 10% curcumin had stable characteristics and produced particles sized 17.4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.574 and zeta potential of -63.43 mV. Based on the spectrophotometry results, the entrapment efficiency was 93.212%, and the drug loading capacity was 0.708%. Meanwhile, the HPLC showed that the entrapment efficiency was 93.007%, and the drug loading capacity was 0.795%.
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The first generation of lipid nanoparticles was introduced as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), the second, improved generation as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Identical to the liposomes, the lipid nanoparticles (NLC) appeared as products first on the cosmetic market. The article gives an overview of the cosmetic benefits of lipid nanoparticles, that means enhancement of chemical stability of actives, film formation, controlled occlusion, skin hydration, enhanced skin bioavailability and physical stability of the lipid nanoparticles as topical formulations. NLC are on the market as concentrates to be used as cosmetic excipients, special formulation challenges for these products are discussed. NLC appeared also in a number of finished cosmetic products world-wide. An overview of these products is provided including their special effects due to the lipid nanoparticles, lipids used for their production and incorporated cosmetic actives.
Studies in sesquiterpenes-XXXVII: Sesquiterpenoids from the essential oil of zingiber zerumbet smith
  • N P Damodaran
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