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AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS OF SURUHAN (PEPEROMIA PELLUCIDA) ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIBIDO OF MALE MICE INJECTED WITH ALLOXAN

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  • Lampung Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology

Abstract and Figures

This study was conducted to determine the effect of plant extracts of suruhan (Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth) on the blood glucose level and libido of alloxan-induced male mice. By using a completely randomized design, 25 male albino mice were grouped into five with five replications each. Group 1 treated with alloxan at the dose of 150 mg/kg bw (as negative control). Group 2 was given alloxan and glibenclamide of 0.65 mg/kg bw (as positive control). Group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with alloxan and plant extracts at the dose of 56, 112 and 168 mg/kg bw respectively. Injection of alloxan was done 3 times in 6 days and the plant extract was given every day for 35 days. Results showed plant extracts of suruhan significantly lowering blood glucose levels, shortening courtship and mounting latency, as well as increasing mounting frequency of the mice. It suggests that plant extract of suruhan is potent to be used as anti-hyperglycemic and libido enhancing agents in male subjects.
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Kanedi et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
18
AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS OF SURUHAN (PEPEROMIA
PELLUCIDA) ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIBIDO OF MALE MICE INJECTED WITH
ALLOXAN
Mohammad Kanedi*, Sutyarso, Hendri Busman, Cahyani Intan Kesuma, Yulianty and Martha Lulus Lande
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia.
Article Received on 23/11/2018 Article Revised on 13/12/2018 Article Accepted on 03/01/2019
INTRODUCTION
Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) disease,
due to hyperglycemic condition, will experience
oxidative stress and pathophysiological disorders that are
well known as the risk factors to accelerate the onset and
progression of various complication among diabetic
patients.[1] In man, such the carbohydrate metabolism-
related disorder can causes sexual dysfunction and
infertility. Diabetes-related sexual dysfunction may
closely related to lower testosterone levels and be
manifested in all its forms such as reduced erection,
impotence, and other libido dissociations.[2, 3]
In addition diabetes has also known to cause
dysregulation of epigenetic modification during
spermatogenesis leading to the decrease in sperm
motility, sperm DNA integrity, and ingredients of
seminal plasma.[4]
One of the standard drugs that is widely used to treat
diabetes mellitus is glibenclamide. However, the use of
this drug is not free from side effects.[5] Therefore, the
search for safe plant-based medicines is still continues.
Among traditional people of South East Asian region,
one type of plants that has commonly used as anti-
diabetes herbs is Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth. that in
Indonesia locally called suruhan.[6] Howewer, the effect
of the plant herbs of suruhan on sexual function and
fertility of male subjects is not yet known.
This study aims to determine whether the extract of
Peperomia pellucida plant which was believed to be
efficacious for treating diabetes can ameliorate other
pathophysiological defects related to diabetes, especially
those related to fertility and sexual function in male
subjects.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Plant Materials
Whole plant samples of suruhan (Pepromia pellucida L.
Kunth) used in the study were collected from suburb of
Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. The weeds were washed
with aquadest, air dried, sliced into small pieces, and
then soaked in 96% ethanol for 24 hours. After being
macerated for four times, the macerate evaporated using
rotary evaporator under low pressure at 50oC until
brownish-viscous extract formed.
Animals and Experimental Design
In this study, male albino mice aged 3-4 months,
weighing between 30-40 g, obtained from Lampung
Veterinary Center, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia were
used. The animals were handled according to the Ethical
Clearance from Faculty of Medicine, University of
Lampung, Indonesia. They were maintained under room
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Research Article
ejbps, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 2, 18-21.
European Journal of Biomedical
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ISSN 2349-8870
Volume: 6
Issue: 2
18-21
Year: 2019
*Corresponding Author: Mohammad Kanedi
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia.
ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to determine the effect of plant extracts of suruhan (Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth) on
the blood glucose level and libido of alloxan-induced male mice. By using a completely randomized design, 25
male albino mice were grouped into five with five replications each. Group 1 treated with alloxan at the dose of
150 mg/kg bw (as negative control). Group 2 was given alloxan and glibenclamide of 0.65 mg/kg bw (as positive
control). Group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with alloxan and plant extracts at the dose of 56, 112 and 168 mg/kg bw
respectively. Injection of alloxan was done 3 times in 6 days and the plant extract was given every day for 35 days.
Results showed plant extracts of suruhan significantly lowering blood glucose levels, shortening courtship and
mounting latency, as well as increasing mounting frequency of the mice. It suggests that plant extract of suruhan is
potent to be used as anti-hyperglycemic and libido enhancing agents in male subjects.
KEYWORDS: suruhan, Peperomia pellucida, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, male libido.
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Kanedi et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
19
temperature, fed with a standard laboratory diet and
water ad libitum. By using a completely randomized
design, 25 male albino mice were grouped into five with
five replications each. Group 1 treated with alloxan at the
dose of 150 mg/kg bw (as negative control). Group 2 was
given alloxan and glibenclamide of 0.65 mg/kg bw (as
positive control). Group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with
alloxan and plant extracts at the dose of 56, 112 and 168
mg/kg bw respectively.
Extract Administration
In this experiment test animals were conditioned to
experience hyperglycemia. The hyperglycemic condition
of experimental animals was made by intraperitoneally
injecting 0.5 ml of alloxan monohydrate (Sigma Aldrich,
Cat.No.A7413-10G) at the dose of 120 mg/kg body
weight after the mice were fasted for 8 hours. Before and
after alloxan injection, blood glucose levels of each
animal were measured using strip glucometer (from
Roche, Germany).
Sexual Behavior Tests
To assess the libido potential of the test animals, all mice
that had been treated with/without plant extract of
suruhan were mated with estrous virgin females. The
tests were carried out in an open round plastic tray with a
diameter of 40 cm and height of 25 cm, as implemented
by Kanedi et al.,(2015).[7] The tray was divided into two
halves, which were separated by a removable cardboard
partition. Both males and females subjected to the tests
were allowed to adapt to the tray environment with the
partition closed for about 5 min.
When the cardboard partition was removed, the mating
activities of the mice were observed for 30 min.
Throughout the experiment, videotaping was performed
to observe the following parameters: courtship latency,
mount latency and mount frequency. Courtship latency is
the time from when the partition board was opened until
the male displayed the first courtship action. Mount
latency is the time from when the cardboard was
removed until a first mounting action was shown by the
males. Mount frequency is defined as the total number of
attempts made by the male to ride on the female’s back.
Data Analysis
The data, presented as the mean ± SD (standard
deviation), were analysed using one-way ANOVA
(analysis of variance). When a significant difference was
detected by ANOVA, the treated groups were then
compared with each other and the control group using
the LSD (Least Signicant Diference) test. Differences
were considered to be statistically significant when p <
0.05.
RESULTS
Blood Glucose Levels
Blood glucose levels of mice before alloxan inducement
and after treatment with standard drug and plant extracts
of suruhan were presented in Table 1. Based on the
statistical analysis it is clear that ethanol extracts of
suruhan significantly ameliorate blood glucose levels of
mice subjected to hyperglycaemia by alloxan injection
close to normal levels.
Table 1: Base line characteristics and treatment effects on blood glucose levels of mice.
Treatment
Blood glucose (mg/dl)
K0 (base line)
75.96 ± 2.230a
K (alloxan 150 mg)
183.60 ± 16.426d
K+ (alloxan + glibenclamide 0.65 mg)
77.80 ± 3.114a
P1 (alloxan + suruhan 56 mg)
78.40 ± 5.273a
P2 (alloxan + suruhan 112 mg)
95.60 ± 7.335b
P3 (alloxan + suruhan 168 mg)
115.80 ±7.855c
Data are presented as mean ± SD. Values followed by the same
superscripts are not statistically different at α = 0.05 by LSD test
Mating Test
Table 2, 3, and 4 consecutively show effects of plant
extracts of Peperomia pellucida on courtship latency,
mount latency, and mount frequency of male mice mated
with normal virgin females. From Table 2 it is revealed
that in comparison to negative control group, male mice
treated with ethanol extract of suruhan at all levels of
concentration show shorter courtship latency.
Table 2: Effects of suruhan extract on courtship latency of male mice in mating test.
Treatment
Courtship Latency (sec)
K (alloxan 150 mg)
31.20 ± 7.69b
K+ (alloxan + glibenclamide 0.65 mg)
18.80 ± 6.01a
P1 (alloxan + suruhan 56 mg)
14.80 ± 3.92a
P2 (alloxan + suruhan 112 mg)
22.60 ± 4.77a
P3 (alloxan + suruhan 168 mg)
16.60 ± 4.39a
Data are presented as mean ± SD. Values followed by the same
superscripts are not statistically different at α = 0.05 by LSD test
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Kanedi et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Next, as shown in Table 3, all treatment groups
significantly perform shorter mounting latency. Lastly,
Table 4 presents riding trials performed by male on
female's back. These data confirm results shown in Table
2 and 3, that plant extract of suruhan tend to show higher
sexual drive in male mice compared with that of negative
control group
Table 3: Effects of plant extracts of suruhan on mount latency of male mice in mating test
Treatment
Mount Latency (sec)
K (alloxan 150 mg)
576.60 ± 52.32c
K+ (alloxan + glibenclamide 0.65 mg)
185 ± 21.63b
P1 (alloxan + suruhan 56 mg)
127.40 ± 35.5a
P2 (alloxan + suruhan 112 mg)
207.20 ± 17.45b
P3 (alloxan + suruhan 168 mg)
194.80 ± 21.32b
Data are presented as mean ± SD. Values followed by the same
superscripts are not statistically different at α = 0.05 by LSD test
Table 4: Effects of plant extracts of suruhan on mount frequency performed by male mice in mating test.
Treatment
Mount Frequency
K (alloxan 150 mg)
0.20 ± 0.44a
K+ (alloxan + glibenclamide 0.65 mg)
4.80 ± 0.83c
P1 (alloxan + suruhan 56 mg)
12.00 ± 2.12d
P2 (alloxan + suruhan 112 mg)
3.40 ± 1.14bc
P3 (alloxan + suruhan 168 mg)
2.20 ± 0.447b
Data are presented as mean ± SD. Values followed by the same
superscripts are not statistically different at α = 0.05 by LSD test
DISCUSSION
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder related to the defects of
insulin secretion and impaired peripheral insulin function
and characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels
above the normal limit or hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycaemia will interfere with the metabolism of
glucose, fat, and protein leading to extensive systematic
damages.[8]
This study results confirm the efficacy of the Peperomia
pellucida plant as an antidiabetes as reported by Hamzah
et al.,(2012),[9] and accordingly confirm traditional
claims on antidiabetic use of this plant. Our data clearly
suggest that plant extracts of suruhan effective in
ameliorating blood glucose levels of mice subjected to
hyperglycaemic by alloxan injection.
Beside its anti-hyperglycaemic effects, Peperomia
pellucida (L) Kunth is also reported to possess various
pharmacological properties including antipyretic,
analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, refrigerant,
antioxidant , anti-hyperuricemia, burn healing,
depressant, gastroprotective, hypotensive, cytotoxic,
lipase inhibitory, fibrinolytic and thrombolytic, anti-
diarrhoeal, and anti-osteoporotic.[10-12]
The variety of health benefits of the Peper plant is
possible because these plants contain a lot of active
ingredients. In addition to mineral elements such as
sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc, iron, manganese, lead
and phosphorus.[13] Peperomia pellucida extracts also
contain stigmasterol, analogue of pheophytin and b-
sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside, alkaloid, glycoside,
reducing sugar, flavonoid, tannin, steroid, terpenoid, α-
amino acid, neutral compound, phenolic compound and
starch.[14-15] By extracting other species of Peperomia
from Peru, Lira and colleagues found β-caryophyllene,
α-humulene, epi-α-bisabolol, sabinene, cryptone and
caryophyllene oxide.[16] It has revealed that, alkaloid,
polyphenol, glycoside, flavonoid, anthraquinone,
phenolic and saponins are bioactives that showed anti-
diabetic effects both in test animals and human.[17]
The most important findings of this study is the recovery
of the sexual dysfunction of test mice suffering from
hyperglycemia by treatment of ethanol extract of
Peperomia pellucida plant. The active ingredient of this
plant that is thought to play a role in the recovery of
libido in hyperglycemic mice is piperine.[18] It has been
revealed that black pepper extracts, another type of plant
belongs to Piperaceae family containing piperine,
effectively increase sexual drive in male mice.[19]
CONCLUSION
Plant extracts of suruhan has revealed to be effective in
ameliorating blood glucose levels and sexual drive in
male mice subjected to hyperglycaemic by alloxan
injection. It suggests that plant extracts of suruhan
(Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth) is potential to be used as
antidiabetic drugs as well as male libido enhancing
herbs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors expressed their gratitude to the dean of the
University of Lampung's Faculty of MIPA for their
research funding support through the DIPA FMIPA
budget in 2018
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Kanedi et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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... Results showed plant extracts of suruhan significantly lowering blood glucose levels, shortening courtship and mounting latency, as well as increasing mounting frequency of the mice. It suggests that plant extract of suruhan is potent to be used as anti-hyperglycemic and libido enhancing agents in male subjects [12]. ...
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), known as the king of spices, proven to contain various types of active substances that are allegedly beneficial to the human body functions including sexual function. This study was conducted to determine whether black pepper extract can be used to improve sexual function in male subjects. Thirty six healthy male mice, four months old, weighing between 25-30 g, were used as experimental animals and grouped into four. The first one mice was given pellets that do not contain black pepper extract as a control. The second and third groups, respectively were treated with pellets containing aqueous and ethanol extracts. The last group was given pellets containing aqueous extract and ethanolic extracts with a ratio of 1:1. Pellets were given once every day for 90 days. Mating behavior test was conducted in an open round plastic tray with a diameter of 40 cm and height 25 cm. Throughout the test, videotaping was performed for the following parameters: courtship latency and mounting frequency. The results revealed that compared with control group, male mice fed on aqueous as well as ethanol extract of black pepper significantly showed a shorter courtship latency (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the mounting frequency between treated groups. Interestingly, the mounting frequency showed a strong negative correlation with the courtship latency (r = -0.968). In conclusion, the fruit extract of black pepper potentially affect sexual drive in male mice.
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