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Existing buildings have a huge opportunity in terms of energy and water savings potential in Indonesia. In Jakarta alone, it is estimated that least 90 percent of total buildings were built before 2014. The general perception of having a more energy-efficient existing building is associated with a higher upfront cost and how to finance it. To overcome these issues, incentives have been considered as one important pull factor to implement energy efficiency retrofits (EERs). To identify types of incentive that might work in Indonesia city context, it is important to develop a framework that can be adopted nationally. This research aims to identify the key factors that can be integrated into the framework. To do that, an extensive electronic literature review, added with archival study and case studies analysis using Jakarta as a model for Indonesian cities in implementing green building code. A comprehensive analysis of favorable policy, existing building stock data, study on possible incentive mechanism and added with case studies are presented. From the analysis, it is concluded existing supporting policy, potential energy savings from existing building stock and local capacity are equally important factors. It is expected that these findings will be utilized as the key factors for developing a framework on expediting EERs to be adopted in Indonesia cities, which is an important key to untap the potential energy savings from existing building stock.
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... In general terms, in the studies aimed at determining the influence of renovation interventions on existing residential assets prices, different methodological approaches capable of evaluating the post-energy intervention economic benefits have been used [50][51][52]. In the context outlined, Seek [53] has highlighted that one of most relevant housing refurbishment advantages concerns the increase in value associated with intervention, assuming that the renovation costs are recovered though the property sale. ...
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In recent decades, the issue of existing buildings’ energy retrofit has played a central role in the context of international and national territorial development policies, mainly due to the obsolescence state that characterizes the housing stock. Since the current need for energy renovation collides with the widespread low spending capacity of the owners, in recent years numerous fiscal incentives have been envisaged, aimed at promoting building initiatives for the improvement of energy performance indices. With reference to the Italian fiscal measure so-called Superbonus, introduced by the “Relaunch” Law Decree No. 34/2020, in the present research, a model for evaluating the economic benefits, in terms of the convenience of the operators involved, generated by energy requalification interventions, has been proposed. The analysis has been developed with regards to the Italian territory and to the prevailing building typology, by considering 110 provincial capitals and the main urban areas into which each city is divided (central, semi-central, and peripheral). Specifically, for each urban area of the Italian capitals considered, the market value differential between the after energy and before energy intervention situations has been firstly determined. Furthermore, assuming an ordinary profit margin of a generic investor interested in this type of investment, the break-even incentive, i.e., the percentage threshold able to ensure the condition of minimum convenience for an investor, has been estimated for each urban area.
Chapter
China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China's policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The introduction and second chapter of this report introduce the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type, and energy service. The third chapter discusses China's policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China's cities, which means they impact construction of a very large number of buildings. In this way, they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China's markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings (in particular, residential buildings in northern China and government buildings). In the fourth chapter, we take "deep dives" into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. For example, China has a large number of companies that produce synthetic insulation, but following a series of fires linked to this insulation, the Chinese government pushed to require less-flammable, efficient insulation (such as rock wool or fiberglass). The government is now trying to balance the need for time for the market to adjust production capacity with the need for high-quality, safe products. This creates an excellent opportunity for manufacturers, in particular, international companies, that produce products today that meet these requirements. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter five. China has many inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Based on the target set by the central government, local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large-scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. While most of these contracts today focus on short-term, high impact, single technologies, like lighting, there is growing market and government pressure to deepen and expand these retrofits, and the contracts that implement them. China is the world's leading market for new construction. The Chinese government has set a goal of at least a 40-45% reduction in carbon intensity nationwide by 2020, relative to a 2005 baseline, a target in which buildings play a large role. Policies supporting this goal have created a vibrant and growing market for green building products. This market will mature as it grows, likely with a smaller number of high- quality producers.
Article
The building stock in the world consumes approximately 40% of the energy and emits one third of the total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG). Improving the energy efficiency in buildings is vital to address the climate change and achieve energy independence (i.e. to become net-zero energy). Improving energy performance in existing buildings has been receiving significant attention recently, which entails reducing energy demand for building operations, without affecting the health and comfort of its occupants. This approach requires strategies beyond mere technical advancements. However, there is limited published literature which has comprehensively addressed these issues. The aim of this paper is to critically review existing body-of-the-knowledge on improving energy efficiency of operating both commercial and institutional buildings. Peer-reviewed journal articles published from year 2000 to 2014 in reputed journals were reviewed. This review investigated contemporary energy efficiency approaches including technical, organizational, and behavioural changes. Based on the comprehensive literature review, a strategy map was developed as a pathway for achieving better building energy performance. It was noted that even though the existing studies predominately focused on technical advancements, approaches such as building behavioural changes have been largely overlooked. Findings of this study provide an important basis for setting up a national and organization wide strategy for improving the energy efficiency of commercial and institutional buildings.
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