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The Role of a Digital Industry 4.0 in a Renewable Energy System

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Abstract

The transition to an intermittent energy production from renewable energy sources (RES) increases the complexity of providing reliable energy supply in Germany. Yet, the growing number of RES impede the necessary effort to control the system. The introduction of digital or smart energy systems is often proclaimed as a logical next step towards copeing with this rising complexity. It seems convenient that the manufacturing industry, as one of the major energy consumers, is currently also in a process of a digital transition, the fourth industrial revolution. This paper explores the current state of expert discourse on the role of a digitised industry as a potential enabler for the energy transition using Germany as a case study. For this purpose, we gathered qualitative data through semi-structured interviews among industry managers and energy researchers. We identified the three major areas in the expert discourse of industry's future potentials: (1) increasing transparency in the energy system, (2) providing demand flexibility and (3) increasing energy efficiency. In this paper, we address the internal barriers and explore industry’s reluctance to interact with the energy system in order to initiate a transition.

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... The introduction of digital technologies of Industry 4.0 can offer increased visibility into manufacturing operations and provide better tracking of resource and energy utilization across manufacturing and supply networks (Bai et al., 2020;García-Muiña et al., 2020). Scharl and Praktiknjo (2019) believe that besides supporting energy efficiency, the digital industrial revolution offers massive opportunities to integrate renewable energy resources into the future's smart factories. Even the involvement of modern digital technologies such as blockchain, Artificial Intelligence (AI), IIoT, and data analytics into the energy industry and the development of smarter and more intelligent energy grids and futuristic concepts such as virtual power plants may offer more efficient and innovative approaches to energy use (Li et al., 2020;Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019). ...
... Scharl and Praktiknjo (2019) believe that besides supporting energy efficiency, the digital industrial revolution offers massive opportunities to integrate renewable energy resources into the future's smart factories. Even the involvement of modern digital technologies such as blockchain, Artificial Intelligence (AI), IIoT, and data analytics into the energy industry and the development of smarter and more intelligent energy grids and futuristic concepts such as virtual power plants may offer more efficient and innovative approaches to energy use (Li et al., 2020;Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019). ...
... However, most prior research introduces vertical integration, horizontal integration, interoperability, real-time capability, and decentralization as the essential design principles (Szász et al., 2020;Stock et al., 2018;Yli-Ojanperä et al., 2019). Figure 1 provides the architectural design of Industry 4.0, within which vertical integration refers to integrating and networking various components of a smart production system such as smart production machinery, smart gadgets, smart material, and smart products (Jean et al., 2020;Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019). According to (Stock J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f et al., 2018), horizontal integration concerns the hierarchical integration and networking of members of valuecreation networks, including suppliers, business partners, delivery channels, and even customers. ...
Article
Understanding the interactions of Industry 4.0 and sustainability is a cutting-edge research topic. The present study aims to contribute to this research topic by explaining how Industry 4.0 may contribute to energy sustainability. The present study performs a content-centric qualitative review of the extant digitalization literature to identify the primary energy sustainability functions of Industry 4.0. The interpretive structural modeling technique is further used for mapping the interrelationships among various energy sustainability functions identified. The interpretive model developed, and the Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée àun Classement analysis offered exciting insights into the Industry 4.0-energy sustainability interactions. Findings show that Industry 4.0 promotes energy sustainability via a very complex mechanism that involves ten interrelated functions. Contrary to the general opinion, production efficiency offered by the digitalization of the manufacturing industry is not the immediate and most essential energy efficiency outcome of the digital industrial transformation. Industry 4.0 primarily contributes to energy sustainability by enabling the energy industry to reshape its operating landscape and enjoy more advanced, intelligent, and complicated energy production and distribution equipment. The digitalization of the energy demand sector, digitalization of the manufacturing industry, and the introduction of smarter and more sustainable products are among the main opportunities of Industry 4.0 for energy sustainability. Overall, the study and the ISM model of energy sustainability developed explains how Industry 4.0 contributes to energy sustainability via different functions and how each function is placed within the structural model based on its driving and dependence powers.
... Due to the decentralized, variable, and unpredictable nature of renewable energy sources [13], a smart system that controls and solves intermittency [14] as well as allowing a highly distributed grid [15] is needed. A smart grid is the result of digitalizing the traditional electric power system to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources [15]. ...
... A digital twin is a virtual replica of a physical component or system that accurately depicts the status of the element empowered by data and simulation [25]. Energy suppliers can use the obtained data from digital twins for failure detection at the grid [13]. Therefore, digital twins are key enablers for the integration of renewable energy sources in smart grids, as they can predict, monitor, control, and diagnose energy supply [26]. ...
... Essentially, Industry 4.0 possesses several energy sustainability applications such as smart energy management, energy sector transformation, and new business models among others [5], which means it fosters great opportunities for renewable energy sector development. Industry 4.0 can technically contribute to the adoption of a renewable energy system by providing flexibility, improving traceability, enhancing efficiency and reducing consumption [13]. ...
Article
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The growth of the renewable energy industry is happening at a swift pace pushed, by the emergence of Industry 4.0. Smart technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), Big Data, the Internet of Things (IoT), Digital Twin (DT), etc. enable companies within the sector of renewable energies to drastically improve their operations. In this sectoral context, where upgraded sustainability standards also play a vital role, it is necessary to fulfil the human capital requirements of the imminent technological advances. This article aims to determine the current skills of the renewable energy industry workforce and to predict the upcoming skill requirements linked to a digital transition by creating a unified database that contains both types of skills. This will serve as a tool for renewable energy businesses, education centers, and policymakers to plan the training itinerary necessary to close the skills gap, as part of the sectoral strategy to achieve a competent future workforce.
... Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive picture, while other reviews surrounding the research field Industry 4.0 have focused on special aspects of the term, such as: -edge computing [16]; -additive manufacturing/three-dimensional printing [17]; -cyber-physical production systems [18]; -construction industry [19]; -remanufacturing [20]; -environmentally-sustainable manufacturing [21,22]; -interactions with the energy system [23]. ...
... In Bavaria, research referring to CPS predominates (30), followed by data management (17), human-machine interaction (16), and smart (7). In Baden Württemberg, the research society concentrates on data management (22). CPS and smart both comprise 14 publications, while 12 publications are linked to human-machine interaction. ...
... (17), human-machine interaction (16), and smart (7). In Baden Württemberg, the research society concentrates on data management (22). CPS and smart both comprise 14 publications, while 12 publications are linked to human-machine interaction. ...
Article
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In 2011, the concept of Industry 4.0 was introduced and later adopted by the German government, paving the way for a new industrial revolution in Germany. The high significance of this topic is reflected by the large number of corresponding publications. Additionally, the regional focus of research is widespread on a global level and often differs even at a national level. This paper generates transparency regarding the adoption of the concept of Industry 4.0 by analyzing the locations of main contributors within the research field on an international, European, and German-national level. Further, it examines the regionally different foci concerning the concept of Industry 4.0. Having identified four main aspects linked to Industry 4.0 within a pre-study, a quantitative literature research was conducted based on over 800 published papers. The results were further visualized with QGIS. Looking at the results, it can be concluded that the German research community is virtually the only user of the term Industry 4.0, while other institutions seem to link their research to other related concepts. On a German level, the majority of the analyzed studies originate from Southern and Western Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia and the Aachen/Jülich region, in particular, represent main contributors.
... This contribution mainly includes resource consumption efficiency along with energy consumption, waste, and emission reduction. Industry 4.0 is also believed to offer unique opportunities to integrate renewable energy sources into the energy distribution and transmission systems (Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019). Finally, the environmental benefit of Industry 4.0 also involves applying underlying digital technologies for developing and producing more sustainable products and services (Bag et al., 2021). ...
... The environmental benefits of Industry 4.0 involve various eco-efficiency functions. Resource and energy consumption efficiency is the most prominent environmental implication of Industry 4.0, and scholars such asBag et al. (2021),Jena et al. (2020), andScharl and Praktiknjo (2019) have theoretically and empirically explored various resource and energy efficiency opportunities that Industry 4.0 and its underlying technologies offer. The literature also widely acknowledges the opportunities that Industry 4.0 may offer for waste reduction, management, and recycling. ...
Article
The fourth industrial revolution, known as Industry 4.0, and the underlying digital transformation, is a cutting- edge research topic across various disciplines. Industry 4.0 literature is growing exponentially, overexpanding the current understanding of the digital industrial revolution through thousands of academic publications. This unprecedented growth calls for a systematic review of the concept, scope, definition, and functionality of Industry 4.0. Such systematic review should address the existing ambiguities and deliver a clear, comprehensive, and up-to-date overview of this phenomenon, including the possible implications for sustainability. Consistently, the present study carried out a systematic literature review of related articles, published online within the Industry 4.0 discipline until November 2020. The systematic literature review identified 745 eligible articles and applied extensive qualitative and quantitative data analysis methodically. The study provides a descriptive assessment of eligible articles' properties and offers a unified conceptualization of Industry 4.0 and the underlying building blocks. The study explains how the implications of Industry 4.0 for value creation expand beyond the manufacturing industry. The study further describes the sustainability value drivers of the fourth industrial revolution and identifies the conditions on which digital industrial transformation success lays. Overall, findings reveal that Industry 4.0 transformation could address pressing issues of sustainable development goals, particularly concerning the manufacturing-economic development. The study also draws on the findings and offers important theoretical and practical implications, highlights the existing gaps within the literature, and discusses the possible future research directions.
... It is of great importance for enterprises to efficiently coordinate and integrate these value chain links in order to realize the two-wheel drive of business value and social value through the digital transformation. Although the existing literature has demonstrated the positive impact of digital transformation on CSR performance [1,[20][21][22][23], digital transformation has not been anchored in specific value chain links, and the unique value for stakeholders created by combining digitalization with core value-creating activities has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of the digital transformation of value chains on CSR to compensate for the shortage of existing studies. ...
... The existing studies have the viewpoint that the digital transformation of enterprises is the organic integration of digital technology and physical elements [5,14]. Related work only focuses on the positive effects of digital transformation on CSR performance [1,[20][21][22][23] and does not embed digitalization into the value creation activity. What really works is the digitalization of each business link and operation level and the effective integration of the whole value chain system in the digitalization process. ...
Article
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With the accelerated evolution of the digital transformation of economic activities, the digitalization of the different parts of the value chain, such as manufacturing, marketing, and management, has increased significantly, thereby changing the form of organizational production management while affecting how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is achieved. Therefore, in this study, we examined the relationship between the digital transformation of value chains and CSR performance and the moderating role of property ownership and market dependence. The results show that the digital transformation of value chains can improve CSR performance. When the three types of digital transformation are conducted at the same time, compared with digital manufacturing transformation and digital marketing transformation, digital management transformation has a greater impact on CSR performance. Non-state-owned enterprises and enterprises with higher market dependency show greater improvement in their CSR performance than state-owned enterprises and enterprises with lower market dependency as a result of the digital transformation of value chains. Furthermore, we found a certain degree of value mismatch between the digital transformation of the different value chain links of enterprises and the different dimensions of social responsibility. Specifically, the digital transformations of manufacturing, marketing, and management activities only exert a significant impact on shareholder responsibility, public responsibility, and shareholder and employee responsibility, respectively. This result indicates that the digital transformation of the entire value chain needs to be further optimized and integrated to achieve social responsibility values that match the value chain. This study not only helps enterprises identify the shortcomings in the digital transformation of the value chain but also provides development ideas for enterprises to realize the two-wheel drive of business value and social value through the digital transformation of the whole value chain.
... I4.0 has paved the way for the development of modernised electric energy systems able to integrate a larger number of renewable energy sources (Furstenau et al., 2020). I4.0 will contribute to the provision of additional flexibility for renewable energy sources through increased flexibility of production processes (Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019;Stock et al., 2018). I4.0 also had an impact on the development of digital twins, which will be useful for network operators not only to obtain accurate estimations of industrial energy consumption and generation but also to perform a more effective identification of failures in power systems. ...
... I4.0 also had an impact on the development of digital twins, which will be useful for network operators not only to obtain accurate estimations of industrial energy consumption and generation but also to perform a more effective identification of failures in power systems. In fact, Scharl and Praktiknjo (2019) stated that the digitisation of the industry might provide positive impacts on future renewable energy systems, Hidayatno et al. (2019) contributed to a better understanding of how I4.0 might support the transition to a widespread use of renewable energy sources in Indonesia, and Nara et al. (2021) realised that it is possible to increase the use of renewables by integrating different I4.0 technologies, such as the IoT, sensors, and big data in the Brazilian plastics industry. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide a multi-criteria decision-making intelligent approach based on Industry 4.0 and Triple Bottom Line principles for sustainable supply chain development in the renewable energy sector. In particular, the solar photovoltaic energy supply chain is used as a case study, encompassing the entire energy production process, from supply to disposal. An exhaustive literature review is conducted to identify the main criteria affecting social, economic and environmental sustainability in the photovoltaic energy supply chain, and to explore the potential impact of Industry 4.0 on sustainability. Subsequently, three Fuzzy Inference Systems combining quantitative and qualitative data are built to calculate the supply chain's social, economic and environmental sustainability. Experts' opinions are used to identify the impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on the three pillars of sustainability for each supply chain stage. Finally, a novel sustainability index, Sustainability Index 4.0, is formulated to compute the overall sustainability of the photovoltaic energy supply chain in seven countries. The results show the applicability and usefulness of the proposed holistic model in helping policy makers, stakeholders and users to make informed decisions for the development of sustainable renewable energy supply chains, taking into account the impact of Industry 4.0 and digital technologies.
... DTs are key to the industry 4.0 transformation, hence, research has been focussed in optimising manufacturing and production. [2][3][4][5] For example, using DTs in the offshore renewable sector 6,7 can reduce operational costs and maximise energy output due to the harshness of the environment where the devices operate. However, the application of DT technology to other sectors is growing, with the use of DTs in 'smart cities' offering huge potential. ...
... This is not to be confused with information sources (see first footnote). ‡ The frameworks by Arksey and O'Malley 52 and Levac et al 53 and the JBI guidance (4,5) refer to the process of data extraction in a scoping review as data charting. § The process of systematically examining research evidence to assess its validity, results, and relevance before using it to inform a decision. ...
Article
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Background Digital Twins (DTs), virtual copies of physical entities, are a promising tool to help manage and predict outbreaks of Covid-19. By providing a detailed model of each patient, DTs can be used to determine what method of care will be most effective for that individual. The improvement in patient experience and care delivery will help to reduce demand on healthcare services and to improve hospital management. Objectives The aim of this study is to address 2 research questions: (1) How effective are DTs in predicting and managing infectious diseases such as Covid-19? and (2) What are the prospects and challenges associated with the use of DTs in healthcare? Methods The review was structured according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) framework. Titles and abstracts of references in PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar were searched using selected keywords (relating to digital twins, healthcare and Covid-19). The papers were screened in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria so that all papers published in English relating to the use of digital twins in healthcare were included. A narrative synthesis was used to analyse the included papers. Results Eighteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. None of the included papers examined the use of DTs in the context of Covid-19, or infectious disease outbreaks in general. Academic research about the applications, opportunities and challenges of DT technology in healthcare in general was found to be in early stages. Conclusions The review identifies a need for further research into the use of DTs in healthcare, particularly in the context of infectious disease outbreaks. Based on frameworks identified during the review, this paper presents a preliminary conceptual framework for the use of DTs for hospital management during the Covid-19 outbreak to address this research gap.
... However, the transition to intermittent energy production from renewable energy sources increases the complexity of providing reliable energy supply. is has been handled with the introduction of digital or smart energy systems [244]. e truth is that smart renewable energy ware systems lie at the core of industry 4.0, and a number of recent advanced technologies and approaches play pivotal roles by exploiting innovative technologies and optimization methods [241]. ...
Article
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Very well into the dawn of the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0), humankind can hardly distinguish between what is artificial and what is natural (e.g., man-made virus and natural virus). Thus, the level of discombobulation among people, companies, or countries is indeed unprecedented. The fact that industry 4.0 is explosively disrupting or retrofitting each and every industrial sector makes industry 4.0 the famous buzzword amongst researchers today. However, the insight of industry 4.0 disruption into the industrial sectors remains ill-defined in both academic and nonacademic literature. The present study aimed at identifying industry 4.0 neologisms, understanding the industry 4.0 disruption and illustrating the disruptive technology convergence in the major industrial sectors. A total of 99 neologisms of industry 4.0 were identified. Industry 4.0 disruption in the education industry (education 4.0), energy industry (energy 4.0), agriculture industry (agriculture 4.0), healthcare industry (healthcare 4.0), and logistics industry (logistics 4.0) was described. The convergence of 12 disruptive technologies including 3D printing, artificial intelligence, augmented reality, big data, blockchain, cloud computing, drones, Internet of Things, nanotechnology, robotics, simulation, and synthetic biology in agriculture, healthcare, and logistics industries was illustrated. The study divulged the need for extensive research to expand the application areas of the disruptive technologies in the industrial sectors.
... The cost savings and efficiency improvements, generated by the complementarity between environmental assets and the technology/innovation associated with I4.0, can be clearly reduced by the consolidation of a demand for new, not so sustainable goods or services. In this sense, and as the literature in the field indicates, it is very important to develop public policies and business strategies to reinforce the continued commitment of economic agents to sustainability (Font-Vivanco et al., 2016a, 2016bMurad et al., 2020;Scharl and Praktiknjo, 2019). ...
Article
The consolidation of industry 4.0 (I4.0) as a new innovative ecosystem has generated high expectations about its economic and environmental effects. In this study, we investigate whether I4.0 technologies can reinforce environmental assets management in achieving firm results. We intend to contrast the existence of reward mechanisms for being green. Using a panel of 1028 Spanish industrial firms in 2009 e2016 period, the research has obtained three main results. First, environmental assets, the use of robots and the adoption of flexible production technologies generate individual and two-complementarity marginal effects in the explanation of sales, exports and labour productivity. Second, environmental assets and I4.0 technologies do not generate any individual or complementarity marginal effect that positively explains gross operating margins. And, third, however, we have found a business model that generates significant total effects on the four firm results, especially on profitability, through the combination of environmental assets, I4.0 technologies, R&D expenditure, production flexibility and human capital management. Implications for the circular economy and ethical business models are also discussed.
... The concept has expanded beyond industrial production and manufacturing to become a go-to solution to a wide range of issues in business and society (Fox 2018;Pfeiffer 2017). The multitude of definitions of the concept could also pose a future risk for the concept, since it is possible that the concept could turn into an empty buzzword (Scharl and Praktiknjo 2019). ...
Article
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The Industry 4.0 (I4.0) concept is concerned with the fourth industrial revolution in manufacturing, in which technological trends such as digitalization, automation and artificial intelligence are transforming production processes. Since the concept’s introduction at the Hannover Fair in Germany in 2011, I4.0 has enjoyed a meteoric rise in popularity and is currently high on the agenda of governments, politicians and business elites. In light of these observations, some commentators have asked the question of whether I4.0 is a concept that is hyped up and possibly just the latest in a long line of fashionable management concepts introduced over the course of the last few decades. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical outside-in look at the emergence and rise of I4.0. Theoretically, these processes are viewed through the lens of management fashion, a theoretical perspective well suited to examinations of evolutionary trajectories of management concepts and ideas. The findings indicate that the I4.0 concept has quickly become highly popular and is dominating much of the popular management discourse. The concept has migrated out of the specialized manufacturing discourse to become a more general concept with mainstream appeal and applicability, evidenced by a multitude of neologisms such as Work 4.0 and Innovation 4.0. The numbers 4.0 have spread in a meme-like fashion, evidenced by the fact that the combination of a noun and the numbers 4.0 are used to signal and usher in discussions about the future of business and society. While there is much evidence that clearly shows that the concept has had a wide-ranging impact at the discursive level, the currently available research is less clear about what impact the concept has had so far on industries and organizations worldwide.
... Digital mining is a broad term describing the enhancement of the physical mining method using digital models, simulations, analytics, controls and feedbacks. While much has been written on the value of the digital twin (e.g., [1][2][3][4]) little has been said on the digital twin's interaction with the nonengineered space, or the natural environment within which it sits. Often the twin of an engineered system may only need to consider a few natural, external conditions or environmental parameters such as temperature, wind and moisture, each of which may be predictable in a statistical sense, directly observable or measurable. ...
Article
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Digital mining is a broad term describing the enhancement of the physical mining method through the use of digital models, simulations, analytics, controls and associated feedbacks. Mining optimisation will be improved through increased digitisation and real-time interactions via a “digital twin”, however digitisation of the rock mass component of this system remains problematic. While engineered systems can be digitally twinned, natural systems containing inherent uncertainties present challenges, especially where human-intensive procedures are required. This is further complicated, since the mining system is designed not only to interact with, but to substantially and continually alter its surrounding environment. Considering digital twin requirements and geological modelling capabilities, we assess the potential for a mine’s synchronised digital twin to encompass the complex, uncertain, geological domain within which it interacts. We find that current geological (and indeed hydro-geological) models and simulations would support digitisation that could be considered to provide, at best, a digitised ‘cousin’. Based on this assessment, the digital twin’s value for medium term forecasting of mining operations may be limited and we discuss technological advancements that can mitigate this.
... According to them, environmental sustainability should not be sacrificed on the altar of increased production capacity. In their work, (Scharl and Praktiknjo 2019), (Hidayatno et al. 2019) and (Oláh et al. 2020) suggested the use of energy systems that meet the affordability, availability, and environmental sustainability requirements to drive the new industrial revolution. ...
Conference Paper
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Worsening environmental degradation, depletion of fossil fuels reserves, and fuel price volatility have led to increased concerns about getting adequate energy to power the rapidly growing industrial sector and other uses. The cost of energy is a major contributor to the rising cost of production and a source of worry to both the producers and consumers alike. Investigation into devising sustainable, accessible, and affordable energy sources to power the manufacturing sector and other consumers has engaged the attention of researchers and other stakeholders in recent decades. The current research, therefore, investigates techniques for ensuring sustainable energy consumption in the Industry 4.0 era. Results show that effective implementation of energy saving, cost reduction, and green manufacturing measures will lower energy costs, benefit the environment and result in a high return on invested capital. The application of novel intelligent technologies like cyber-physical systems, industrial internet of things, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, smart metering, and other components of Industry 4.0 will contribute to achieving sustainable energy utilization in the manufacturing sector. Going forward, more targeted investigations are required to cultivate realistic and implementable models for achieving affordable, environmentally benign, and sustainable energy for the manufacturing sector.
... Equally indispensable to smart manufacturing is advanced robotics, which serves as an intelligent agent appearing in every corner of production lines. With the profound research and development of Industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence (AI), digital twin (DT) has drawn growing research attention [1][2][3][4]. As a digital replica of a physical entity, the basis of DT is the infrastructure and data, the core is the algorithm and model, and the application is the software and service. ...
Article
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Digital twin (DT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have grown rapidly in recent years and are considered by both academia and industry to be key enablers for Industry 4.0. As a digital replica of a physical entity, the basis of DT is the infrastructure and data, the core is the algorithm and model, and the application is the software and service. The grounding of DT and AI in industrial sectors is even more dependent on the systematic and in-depth integration of domain-specific expertise. This survey comprehensively reviews over 300 manuscripts on AI-driven DT technologies of Industry 4.0 used over the past five years and summarizes their general developments and the current state of AI-integration in the fields of smart manufacturing and advanced robotics. These cover conventional sophisticated metal machining and industrial automation as well as emerging techniques, such as 3D printing and human–robot interaction/cooperation. Furthermore, advantages of AI-driven DTs in the context of sustainable development are elaborated. Practical challenges and development prospects of AI-driven DTs are discussed with a respective focus on different levels. A route for AI-integration in multiscale/fidelity DTs with multiscale/fidelity data sources in Industry 4.0 is outlined
... According to [29,125] the increase in the appearance of the keyword industrial research in the years 2016-2019 confirms researchers' interest in overcoming the lack of empirical research, case studies and industrial applications. Referring to the latest research, there is a great focus in Industry 4.0 and digitalization [78,80,103,124,139,140] paradigms. The main burst is related to Industry 4.0 (2017-2019, strength: 1.5285). ...
Article
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Nowadays, sustainability and Industry 4.0 (I4.0) are trending concepts used in the literature on industrial processes. Industry 4.0 has been mainly addressed by the current literature from a technological perspective, overlooking sustainability challenges regarding this recent paradigm. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the state of the art of relations between sustainability and I4.0. The goal will be met by (1) mapping and summarizing existing research efforts, (2) identifying research agendas, (3) examining gaps and opportunities for further research. Web of Science, Sco-pus, and a set of specific keywords were used to select peer-reviewed papers presenting evidence on the relationship between sustainability and I4.0. To achieve this goal, it was decided to use a dynamic methodology called "systematic literature network analysis". This methodology combines a systematic literature review approach with the analysis of bibliographic networks. Selected papers were used to build a reference framework formed by I4.0 technologies and sustainability issues. The paper contributes to the Sustainable Industry 4.0 reference framework with application procedures. It aims to show how I4.0 can support ideas of sustainability. The results showed that apart from a huge contribution to both concepts, many papers do not provide an insight into realization of initiatives to introduce Sustainable Industry 4.0.
... At the same time, in their scientific work, S. Scharl and A. Praktiknjo [13] mention such aspects in the context of research of innovative development of the environment in the conditions of Industries 4.0, 5.0. The scientists claim that a growing influence of the role of the digital Industry 4.0 on the processes of developing the «green» economy implies a total increase in the efficiency of energy development of the economy, including industry. ...
Article
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The article is devoted to topical issues of mutual influences of ecological and economic, industrial and technological development. The main purpose of the article is to study the system characteristics of the relationship between industrial and technological development and the effectiveness of the national economy. Such a relationship is based on the policy of environmental innovation, which is implemented at the junction of relations in the fields of environmental safety, industrial policy and technological development of Ukraine. The article aims to determine economic effects of the ecological component of industrial and technological development of the country. The study found that the industrial and technological growth of the national economy depends to a large extent on the ecological component. The method of taxonomy was used to carry out an integral assessment of ecological indicators of industrial and technological development in the system of ecological and economic security of Ukraine. The application of tools of multidimensional statistical analysis, the harmonization of indicators of industrial and technological development and ecological and economic security of Ukraine helped to determine the economic effects of ecological impact.
... The growing concept of Industry 4.0, particularly in the context of 'smart factory' [222], 'smart energy' [223] and 'smart grids' [224] is primarily due to advancements in digital technologies of which robotics and IoT are instrumental drivers. The role of the digital industry in the renewable energy sector from the perspective of the fourth industrial revolution is recently reported in [225]. It is concluded that digitized industries have the potential to increase energy efficiency, to provide flexibility for renewable energy systems and finally to enhance transparency on the status of the energy system. ...
Article
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The domain of Robotics is a good partner of renewable energy and is becoming critical to the sustainability and survival of the energy industry. The multi-disciplinary nature of robots offers precision, repeatability, reliability, productivity and intelligence, thus rendering their services in diversified tasks ranging from manufacturing, assembling, and installation to inspection and maintenance of renewable resources. This paper explores applications of real robots in four feasible renewable energy domains; solar, wind, hydro, and biological setups. In each case, existing state-of-the-art innovative robotic systems are investigated that have the potential to create a difference in the corresponding renewable sector in terms of reduced set-up time, lesser cost, improved quality, enhanced productivity and exceptional competitiveness in the global market. Instrumental opportunities and challenges of robot deployment in the renewable sector are also discussed with a brief case study of Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the wider dissemination of the instrumental role of robotics in renewable energy will contribute to further developments and stimulate more collaborations and partnerships between professionals of robotics and energy communities.
... According to experts [91], in the context of Industry 4.0 technologies' use in renewable energy, the main emphasis should be placed on: ...
Article
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The paper is devoted to the analysis of the current and the forecast of the prospective state of introducing digital technologies into the oil and gas mining industry of the Russian Arctic. The authors of the paper analyzed the global trends that define the process of digital technologies’ introduction into the oil and gas mining industry. They also reviewed the Russian companies’ experience in this sphere. The main trends and prospects for the development of oil and gas resources extraction in the Russian Arctic in the digitalization sphere were identified. Together with this, the researchers considered prospects for digital technologies’ introduction into the oil and gas industry, observing their competition with RES. As a result, the authors have come to the following conclusions: (1) in Russian companies, digitalization is being more actively introduced into the processes of general enterprise management. (2) The main purpose of Russian oil and gas sector digitalization is to increase the efficiency of business process management, while the key constraining factors of digitalization are the lack of qualified personnel, lack of material and technical base and cyber-security threats aggravation. (3) The prospects of introducing a new package of sanctions can become both an incentive for a qualitative leap in Russian software development/implementation and an obstacle to the development of Arctic projects due to their rise in price. (4) The COVID-19 pandemic factor is one of the incentives for the widespread introduction of production and various business processes automation in the oil and gas industry, as well as the development of digital communications. (5) The leader in the digital technology development industry among Russian oil and gas companies is “Gazprom Neft” PJSC, followed by “NK Rosneft” PJSC. (6) “Gazprom” PJSC continues to lag behind in the sphere of digitalization; however, qualitative changes here should be expected in 2022. (7) The “sensitivity parameters” influencing the industry digitalization process in the Arctic region are the high dependence on foreign technological solutions and software, characteristics of the entire Russian oil and gas industry, and the problem of ensuring cybersecurity in Arctic oil and gas projects and power outages. (8) For the Arctic regions, the use of RES as the main source of electricity is the most optimal and promising solution; however, hydrocarbon energy will still dominate the market in the foreseeable future.
... In this regard, sustainable manufacturing can be defined as a systematic approach of creating and distributing innovative products and services in a way that eliminates excessive use of resources such as water, land, and energy, produces zero waste to reduce CO2 emissions, and eradicates toxic substances [39]. Digital transition plays a critical role in availing appropriate technologies needed to manufacture products in sustainable ways that align with the globally accepted sustainable development goals that involve meeting current generations' goals and needs without compromising future generations [40]. For example, under sustainable manufacturing, companies are implementing new analysis procedures and designs to reduce environmental impacts. ...
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The digital transition processes have demonstrated an enormous capacity to develop and implement sustainable solutions, which allow solving several problems such as poverty, high rates of species extinction and lack of equal opportunity. However, little attention is paid to the connection between the digital transition and sustainability. Thus, a systematic bibliometric literature review was developed to fill this knowledge gap and demonstrate the potential contributions of the digital transition to environmental, economic, and social sustainability aspects. In environmental sustainability, the digital transition involves the application of technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), big data analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), and mobile technologies that are used to develop and implement sustainability solutions in areas such as sustainable urban development, sustainable production, and pollution control. In economic sustainability, emerging digital technologies can drive transformation into a more sustainable circular economy, the digital sharing economy, and establish sustainable manufacturing and infrastructure design. In the digital transition to social sustainability, the studies analyzed demonstrate the need for multidimensional policy perspectives to address the current digital divide. For effective management of the digital transition that achieves sustainability goals, the study discusses alternative approaches that include innovation through experimentation and dynamic and sustainable advantages achievable through temporary benefits.
... Policies and measures to promote renewables in households, linking them to the main barriers[48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58]. ...
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Although renewable energy adoption in the residential sector has increased significantly in the EU due to the governmental policies, aiming to reduce the barriers of renewable energy penetration, the full potential of renewable energy deployment in households is still not realized due to the behavioral and other barriers. One of the most important factors in the adoption of renewable energy technologies in households is the decision-making to implement renewables; therefore, the behavioral economics insights should be taken into account during the analysis of renewable energy acceptance by households. The paper provides a systematic literature review on renewable energy use in households by analyzing policies and measures, which could increase the use of renewable energy in households by overcoming the major barriers. The dynamics of renewable energy consumption in EU households was performed by applying Eurostat data, and the empirical case study was conducted in Lithuania to understand the main reasons of renewable energy acceptance by the household. Even though the use of renewable energy sources has increased significantly in the EU member states during the recent years, the study has found the following most common barriers that the traditional policies are unable to overcome: (1) high upfront cost and long pay-back period, (2) a lack of information and knowledge, (3) low priority of environmental concern, (4) resistance to change; human habits. The case study shows that the majority of Lithuanian households would like to use renewable energy technologies in their homes, but they encounter financial difficulties and lack of infrastructure. The policy recommendations were developed based on the results of the conducted study.
... For further knowledge about the last generation, Industry 4.0, some descriptive and informative studies about Industry 4.0 concept, its significance, necessity and key application factors some certain studies can be analysed issued different topics such as manufacturing, education, energy, chemistry, logistics, plant management subjects. Some recent ones of those studies can be listed as Ji et al. [1], Yu, Xu and Lu [2], Yue et al. [3], Barbosa et al. [4], Fleischmann et al. [5], Rennung, Luminosu and Draghici [6], Kiel et al. [7], Macurova, Ludvik and Zwakova [8], Strandhagen et al. [9], Griffiths and Ooi [10], Kumar, Singh and Lamba [11], Agostini and Flippini [12], Huang et al. [13], and Scharl and Praktiknjo [14]. ...
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Industry 4.0 applications has become a wave of change in all means for all types of businesses through the last two decades, and as being a new apprehension of organization and management operations for the whole business chain which creates a brand-new level of concepts, it has several transformative effects on the companies and their operating behaviours in many aspects. But which strategy is the most appropriate and applicable one among the others in terms of smoothing the transition processes that companies have to face through the Industry 4.0 implementation still remains being a vital and unanswered question. It is a very important task to determine a proper implementation strategy for certain types of different companies, depending on the facts that every different company will react to adoption phases differently for upcoming changes, as they distinct in agility, company culture, financial standings or workforce structures, and as known, transition of Industry 4.0 process is very high time, money and effort consuming action, while it is a process with no possible nor simple returns back as well. Thus, from this point of view, the best strategy for Industry 4.0 implementation is determined for companies seeking to moving Industry 4.0 applications. Strategies for applying Industry 4.0 concept are investigated and aggregated through the existing literature and analysed via ORESTE methodology, to specify the best strategy according to criteria relating to innovative, financial, cultural and organizational capabilities upper criteria groups for companies, in a clear and certain way. As outcomes of this study, the best strategy to implement Industry 4.0 applications is identified and a road map that promotes the overall organizational readiness of companies to this transition process is proposed.
... However, the transition to an intermittent energy production from renewable energy sources increases the complexity of providing reliable energy supply. This has been handled with the introduction of digital or smart energy systems [244]. The truth is that smart renewable energy ware systems lie at the core of industry 4.0, and a number of recent advanced technologies and approaches play pivotal roles, by exploiting innovative technologies and optimization methods [241]. ...
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Very well into the dawn of the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0), we hardly distinguish between what is artificial and what is natural (e.g. man-made virus and natural virus). Thus, the level of discombobulation among people, companies or countries is indeed unprecedented. The fact that industry 4.0 is explosively disrupting or retrofitting each and every industrial sector, makes industry 4.0 the famous buzzword amongst researchers today. However, the insight of industry 4.0 disruption in the industrial sectors remains ill-defined in both academic and non-academic literature. The present study aimed at identifying industry 4.0 neologisms, understanding the industry 4.0 disruption and illustrating the disruptive technologies convergence in the major industrial sectors. A total of 99 neologisms of industry 4.0 were identified. Industry 4.0 disruption in Education industry (Education 4.0), Energy industry (Energy 4.0), Agriculture industry (Agriculture 4.0), Healthcare industry (Healthcare 4.0), and Logistics industry (Logistics 4.0) are described. The convergence of 12 disruptive technologies including 3D printing, Artificial intelligence, Augmented reality, Big Data, Blockchain, Cloud computing, Drones, Internet of things, Nanotechnology, Robotics, Simulation and Synthetic biology in agriculture, healthcare and logistics industries are illustrated.
Book
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Purpose With a growing demand for safe, clean and affordable energy, emerging economies (EEs) across the globe are now seeking to create and rapidly develop renewable energy (RE) businesses. The success of these businesses often hinges on their ability to translate RE into sustainable value for energy consumers and the multiple stakeholders in this industry. Such value includes low production costs due to an abundance of natural resources (e.g. wind, water and sunlight) and public health benefits from reduced environmental pollution. With that in mind, this paper aims to gauge RE’s potential for sustainable value creation and then develop an effective RE business strategy. Design/methodology/approach This paper develops a structural equation model, conducts an exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analyses with and without common latent factors and proposes a moderated mediation analysis to identify a host of factors that influence the success of RE businesses. Findings This paper discovers that RE business performance is significantly affected by integrated vision, intellectual capital and social capital. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first empirical studies that identify various factors influencing successful RE businesses in EEs such as Asian (e.g. China and India) and Latin American countries.
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Chapter
Purpose: There have been continuous developments in the production industry to meet the increasing customer demand from the past to the present. At this point, supply chain management (SCM) systems emerge as an important topic. SCM is a set of systems that manages the entire process from the production of a product to its delivery to the end user. Industry 4.0 aims to improve the production industry by increasing the quality, efficiency, and performance of the production process. Therefore, in this chapter, the authors highlight the challenges, benefits, and future trends of the combination of Industry 4.0 and SCM systems. Methodology: In this chapter, the integration of Industry 4.0 and SCM systems was investigated. For this purpose, the Industry 4.0 position of the countries and the current status of SCM systems have been examined. In addition, the key technologies in the Industry 4.0 transformation, the possible problems encountered in the transformation, the deficiencies encountered in SCM systems, and how these deficiencies can be solved with Industry 4.0 were investigated. Findings: The results of this study show that companies that use an SCM system can separate themselves from their competitors by using Industry 4.0 technologies. Significance: This can allow them to achieve their strategic goals and to ensure the maintenance of their competitive advantage.
Chapter
Industry 4.0 and sustainability are trending topics in the industry and scientific research. However, there is currently no comparable study, which summarizes the impacts of Industry 4.0 on all three dimensions of the Triple Bottom Line at the same time. This chapter aims to present a comprehensive overview of Industry 4.0 in the context of the Triple Bottom Line of sustainability. For this reason, a systematic literature review is conducted to find out the current state of literature about this topic. The chapter presents a systematic literature review on 64 peer-reviewed journal articles, which have been published between 2014 and 2019. An in-depth analysis of the content as well as an analysis of the empirical methodolo-gies are conducted. To structure the existing knowledge, a framework is developed, and the findings are categorized into ecological and social aspects. On this basis the content is evaluated to discuss key findings and relating interdependencies.
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The European Union implemented Ecodesign and Labelling Directives to support the market diffusion of energy efficient products. Accurate signals for consumers on energy efficiency (EE) are essential, as disinformation might lead to sub-optimal market allocations. Considering complex devices such as heat pumps (HPs), a conflict between simplicity of calculation on the one hand and accuracy on the other hand arises. For this reason, main differences on EE between real working conditions and test procedures carried out according to regulations are examined within this study: Firstly, the most important deviations between the test procedure and the current state of the art are presented. Secondly, their influence on the validity of HP labels is investigated using spreadsheet calculations and a MODELICA simulation model. The results indicate that the omission of important influence factors – such as local conditions and the applied control strategy – in the regulations leads to significant differences between reality and labelling. The band of uncertainty found within this study covers high deviations of + 80% to − 24% from the label value. Therefore, we provide several recommendations to mitigate these deviations and to optimize the information content of the label. Among these are the implementation of a higher spatial resolution of climate conditions, the consideration of higher insulation standards, and the inclusion of effects caused by price-driven controls of the HP unit.
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This paper analyses some possible means by which renewable power could be integrated into the steel manufacturing process, with techniques such as blast furnace gas recirculation (BF-GR), furnaces that utilize carbon capture, a higher share of electrical arc furnaces (EAFs) and the use of direct reduced iron with hydrogen as reduction agent (H-DR). It is demonstrated that these processes could lead to less dependence on—and ultimately complete independence from—coal. This opens the possibility of providing the steel industry with power and heat by coupling to renewable power generation (sector coupling). In this context, it is shown using the example of Germany that with these technologies, reductions of 47–95% of CO 2 emissions against 1990 levels and 27–95% of primary energy demand against 2008 can be achieved through the integration of 12–274 TWh of renewable electrical power into the steel industry. Thereby, a substantial contribution to reducing CO 2 emissions and fuel demand could be made (although it would fall short of realizing the German government's target of a 50% reduction in power consumption by 2050).
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Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden Überlegungen und erste Forschungsergebnisse zu den Konsequenzen für Arbeit und Qualifikation bei Industrie 4.0 zusammengefasst. Konzeptionell wird dabei Industrie 4.0 als sozio-technisches System begriffen. Davon ausgehend wird im Hinblick auf die Entwicklung von Arbeit zwischen zwei Perspektiven unterschieden, die als „Upgrading“ und als „Polarisierung“ von Qualifikationen gefasst werden. Welche konkreten Veränderungen sich tatsächlich ergeben, ist allerdings besonders von dem realisierten Automatisierungskonzept und der tatsächlichen Reichweite der Systemverbreitung abhängig. Abschließend wird verdeutlicht, dass allenfalls von einer mittelfristig begrenzten Verbreitung von Industrie-4.0-Systemen ausgegangen werden kann.
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Demand response, defined as the shifting of electricity demand, is generally believed to have value both for the grid and for the market: by matching demand more closely to supply, consumers could profit from lower prices, while in a smart grid environment, more renewable electricity can be used and less grid capacity may be needed. However, the introduction of residential demand response programmes to support the development of smart grids that includes renewable generation is hampered by a number of barriers. This paper reviews these barriers and categorises them for different demand programmes and market players. The case study for the Netherlands shows that barriers can be country specific. Two types of demand response programmes have been identified as being the most promising options for households in smart grids: price-based demand response and direct load control, while they may not be beneficial for market players or distribution system operators. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Energy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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In the context of China's “Internet Plus” era, the application of big data and energy storage technology etc. plays an important role in controlling the renewables of randomness and intermittence during the generation. This paper focuses on the development of China's Energy Storage Industry, summarizes the industrial situation and policy environment, analyses China's Energy Storage Industry by the PEST‐SWOT framework, and discusses the development trends and three cases under the “Internet Plus” initiative. At last, several recommendations are offered from energy storage system, development solutions, market design and international cooperation, aiming to cope with the issues concerning the development of China's Energy Storage Industry and future challenges. It is expected that such recommendations can be a boost to China's energy storage industry in the future.
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The transformation of the electricity sector towards a sustainable energy supply and use has a disruptive potential for infrastructure and utilities. The spread of digital technologies, renewable energy, and prosumers requires a swift and well-guided adaptation of the electricity distribution industry to smart grid technologies and related business models. This paper, based on the large technical systems (LTS) conceptual framework, investigates the complex evolution and company and market design adaptation needs. Challenges and opportunities are analyzed through nine multi-stakeholder workshops, held in two EU member states (Germany and Portugal) in 2016–2017, engaging distribution system operators, researchers, academics, and integrated utility companies. The results indicate considerable uncertainty for distribution system operators regarding the value of large-scale smart meter rollouts. Also, a corporate culture with resistance to change is observed, challenging the integration of novel technologies and processes. Traditional regulation is seen as a barrier to smart grid investments, and is associated with job losses and knowledge destruction. Policy-makers can benefit from these insights on the dynamics of DSOs, which can contribute to public policy design and market reform which traditionally has often been mainly concerned about operational efficiency in a steady-state, stable economy.
Article
Timothy Kaufmann beschreibt verschiedene Geschäftsmodelle, Kundenbeispiele und geeignete Werkzeuge für die Umsetzung von Industrie 4.0 und dem Internet der Dinge, die schon heute große Chancen für neue Geschäftsmodelle und die Optimierung von bestehenden bieten. Das vorliegende Essential soll Sie ermutigen, sich jetzt auf den Weg zu begeben! Der Inhalt • Was ist Industrie 4.0? • Welche Geschäftsmodelle lassen sich durch Industrie 4.0 gestalten? • Wie finde ich das für mein Unternehmen richtige Modell? • Wie bringe ich mein Unternehmen auf den Weg zur erfolgreichen Umsetzung? • Welches sind realisierbare Nutzenpotentiale? Die Zielgruppen • Entscheider aus den Bereichen Entwicklung, Logistik, Produktion, Service und Strategie, Geschäftsführung und Interessierte für das Thema Geschäftsmodelle in Industrie 4.0 und dem Internet der Dinge. Der Autor Timothy Kaufmann beschäftigt sich als Unternehmensberater in einem europäischen IT-Unternehmen seit Jahren mit Geschäftsmodellen für den Anlagen- und Maschinenbau und die Fertigungs- und Automobilindustrie. Seit 2013 entwickelt er als Business Development Manager Industrie 4.0- und Internet der Dinge-Geschäftsmodelle für Kunden und ist auch an innovativen Geschäftsmodellen für das eigene Unternehmen beteiligt. Er ist Mitglied der AG2 der Plattform für Industrie 4.0.
Article
The consumption of fossil fuel has resulted in global warming, environmental pollution, and many other crucial problems. Replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy has become an important issue over the recent decades. As a renewable clean energy, wind power is a relatively well-developed and promising energy method for current technology development in China. Under the background of growing demand for electricity and enhancing awareness for environmental, the “Internet+ wind power” concept has emerged based on both the wind power's characteristics that renewable and non-polluting, and the rapid development of the Internet in China. Through querying an amount of literature and information, this paper reveals the resource endowment and policy environment about wind power and energy Internet at first. Then, the PEST-SWOT strategy analysis model is used to analyze the internalities (strengths and weaknesses) and the externalities (opportunities and threats) of “Internet+ wind power”. According to these results, the paper puts forward some measures (development and utilization, business mode) for wind power accommodation. Then some policy recommendations have been proposed. The government should provide favorable conditions for wind power grid with the “Internet+” technology innovation.
Article
Originally initiated in Germany, Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, has attracted much attention in recent literatures. It is closely related with the Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber Physical System (CPS), information and communications technology (ICT), Enterprise Architecture (EA), and Enterprise Integration (EI). Despite of the dynamic nature of the research on Industry 4.0, however, a systematic and extensive review of recent research on it is has been unavailable. Accordingly, this paper conducts a comprehensive review on Industry 4.0 and presents an overview of the content, scope, and findings of Industry 4.0 by examining the existing literatures in all of the databases within the Web of Science. Altogether, 88 papers related to Industry 4.0 are grouped into five research categories and reviewed. In addition, this paper outlines the critical issue of the interoperability of Industry 4.0, and proposes a conceptual framework of interoperability regarding Industry 4.0. Challenges and trends for future research on Industry 4.0 are discussed.
Book
This book presents a domain of extreme industrial and scientific interest: the study of smart systems and structures. It presents polytope projects as comprehensive physical and cognitive architectures that support the investigation, fabrication and implementation of smart systems and structures. These systems feature multifunctional components that can perform sensing, control, and actuation. In light of the fact that devices, tools, methodologies and organizations based on electronics and information technology for automation, specific to the third industrial revolution, are increasingly reaching their limits, it is essential that smart systems be implemented in industry. Polytope projects facilitate the utilization of smart systems and structures as key elements of the fourth industrial revolution. The book begins by presenting polytope projects as a reference architecture for cyber-physical systems and smart systems, before addressing industrial process synthesis in Chapter 2. Flow-sheet trees, cyclic separations and smart configurations for multi-component separations are discussed here. In turn, Chapter 3 highlights periodic features for drug delivery systems and networks of chemical reactions, while Chapter 4 applies conditioned random walks to polymers and smart materials structures. Chapter 5 examines self-assembly and self-reconfiguration at different scales from molecular to micro systems. Smart devices and technologies are the focus of chapter 6. Modular micro reactor systems and timed automata are examined in selected case studies. Chapter 7 focuses on inferential engineering designs, concept-knowledge, relational concept analysis and model driven architecture, while Chapter 8 puts the spotlight on smart manufacturing, industry 4.0, reference architectures and models for new product development and testing. Lastly, Chapter 9 highlights the polytope projects methodology and the prospects for smart systems and structures. Focusing on process engineering and mathematical modeling for the fourth industrial revolution, the book offers a unique resource for engineers, scientists and entrepreneurs working in chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, materials science or systems chemistry, students in various domains of production and engineering, and applied mathematicians.
Chapter
The vision of the Digital Twin itself refers to a comprehensive physical and functional description of a component, product or system, which includes more or less all information which could be useful in all—the current and subsequent—lifecycle phases. In this chapter we focus on the simulation aspects of the Digital Twin. Today, modelling and simulation is a standard process in system development, e.g. to support design tasks or to validate system properties. During operation and for service first simulation-based solutions are realized for optimized operations and failure prediction. In this sense, simulation merges the physical and virtual world in all life cycle phases. Current practice already enables the users (designer, SW/HW developers, test engineers, operators, maintenance personnel, etc) to master the complexity of mechatronic systems.
Article
The proliferation of cyber-physical systems introduces the fourth stage of industrialization, commonly known as Industry 4.0. The vertical integration of factory to implement flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems, i.e., smart factory, is one of the key features of Industry 4.0. In this paper, we present a smart factory framework that incorporates industrial network, cloud, and supervisory control terminals with smart shop-floor objects such as machines, conveyers, and products. Then, we give a classification of the smart objects into various types of agents and define a coordinator on cloud. The autonomous decision and distributed cooperation between agents lead the process achieving high flexibility. Moreover, this kind of self-organized system leverages on the feedback and coordination by the central coordinator in order to achieve high efficiency. Thus, the smart factory is characterized by the self-organized multi-agent system assisted with big data based feedback and coordination. Based on this model, we propose an intelligent negotiation mechanism for agents to cooperate with each other. Furthermore, the study illustrates that complementary strategies can be designed to prevent the deadlocks by improving the agents’ decision and the coordinator's behavior. The simulation results assess the effectiveness of the proposed negotiation mechanism and deadlock prevention strategies.
Article
Load management (LM) is supposed to have a vital role in future energy management systems. This article presents overview and comparison of LM techniques along with related technologies and implementation challenges in smart grid. The article also covers consumer and utility concerns in context of LM to enhance readers' intuition about the topic. Two major categories of LM techniques, incentive based and dynamic pricing based schemes have been discussed and compared. Most commonly used incentive based direct load control (DLC) is elaborated in detail. Dynamic pricing based energy consumption scheduling (ECS) schemes, featuring peak load reduction and consumers' energy cost minimization at residential level, are also emphasized. Furthermore, the article incudes a description of dynamic pricing based home energy management and associated optimization techniques as well as comparison of the latest schemes.
Article
Load management (LM) is supposed to have a vital role in future energy management systems. This article presents overview and comparison of LM techniques along with related technologies and implementation challenges in smart grid. The article also covers consumer and utility concerns in context of LM to enhance readers’ intuition about the topic. Two major categories of LM techniques, incentive based and dynamic pricing based schemes have been discussed and compared. Most commonly used incentive based direct load control (DLC) is elaborated in detail. Dynamic pricing based energy consumption scheduling (ECS) schemes, featuring peak load reduction and consumers’ energy cost minimization at residential level, are also emphasized. Furthermore, the article incudes a description of dynamic pricing based home energy management and associated optimization techniques as well as comparison of the latest schemes.
Conference Paper
The real and the virtual worlds are growing speedily and closely to form the Internet of Things (IoT). In fact, IoT has stimulated the factories and the governments to launch an evolutionary journey toward the fourth industrial revolution called Industry 4.0. Industrial production of the new era will be highly flexible in production volume and customization, extensive integration between customers, companies, and suppliers, and above all sustainable. Reviewing and analyzing the current initiatives and related studies of the smart factories/Industry 4.0, this paper presents a reference architecture for IoT-based smart factories, defines the main characteristics of such factories with a focus on the sustainability perspectives. And then it proposes an approach for energy management in smart factories based on the IoT paradigm: a guideline and expected benefits are discussed and presented.
Article
The paper reviews different approaches, technologies, and strategies to manage large-scale schemes of variable renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. We consider both supply and demand side measures. In addition to presenting energy system flexibility measures, their importance to renewable electricity is discussed. The flexibility measures available range from traditional ones such as grid extension or pumped hydro storage to more advanced strategies such as demand side management and demand side linked approaches, e.g. the use of electric vehicles for storing excess electricity, but also providing grid support services. Advanced batteries may offer new solutions in the future, though the high costs associated with batteries may restrict their use to smaller scale applications. Different “P2Y”-type of strategies, where P stands for surplus renewable power and Y for the energy form or energy service to which this excess in converted to, e.g. thermal energy, hydrogen, gas or mobility are receiving much attention as potential flexibility solutions, making use of the energy system as a whole. To “functionalize” or to assess the value of the various energy system flexibility measures, these need often be put into an electricity/energy market or utility service context. Summarizing, the outlook for managing large amounts of RE power in terms of options available seems to be promising.
Article
This paper focuses on clean energy solutions in order to achieve better sustainability, and hence discusses opportunities and challenges from various dimensions, including social, economic, energetic and environmental aspects. It also evaluates the current and potential states and applications of possible clean-energy systems. In the first part of this study, renewable and nuclear energy sources are comparatively assessed and ranked based on their outputs. By ranking energy sources based on technical, economic, and environmental performance criteria, it is aimed to identify the improvement potential for each option considered. The results show that in power generation, nuclear has the highest (7.06/10) and solar photovoltaic (PV) has the lowest (2.30/10). When nonair pollution criteria, such as land use, water contamination, and waste issues are considered, the power generation ranking changes, and geothermal has the best (7.23/10) and biomass has the lowest performance (3.72/10). When heating and cooling modes are considered as useful outputs, geothermal and biomass have approximately the same technical, environmental, and cost performances (as 4.9/10), and solar has the lowest ranking (2/10). Among hydrogen production energy sources, nuclear gives the highest (6.5/10) and biomass provides the lowest (3.6/10) in ranking. In the second part of the present study, multigeneration systems are introduced, and their potential benefits are discussed along with the recent studies in the literature. It is shown that numerous advantages are offered by renewable energy-based integrated systems with multiple outputs, especially in reducing overall energy demand, system cost and emissions while significantly improving overall efficiencies and hence output generation rates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Solving the energy and climate challenges ahead will require introducing massive amounts of clean energy such as renewable energy (RE) sources, in particular, in urban areas as these dominate the energy use and emissions. Variable RE sources such as solar and wind are interesting mainstream energy options in this context. However, their use may cause major problems with the power system calling for more advanced strategies to enable optimal integration and bridging of the new and old energy system. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of electricity-to-thermal conversion and RE linked to e-mobility strategies to increase the RE share much beyond the traditional self-use limit of power. For example, the Metropolitan Helsinki (Finland) region could in this way derive up to 60% of its electricity and 30% of its heat from wind power, without any major energy storage arrangements. In sunny climates, the use of photovoltaics could be increased by a factor of 2–3 over the self-use limit of power through such strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Book
Deutschland hat im internationalen Vergleich eines der zuverlässigsten Elektrizitätssysteme. Jedoch befindet sich die Elektrizitätsversorgung in einer Transformation von fossiler zu regenerativer Erzeugung. Die Kosten der Versorgungssicherheit werden aufgrund zusätzlichen Bedarfs an Investitionen in Technologien wie Backup-Kraftwerke oder Speicher zukünftig ansteigen. Welches Sicherheitsniveau ist für die verschiedenen Kunden tatsächlich gesellschaftlich optimal? Die Antwort auf diese Frage hängt davon ab, welche Kosten Verbrauchern bei Stromunterbrechungen entstehen. Unter Umständen ist es sinnvoller, Verbraucher kurzfristig abzuschalten, anstatt diese für wenige Stunden mit teuren Kraftwerken und Speichern zu versorgen. Hierfür ist aber letztlich ein breiter gesellschaftlicher Konsens hinsichtlich der Präferenzen zwischen Versorgungssicherheit, Klimaschutz und Kernenergieausstieg notwendig. Aaron Praktiknjo befasst sich in dieser Monographie mit diesen Fragestellungen und liefert wertvolle methodische und empirische Hinweise.
Article
How does a business firm manage its relationship with the natural environment? What are the factors that influence the choice of such strategies? Does industry type matter? The authors introduce and operationalize the concept of corporate environmentalism in an effort to answer these questions. Using stakeholder theory, the authors identify four important antecedents to corporate environmentalism, namely, public concern, regulatory forces, competitive advantage, and top management commitment. The authors then use a political - economic framework to develop testable hypotheses. To test the hypotheses, the authors perform multigroup path analysis on data gathered from more than 240 firms. They find that corporate environmentalism is related to all hypothesized antecedents and that industry type moderates several of those relationships. In the high environmental impact sector, public concern has the greatest impact on corporate environmentalism, followed by regulatory forces. In the moderate environmental impact sector, competitive advantage has the greatest impact on corporate environmentalism, followed by regulatory forces. There are strong direct and mediating influences from top management commitment, which is the antecedent with the greatest impact on both industry groups. The influences of regulatory forces, public concern, and competitive advantage are all significantly mediated by top management commitment and moderated by industry type. The empirical findings and the ensuing discussion will be of interest to managers and public policy officials.
Book
Kurzbeschreibungnewline Viele sozialwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen beruhen auf Rekonstruktionen von Situationen oder Prozessen. Das Lehrbuch vermittelt anhand zweier Beispieluntersuchungen anwendungsbereites Wissen über alle Phasen solcher rekonstruierender Untersuchungen und stellt je eine Erhebungs- und eine Auswertungsmethode ausführlich dar. Die Interviewpartner werden als Experten aufgefasst, die über spezifisches Wissen über die zu rekonstruierenden Sachverhalte verfügen. Die qualitative Inhaltsanalyse ermöglicht eine systematische Extraktion relevanter Informationen aus den Interviews und ist zugleich offen für nicht erwartete Befunde. Mit Lernfragen nach jedem Kapitel und einer übersichtlichen Gliederung eignet sich das Buch als praxisorientierte Einführung. -- Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine vergriffene oder nicht verfügbare Ausgabe dieses Titels.newline newline Umschlagtextnewline Viele sozialwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen beruhen auf Rekonstruktionen von Situationen oder Prozessen. Das Lehrbuch vermittelt anhand zweier Beispieluntersuchungen anwendungsbereites Wissen über alle Phasen solcher rekonstruierender Untersuchungen und stellt je eine Erhebungs- und eine Auswertungsmethode ausführlich dar. Die Interviewpartner werden als Experten aufgefasst, die über spezifisches Wissen über die zu rekonstruierenden Sachverhalte verfügen. Die qualitative Inhaltsanalyse ermöglicht eine systematische Extraktion relevanter Informationen aus den Interviews und ist zugleich offen für nicht erwartete Befunde. Mit Lernfragen nach jedem Kapitel und einer übersichtlichen Gliederung eignet sich das Buch als praxisorientierte Einführung.
Article
[discusses] qualitative sampling strategies [in primary health care research] with a study designed to understand why particular doctors seem to attract particular patients (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Industrialization and economic development have historically been associated with man's ability to harness natural energy resources to improve his condition. Based on this definition, two industrial revolutions occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, where natural resources such as coal (first revolution) and petroleum (second revolution) were widely exploited to produce levels of energy far beyond what could be achieved by human or animal muscle power. Furthermore, modern power distribution systems made abundant energy reliably available and relatively independent from the plant location. More than two centuries of past industrialization exploited nonrenewable energy resources, however, often with undesirable side effects such as pollution and other damage to the natural environment. In the second half of the 20th century, extraction of energy from nuclear processes grew in popularity, relieving some demands on limited fossil fuel reserves, but at the same time, raising safety and political problems. Meeting the global demand for energy is now the key challenge to sustained industrialization.
Article
The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources.
Article
Energy transitions to sustainability receive much interest in politics and science. Using a socio-technical and multi-level theory on transitions, this article draws important lessons from a long-term analysis of the Dutch electricity system. The article analyses technical developments, changes in rules and visions, and social networks that support and oppose renewable options. The article is multi-level because it looks at novel renewable energy technologies and structural trends in the existing electricity regime. The analysis shows that an energy transition, with roots in the 1960s and 1970s, is already occurring, but driven mainly by liberalisation and Europeanisation. Environmental aspects have become part of this ongoing transition, but do not form its main driver. Many barriers exist for a sustainability transition, but there are also some opportunities. A long-term analysis of renewable niche-innovation trajectories (wind, biomass, PV) provides lessons about socio-technical dynamics, problems and windows of opportunity.
Article
Contrary to conventional wisdom, more efficient use of energy may actually through rebound effects lead to greater instead of less total consumption of energy—or at least to no diminution of energy consumption. If so, energy efficiency strategies may serve goals of raising economic growth and affluence, but as an environmental or energy policy strategy could backfire, leading to more resource use in absolute terms rather than less. This, in turn, could in the long run hamper economic growth, for instance if resource scarcity crowds out technical change. The hypothesis that rebound is greater than unity (‘backfire’) predicts the observed real-world correlation between rising energy consumption and rising efficiency of energy services, however difficult it may be to define a precise holistic metric for the latter. The opposing hypothesis, i.e. that rebound is less than unity and that energy efficiency increases therefore result in less energy consumption than before, requires on the other hand strong forces that do account for the empirically observed economic growth. This paper summarises some of the discussions around the rebound effect, puts it into perspective to economic growth, and provides some insights at the end that can guide future empirical research on the rebound topic.
Article
While many corporations and Information Systems units recognize that environmental sustainability is an urgent problem to address, the IS academic community has been slow to acknowledge the problem and take action. We propose ways for the IS community to engage in the development of environmentally sustainable business practices. Specifially, as IS researchers, educators, journal editors, and association leaders, we need to demonstrate how the transformative power of IS can be leveraged to create an ecologically sustainable society. In this Issues and Opinions piece, we advocate a research agenda to establish a new subfield of energy informatics, which applies information systems thinking and skills to increase energy efficiency. We also articulate how IS scholars can incorporate environmental sustainability as an underlying foundation in their teaching, and how IS leaders can embrace environmentalsustainability in their core principles and foster changes that reduce the environmental impact of our community.
Article
Industrial demand for energy is essentially a derived demand: the firm's demand for energy is an input is derived from demand for the firm's output. Inputs other than energy typically also enter the firm's production process. Since firms tend to choose that bundle of inputs which minimized the total cost of producing a giving level of output, the derived demand for inputs, including energy, depends on the level of output, the submitions possibilies among inputs allow by production technology, and the relative prices of all inputs.