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Coffee waste management-An overview

  • National Research Center for Banana, Tiruchirappalli, India


Coffee is one of the most important agriculture commodities in the world. Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta are the two principal varieties of the genus cultivated all over the world. 1000 kg of fresh berry gives about 400 kg of wet waste pulp. Coffee pulp contains caffeine, tannins, polyohenols and organic solid residues. It shows toxic nature and thus not been utilized beneficially. This effluent is being directly discharged to the nearby water bodies causing severe ailments like giddiness, skin irritation, stomach pain, nausea and breathing problem. Severe of this waste courses and a serious environmental problem among the residents of nearby area. For this reason, efforts have been made to develop methods for coffee waste treatment and management, also its utilization as a raw material for the production of feeds, beverages, vinegar, biogas, caffeine, pectin, pectic enzymes, protein and compost. Coffee waste is emerging as a new feed for producing polysaccharides and monosaccharide.
INT J CURR SCI 2013, 9: E 83-91
Coffee waste management-An overview
Padmapriya R, Jenny Anne Tharian and Thirunalasundari T*
Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchy-620 024, India
*Corresponding author:
Coffee is one of the most important agriculture commodities in the world. Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta are the
two principal varieties of the genus cultivated all over the world. 1000 kg of fresh berry gives about 400 kg of wet waste
pulp. Coffee pulp contains caffeine, tannins, polyohenols and organic solid residues. It shows toxic nature and thus not been
utilized beneficially. This effluent is being directly discharged to the nearby water bodies causing severe ailments like
giddiness, skin irritation, stomach pain, nausea and breathing problem. Severe of this waste courses and a serious
environmental problem among the residents of nearby area. For this reason, efforts have been made to develop methods for
coffee waste treatment and management, also its utilization as a raw material for the production of feeds, beverages, vinegar,
biogas, caffeine, pectin, pectic enzymes, protein and compost. Coffee waste is emerging as a new feed for producing
polysaccharides and monosaccharide.
Keywords: coffee effluent, Coffea arabica, Coffea robusta, by products
Received: 19thAugust; Revised: 12thSeptember; Accepted: 16thOctober; © IJCS New Liberty Group 2013
Coffee (Coffea sp.) is one of the most important
agricultural commodities in the world (ICO, 1998).
Ethiopia had been the origin of coffee because coffee plant
was initially found and cultivated by Oromo people in the
Kafa province (ITC, 2002). Coffee is concerned with only
two/three coffee species like Coffea arabica, Coffea
robusta, Coffea liberica and
C. canephora. It belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which
produce seeds that are used for coffee preparation.
Coffee is a brewed beverage with a distinct aroma and
flavor, prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant.
It is dark in colour and the roasted round bean is used
around the world to prepare an aromatic, stimulating
Coffee is derived from over 1500 chemical
substances, 850 volatile and 700 soluble, and when
prepared correctly involves 13 independent chemical and
physical variables. When coffee is extracted in water, most
of the hydrophobic compounds, including oils, lipids,
triglycerides, and fatty acids remain in the grounds, as do
insoluble carbohydrates like cellulose and various
indigestible sugars. Structural lignin, protective phenolics
and the wonderful aroma-producing essential oils are also
present in coffee. Coffee is a major plantation crop grown
worldwide and is one of the most popular beverages
consumed throughout the world. There are three common
species of coffee: robusta, arabica and liberica. 75-80% of
the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and 20% is
Robusta (Central Coffee Research Institute, 2000).
Padmapriya et al., 2013
Jimma zone is one of the areas in Ethiopia where
coffee producing plants are cultivated in large numbers
(ITC, 2002). Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi,
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire,
Colombia, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of
Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic Ecuador, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana,
Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia,
Jamaica, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sri
Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and, Tobago,
Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe are the countries
that produced coffee in the world. India has 4.5% share of
the global coffee market. Coffee production in India is
dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with the
state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by
Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11% of production of
8,200 tones. There are 250,000 coffee growers in India. In
Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris District, Yercaud and Kodaikanal are
the areas in which coffee is produced (Yeboah, Salomey,
2010). The production rate of coffee in Karnataka is about
2,27,205 tones, with 78,705 tones of arabica and 1,48,500
tones of robusta.
The coffee varieties arabica and robusta production
rate falls on 2,075, 61,750 and 17,750 tones in the region
of Kerala and Tamil Nadu respectively. There are many
different robusta (Coffea canephora) varieties. In general,
they can thrive in hotter lowland areas (i.e.) below 900 m
above sea level and over 20°C. Robusta coffee is preferred
for instant coffee production due to high soluble solid
extraction. Liberica (Coffea liberica) is a larger tree with
large leaves and berries. It can tolerate hot and wet
conditions. The coffee produced is bitter. This is preferred
in Malaysia and West Asia. Robusta is a high-yielding
plant, resistant to disease, growing at lower elevation,
characterized by ‘harsh’ flavours, containing about 2%
caffeine and yielding 1-1.5 kg green coffee per plant per
year. It is used in lower grade coffee, generally not found
in specialty shops, and is often used to make soluble
(instant) coffee and popular commercial blends.
Arabica (Coffea arabica) is a glossy leafed shrub or
small tree. The leaves are relatively small and the flowers
are fragrant and white. Arabica coffee usually receives a
premium for its superior flavour and aroma. Arabica is
more suited to higher, cooler climates like 600-2000 m
above sea level and 15-20°C. The species arabica grows
best at altitudes of 3000-6500 feet, has a refined flavor,
contains about 1% caffeine and yields 0.5-0.8 kg per plant
per year. It is a coffee that specialty roasters search for and
accounts for about 75% of world production. Arabica is
susceptible to disease and poor climatic conditions such as
frost and drought (Chanakya, 2004). The wastewater
generated from coffee processing plant contains organic
matter like pectin, proteins, and sugars (Bello-Mendoza,
Coffee pulp, one of the principal byproducts of wet
processed coffee (Coffea arabica. L.) which constitutes
almost 40% of the wet weight of the coffee berry, is rich in
carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and appreciable
quantities of tannins, caffeine and potassium (Bresanni,
1979). Coffee pulp is the main byproduct on coffee
exploitation industry. Two tons of green coffee produces
one ton of coffee pulp (dry matter). Its production on world
scale raised 2.400.000 tons in the harvest cycle from 1986
to 1987. Coffee pulp is essentially composed of
carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, mineral salts, tannins,
poly phenols, and caffeine. The polyphenols and caffeine
Padmapriya et al., 2013
are reported to be the anti-physiological factors on animal
feed. Hence, coffee pulp has to follow a preliminary
treatment before it is used (Sebastianos Roussos, 1998).
Coffee pulp is generated to the extent of 40% in the
fermentation of coffee berries (Zuluaga, 1989), poses many
problems in the coffee producing tropical countries. Its
disposal in nature, without any treatment, causes severe
environmental pollution, due to putrefaction of organic
matter (Zuluaga, 1989). Hence, it is essential to treat and
manage preferably by organic means.
Characteristics of coffee
The three main characteristic features of coffee are
acidity, aroma and taste. Acidity is related to the dryness
caused by coffee on the edges of the tongue and the back
part of the palate. Without sufficient acidity, the coffee is
frequently flat. To feel the aroma of coffee, people first
inhale the vapor that rises from the cup. Just like a wine
taster, a good coffee drinker, inhales the aroma before
allowing his/her lips to touch the coffee. The relation
between acidity, aroma, and body gives coffee its taste like
caramel, chocolaty, fragrant, fruity, ripe, sweet, almondy,
delicate, piquant etc.
Processing of coffee
There are two ways by which coffee can be
processed and are dry (natural) processing and wet
(fermented and washed) processing. In most cases, wet
processing is regarded as producing a higher quality
product. However, some areas prefer dry processed coffee
for its fuller flavor. The areas in which coffee processing
are being done by wet and dry methods are given below:
Wet processing areas are Bolivia, Burundi,
Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican
Republic, East Timor, Equador, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia,
Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Nicaragua, Papua New
Guinea, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam,
Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Dry processing areas are Angola, Benin, Brazil, Central
African Republic, Congo, Congo Democratic Republic,
Cote d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Madagascar,
Nigeria, Paraguay, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and
Togo (Chellamuthu et al., 2000).
Wet method
Approximately half of the world coffee harvest is
processed by the wet method in which the coffee berry is
subjected to mechanical and biological operation in order
to separate the bean or seed from the exocarp (skin),
mesocarp (mucilagenous pulp) and the endocarp
(parchment) (Clark, 1985). Adams and Dougan (1981)
reported that the skin and most of the pulp is separated in
the pulpers. This fraction represents about 40% of the
weight of the fresh fruit and presently is underutilized,
causing serious pollution problems. In wet method, the
pulping involves the removal of the outer red skin
(exocarp) and the white fleshy pulp (mesocarp) and the
separation of the pulp and beans. Immature cherries are
hard and green and very difficult to pulp. If the coffee is to
be wet processed, correct harvesting is essential. For small-
scale units, the cherries can be pulped in a pestle and
mortar, and is very labour intensive. There are the two
most common pulpers and most suitable for small-scale
units. They are the drum and the disc pulpers.
Drum pulpers
This involves a rotating drum with a punched sheet
surface and adjustable breast plate between which the
coffee cherries are pulped and the pulp and the beans
separated. The distance between the drum and the breast
plate has to be adjusted so that the pulp is removed without
Padmapriya et al., 2013
the beans being damaged. These can be manually operated
or attached to a treadle or bicycle. For larger scale units,
motorized drum pulpers are available.
Disc pulpers
The concept used in drum pulper is involved with the
disc pulper also. The only difference is that rather than the
cherries being squeezed between a breast plate and a drum,
a disc with a roughened surface is used in disc pulper.
Adams (1981) investigated that the industrial processing of
coffee cherries is done to isolate coffee powder by
removing shell and mucilagenous part from the cherries.
Dry method
In dry method, the coffee cherries are dried
immediately after harvest. This is usually sun drying on a
clean dry floor or on mats. The bed depth is less than
40mm and the cherries are raked frequently to prevent
fermentation or discoloration. However, there are problems
associated with this method. The most serious problem is
dust and dirt blown onto the produce. Another problem is
rainstorms often appear (even in the dry season) with very
little warning. This can soak the produce very quickly.
Finally, labour has to be employed to prevent damage or
theft. Sun drying is therefore not recommended.
Alternatively solar drying is done where the solar cabinet
drier and the exell solar drier are used. In this way the
coffee is placed in the trays in the solar drier. The layer of
the crop is deeper than one inch (3 cm) and the whole tray
area is covered. The drier will be made ready as early in
the day as possible so that all possible sunlight hours are
used. The coffee is stirred regularly so that a uniform
colouration is formed. At night, the crop should be placed
in a cool dry room. In the wet season solar drying of
produce is difficult. Rain is very unpredictable and
frequent. Solar driers will prevent the coffee getting wet.
However, due to the low level of sunlight, solar drying can
take a long time. This can lead to mould growth. Hence, an
alternative drier is used.
The dried cherry is then hulled to remove the
pericarp. This can be done by hand using a pestle and
mortar or in a mechanical huller. The mechanical hullers
usually consist of a steel screw, the pitch of which
increases as it approaches the outlet so removing the
The hulled coffee is cleaned by winnowing.
Problems of coffee waste
Agro-industrial residues/wastes are generated in
large quantities throughout the world. Their non-utilization
results in loss of valuable nutrients and envirorunental
pollution (Zuluaga, 1989). The better utilization by
biotechnological means assumes social, economic and
industrial importance. Considering these facts, centre of
ORSTOM participated into a scientific collaboration with
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico for
the development of biotechnological processes for better
utilization of agro-industrial byproducts/wastes, especially
the coffee pulp (Viniegra et al., 1991; Chapman, 1996,
Deepa, 2002). The wastewater from such type of industries
has high concentration of organic pollutants. So it’s very
harmful for surrounding water bodies, human health and
aquatic life if discharged directly into the surface waters.
Alemayehu Haddis (2008) reported that the people residing
in the vicinity of this plant utilizing this stream water for
domestic purposes suffer from severe health problems. The
seriousness of the situation is shown in Table 1. From this
it is obvious that some people were suffering from one
problem while others were having cumulative health
Padmapriya et al., 2013
effects. Agricultural practices such as use of organic
herbicides, inorganic and synthetic pesticides, efficiency of
the uses of inorganic fertilizers etc., determines the
environmental issues arising from them. For instance, the
use of agricultural pesticides significantly changes the
toxic characteristics of the wastewater (Chanakya, 2004).
Table 1. Health problems reported by the population living
nearby industries (Alemayehu Haddis, 2008)
Health problems
% of
Spinning sensation (feeling drunk)
Eye irritation (burning inside)
Skin irritation
Stomach problem
Breathing problem
Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine
and tannins, which makes it toxic resulting disposal
problem. However, it is rich in organic matters, which
makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the
production of value-added products. Several solutions and
alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been
attempted. These include fertilizers, livestock feed,
compost, etc. However, for these applications only a
fraction of available quantity is utilized and is not
technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to
detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce
several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour
and aroma from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation
has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes.
Factorial design experiments offer useful information for
the process optimization. Pandey (2000) reported the
developments on processes and products developed for the
value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the
biotechnological means.
Management of coffee pulp
Having known the problems of coffee waste several
attempts have been made to manage the same. An aerobic
lake system (meaning aerobic lagoons) was reported by
San Luis Beneficio a production facility in Brazil. This
method facilitated recycling of wastewater back into
production plants. Coffee pulp solid waste was converted
into compost, which was used by the suppliers in fertilizing
their coffee farms ( Waste water management
techniques used by the coffee pulping operators in India
are based on the use of lagoons. Anaerobic digestion has
been applied with different degrees of success, to the
treatment of liquid and solid wastes from the coffee
processing units (Kostenberg, 1993). Under appropriate
operational conditions, anaerobic reactor will remove the
organic and suspended solids loads with an efficiency of
70-80%. However, in many cases the produced effluent
will require a post-treatment step to produce a final effluent
quality that is compatible with the standards set by the
environmental control authorities (Sousa et al., 2001).
They made an attempt to increase the nutritional value of
CoP for monogastric animals by the following methods: (a)
NaOH treatment; (b) pre-treatment with HCl followed by
NaOH, and (c) pre-treatment with NaOH followed by
ensilage. Rojas, (2002) analyzed the response of CoP to
these treatments by measuring changes in the chemical
composition of treated and untreated CoP samples.
Selvamurugan (2010) made an attempted to ensure that an
effluent quality that complies with the Indian Standards for
the effluent discharge, different combination of treatments
like biomethanation, aeration and constructed wetland
technology were adopted as an integrated system for the
treatment of coffee processing waste water.
Padmapriya et al., 2013
Adsorption-based technique (Devi et al. 2002; Devi
and Dahiya 2006) developed with low-cost carbonaceous
materials showed good potential. Such adsorption approach
can offer an easy and economic solution to these
environmental challenges. Moreover, activated carbon is
considered very effective in reduction of color, absorbable
organic halides and non-biodegradable pollutants present
in such waste water but this process also has some
additional costs associated with the production of activated
carbon. The high rate reactor, most widely used for the
treatment of several types of wastewaters is upflow
anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor which was
developed by Lettinga, (2001). The upflow anaerobic
hybrid reactor (UAHR) configuration has combined the
advantages of both UASB and upflow anaerobic filter
(UAF) while minimizing their limitations and the reactor
was efficient in the treatment of dilute to high strength
waste water at high organic loading rates (OLRs) and short
hydraulic retention time (HRT).
The current anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system was
evolved around 1978. The National Environmental
Engineering and Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur,
produced a waste water processing solution based on the
existing water usage pattern of 16,000-23,000 litre water
per ton of fruit processed. The treatment process is based
on the use of anaerobic (21 days) and aerobic (7 days)
lagoons after an initial chemical pre-treatment
(neutralization). The Indian Coffee Board has suggested
this process with a total 29 days hydraulic retention time
(HRT) (CCRI, 2000). A number of research efforts are in
progress. Mohammed et al. (1998); Wang et al. (2005)
developed such types of waste water treatment
technologies. Various low-cost adsorbents like chitin,
chitosan, corn stalks, peat, rice husk, and wood have been
used for removal of organic matter from industrial
effluents (Poots et al., 1976; Mckay et al., 1980; Sharma
and Sharma, 1994). Discarded material based low-cost
adsorbents of different origins like industrial waste
material, bagasse, fly ash, and jute processing waste can
also be used for removal of organic matter from waste
water (Patnaik et al., 1996; Pala and Tokat, 2002;
Srivastava et al., 2005; Wang and Wu, 2006; Bhatnagar,
By products
It is understood from the literature that many
byproducts have been prepared from coffee waste. Some of
them are as follows:
(i) Organic manure
Coffee pulp is a source of nutrients: 0.5% of
composted pulp is nitrogen, 0.15% is phosphorus, and
0.5% is potassium. Therefore, pulp was treated and used as
organic fertilizer. The pulp left in piles, for 3 to 12 months,
turns into rich, black humus that can be used for
composting. Another way of composting is to mix coffee
husk with cattle manure, leaving the mixture in pits or
heaps. The use of organic fertilizer helps to improve soil
properties thus increasing yield as shown through
investigations in Columbia. Using organic fertilizers also
helps to reduce the need to buy inorganic fertilizers, hence
saving the farmers money.
(ii) Role in Mushroom production
Coffee pulp is used as planting soil for mushroom
production. After having fermented for two days, the pulp
is pasteurized with hot water, drained, dried, and mixed
with mushroom spores. Then, they are put in plastic bags.
After 3 - 4 weeks, the mushrooms grow out of the holes in
the bags and are collected. One bag allows 2-3 mushroom-
harvests. The mushroom can be eaten or dried and sold in
Padmapriya et al., 2013
the market. Considering the large amount of coffee pulp
generated every harvesting season, the income from
mushroom growing is significant for farmers.
(iii) Animal feed
As the coffee pulp is rich in nutrients. It can be
dried and used in animal feeds. Further application, the
pulp needs to be treated as soon as possible to prevent the
development of fungi. The pulp can be treated with
Ca(OH)2 and dried under pressure. Alternatively, the pulp
can be mixed with sugar cane molasses, or urea and other
inorganic substances and put in silos. The silage can be
used after 3 weeks, and can be stored up to 18 months.
However, using coffee pulp as animal feeds is of limited
value, since the cost for drying the pulp sometimes exceeds
the gain. Besides, the effects of caffeine, tannin and the
high level of potassium on the animal’s health are
In coffee producing countries, coffee waste
constitutes a source of severe contamination and serious
environmental problems. For this reason, since the middle
of the present century, efforts have been made to develop
methods for coffee waste treatment and management, also
its utilization as a raw material for the production of feed,
beverages, vinegar, biogas, caffeine, pectin, peptic enzyme,
protein, and compost. Hence, there is a need to curb these
problems through innovative and eco-friendly techniques.
So, this documentation may be an eye opening for the
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... According to Fairtrade Foundation, coffee is one of the most widelytraded tropical agricultural products, 80 % of which is produced by 25 × 10 6 smallholders (Atabani et al., 2019;Chala et al., 2018;Gill, 2021a;Lestari et al., 2022;Nurul et al., 2022;Wachamo, 2017). Concurring with this opinion, several researchers have declared that coffee is the most traded commodity only second to edible oil (Blinová et al., 2017;Corro et al., 2014;Das and Venkatachalapathy, 2016;Ijanu et al., 2020;Padmapriya et al. 2013;Poole et al., 2017). ...
... Ironically, the concerns about poor waste management in local coffee producers is also a focus given by many researchers (Corro et al., 2014;Das and Venkatachalapathy, 2016;Genanaw et al. 2021;Geremu et al., 2016;Novita, 2012Novita, , 2016. Coffee Pulp (CP) and Coffee Husk (CH) contain toxic substances, e.g., caffeine, alkaloids, tannins and polyphenolics (Chala et al., 2018;Dzung et al., 2013;Ijanu et al., 2020;Padmapriya et al., 2013) that shall bring negative impact towards the environment (Beyene et al., 2012;Carmen et al., 2020;Genanaw et al., 2021;Dzung et al., 2013;Lestari et al., 2022;Novita, 2012). ...
... As a part of solving the problems above, several experts (Chala et al., 2018;Novita, 2012Novita, , 2016Novita et al., 2021;Padmapriya et al., 2013Padmapriya et al., , 2015Setyobudi et al., 2021a, 2021b, Syarif et al. 2012) recommended biogas digester to process liquid coffee waste before discharge. Employing a biogas digester should result in double benefits: a renewable energy source for coffee production (i.e., drying, lighting, power) and organic solid and liquid fertilizers for coffee cultivation (Abdullah et al., 2020;Novia et al., 2021;Setyobudi et al. 2021aSetyobudi et al. , 2021bSusanto et al., 2020). ...
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The research aimed to reduce the amount of coffee pulp (CP) as a pollutant and turn it into Coffee Cherry Fluor (CCF) as a functional food. CCF is expected to serve a function as a non-heme iron source to treat anemia. Further, reusing CP should be able to boost the circulation of economy. Six CP samples from three Arabica coffee areas (highlands of Mount Batur, Mount Ijen, and Mount Arjuno) in Indonesia were compared to La Boite CCF, a commercial product made in Brazil. Variables observed were iron contents which is determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer, vitamin C contents as enhancers by Iodimetric titration, total phenol contents as inhibitors by Folin-Ciocalteu method, tannin contents by spectrophotometry method, lignin contents by Van Soest method, total plant count by ISO 4833-1, and antioxidant capacity by IC 50 in the DPPH scavenging assay. Sample disparity significance was statistically determined by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test at 95 %. Sample resemblance with La Boite CCF was tested using Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) and then presented in Heat Map. Conclusively, Mengani CCF and Mengani CP Estate samples are similar to La Boite CCF regarding vitamin C and inhibitor contents. It is suggested to reduce the temperature of the artificial drying device in Mengani. Further research should cover heavy metal contents, proximate analysis, and the detail of amino acid contents as research observed variables; expanding this research in vivo to study non-heme Fe's bioavailability should also be conducted.
... Coffee beans are a globally traded commodity. As a result, enormous quantities of coffee husk and coffee pulp from farms end up in landfills (Padmapriya et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020). Moreover, it generates around 0.5 and 0.18 tons of coffee pulp and coffee husk per ton of fresh cherry coffee, respectively (Janissen and Huynh, 2018). ...
... On the other hand, this has a significant impact on ecological life, particularly public health, because toxic gases are produced during organic decomposition (Rivera et al., 2020). Moreover, dangerous greenhouse gases lead to substantial pollution problems and global warming (Tamanna et al., 2020a;Padmapriya et al., 2019). Therefore, more effective methods of implementing sustainable applications, particularly in the construction and industrial sectors, will significantly enhance the economic and environmental capability, benefiting total cost factors by maximizing resource utilization and lowering solid waste materials that would otherwise rest in dumps (Janissen and Huynh, 2018;Oliveira and Franca, 2015). ...
... As the international demand for coffee beverages grows, the amount of agro-industrial biowaste, particularly CHA, will climb exponentially (Figueroa et al., 2016). Because this waste is hazardous to the environment, recognizing coffee waste's physical features and chemical compositions can point researchers in the right direction for how these diverse biowastes, particularly CHA, can be recycled (Padmapriya et al., 2019;Janissen and Huynh, 2018). Separately from the previous uses of CHA and other applications, such as fertilizer for gardens (Dzung et al., 2013), free fatty acid removal (Chairgulprasert and Madlah, 2018), anti-oxidant (Rebollo-hernanz et al., 2021), and solid fuel (Harsono et al., 2019), the emphasis has shifted to the prospect of using CHA in civil engineering sustainable applications. ...
Coffee is currently one of the most prized food commodities. Its production has grown so much in recent times, however, the waste by-products generated are also huge. It is envisioned that with rapid urbanization and construction, the use of these by-products can offset the demand for construction materials such as cement and concrete. It is now generally accepted that the manufacture of cement and concrete reduces the supply of natural aggregates at the same time generates carbon dioxide emissions and deteriorates the environment. In this paper, the sustainable use of coffee husk ash (CHA), produced from coffee production is discussed. The CHA necessitates huge land for storage and is normally then left in site locations where it is first dumped, while others are burned in incinerators, contributing to air pollution, thus creating a significant environmental issue. This article will first focus on general coffee production, consumption, and waste by-products. Its life cycle from plantation to wastes is then discussed followed by the effective usage of CHA for the production of ceramics and use in soil stabilization. The article summarizes the use of CHA in soil stabilization and examines development patterns in terms of strength and durability. The findings indicate that adding CHA into soil stabilization benefits both sustainability and zero-waste technologies.
... James and Deswarte (2015) and Stéphane and Thomas (2009) advised applying biorefinery, i.e. to process waste and turn it into economical products. Several studies on coffee waste utilization have been done by Padmapriya et al. (2019), , , and Setyobudi et al. (2018). Setyobudi et al. (2019) specifically proposed recycling coffee pulps (CP) and coffee husks (CH) into coffee cherry flour (CCF). ...
... The low rate of reducing sugars in La Boite's CCF is believed to result from postharvest treatment. A product of Brazil, La Boite's, should employ dry processing (Padmapriya et al., 2019) where coffee cherry goes directly to drying floors, preventing further metabolism to run in the pulp. On the other hand, Mengani's is wet processing, where coffee cherry is soaked before peeling under running water. ...
... Coffee pulp is one of the main by-products of coffee humid processing because the amount produced is quite large (approximately 40% f.w) [6]. However, the content of coffee pulp as waste is categorized as still high, especially for the growth of microorganisms such as fungi. ...
... Nitrogen has a complex cycle in an environment, whether or not the nitrogen content depends on the symbiosis between microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the thing that most plays a role in the degradation process that produces nitrogen in a fertilizer is the ability of bacteria that have the potential to fix nitrogen (N) is in the environment [6]. Bacteria have the ability to increase the efficiency of N-use in the soil. ...
This study aimed to determine formula and dosage of coffee pulpcompost that is appropriate to the growth of coffee in the nursery phase. The research treatment was a dose of coffee pulp compost with variations of bacterial consortia, using three treatments and one control including, 1) 150 grams of coffee pulp with variations of KA bacteria consortia, 2) 150 grams of coffee pulp with a variety of KB bacterial consortia, 3) 150 grams of coffee pulpwith a variety of consortia of KC bacteria in each treatment there were six replications. The results of the study were found to have an effect on the growth of coffee seedling height and did not significantly influence the growth of the number of leaves of coffee seedlings. This study gives an indication of formula C with 15 indigen bacterial isolates producing the best compost at dose of 150 grams for robusta coffee nursery.
Objective: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide, and its production and consumption generate large amounts of byproducts annually. Coffee byproducts and coffee beans are rich in bioactive compounds of great commercial value, including potential applications as active ingredients in skin care products and cosmetic formulations. In addition, there has been growing interest in the use of natural ingredients for cosmetic purposes. Considering the importance of coffee in the world economy, its chemical constituents with potential for cosmetic and dermatological application, and the importance of patents for innovation and technological development, the present study aimed to review recent patents involving coffee and coffee byproduct use in cosmetics. Methods: This review was carried out using Espacenet. The following inclusion criteria were established: patents that included the terms "coffee" and "skin" in the title, abstract and claims and belonged to the classification A61Q, which is related to the "specific use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations" considering the International Patent Classification (IPC) or Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). Results: Considering the 52 patents analyzed, the bean was the main way to obtain extracts (39), followed by green beans (7), silverskin (3), peel and pulp (1), pulp (1) and beans and leaves (1). The formulations are mainly intended for use in nonspecific areas of skin (29), eye areas (12), scalp hair (9) and lip skin (2) with claims of antiaging, moisturizers, sun protection, hair growth, anti-dandruff, etc. CONCLUSION: Coffee and its residues have high amounts of phenolic compounds, caffeine, fatty acids and other substances known to have important biological properties for the skin. Coffee and its byproducts are promising ingredients to be incorporated into topical formulations, ensuring skin health benefits and reducing the environmental impact.
Conference Paper
Akreditasyon çok sayıda ülkede ve sektörde topluma yönelik olarak sunulan program ve hizmetlerin kalitesinin, niteliğinin, verimliliğinin ve etkililiğinin sistematik bir yaklaşımla güvence altına alınması için geliştirilen bir yöntemdir. Bu nedenle akreditasyon eğitim alanında da önemli bir yere sahiptir. Çünkü eğitim, hem toplumların hem de insanlığın gelişimini ve devamlılığını sağlayan en önemli alan olarak görülmektedir. Özellikle eğitim sistemlerinin uygulayıcısı ve lokomotifi durumunda olan öğretmenlerin eğitimi ve bu eğitimin kalitesi ülkelerin geleceği açısından son derece önemlidir. Buna bağlı olarak öğretmen yetiştirme politikaları, gelişmiş ülkelerin gündeminde öncelikli olarak yer almaktadır. Öğretmen eğitimi ile ilgili konuların küresel düzeyde gündemin en üst sıralarında yer alması, öğretmen eğitiminin kalitesini arttırma ile ilgili çalışmalara uluslararası yönde bir hız kazandırmaktadır. Dolayısı ile öğretmenlik eğitimi programlarının değerlendirilmesi ve akreditasyonu konusu daha fazla önem kazanmaktadır. Öğretmen eğitiminin niteliğinin arttırılması ve bu niteliğin güvence altına alınması, sürekli bir iç ve dış denetimle sistemli olarak yürütülmesi, ilgili kesimlere (veliler, öğrenciler, okullar vb.) öğretmen eğitiminin belirli standartlara dayalı olarak yürütüldüğünün güvencesinin verilmesi yalnızca etkili bir akreditasyon sistemi ile sağlanabilir. Etkili bir akreditasyon sistemi geliştirebilmek veya mevcut akreditasyon sisteminin niteliğini arttırmak için farklı ülkelerdeki öğretmenlik eğitimi değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarının incelenmesi gerekmektedir. Ancak ilgili alan yazın incelendiğinde bu konuyla ilgili çalışmaların oldukça sınırlı olduğu görülmektedir. Özellikle Türk eğitim sisteminin şekillenmesinde önemli etkileri olan, akreditasyon alanında büyük bir kazanım elde etmiş ve öğretmen eğitimi programlarının akreditasyonu konusunda önemli ilerlemeler kaydetmiş Fransa’yla ilgili akreditasyon konusunda herhangi bir çalışmanın yapılmaması önemli bir eksiklik olarak görülmektedir. Buna bağlı olarak bu çalışmada Fransa'daki öğretmenlik eğitim programları değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında: 1. Fransa’daki öğretmenlik eğitimi programlarına yönelik olan akreditasyon kuruluşları nelerdir? 2. Mevcut akreditasyon kuruluşlarının amaçları nelerdir? 3. Akreditasyon süreci nasıldır? 4. Standartları ve başvuru şartları nelerdir? 5. Bu akreditasyon kuruluşlarının Fransa eğitim sistemi için önemi nedir? 6. Fransa’daki ve Türkiye’deki öğretmenlik eğitim programlarının daha etkili şekilde değerlendirilebilmesi ve akredite edilebilmesi için neler yapılabilir? gibi sorulara yanıt aranmıştır. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara dayalı olarak hem Fransa’daki hem de Türkiye’deki öğretmenlik eğitim programları değerlendirme ve akreditasyon kuruluşlarına yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur. Ayrıca çalışmada elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda Türkiye’de yükseköğretimde öğretmen eğitimine yönelik yapılan uygulamaları geliştirmeye yönelik öneriler getirilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öğretmen Eğitimi, Öğretmenlik Eğitim Programları, Akreditasyon, Fransa.
Conference Paper
İçerisinde bulunduğumuz yüzyıl, bilim ve teknolojide yaşanan hızlı gelişmelere bağlı olarak toplumsal yaşamda pek çok değişimi ve gelişimi beraberinde getirmiştir. Ayrıca salgın hastalıklar, küresel ısınma, yoksulluk, savaş, terör ve göç gibi küresel sorunların artması dünyada çok sayıda probleme neden olmuş, bu durum insan yaşamını olumsuz etkilemiştir. Bu gelişmeler toplumsal süreklilik için sorumluluk sahibi olan, bilgiyi üreten, paylaşan, doğru bilgiye erişebilen, demokratik ve evrensel değerleri özümsemiş nitelikli insan gücünün gerekliliğini arttırmıştır. Ancak nitelikli insan yetiştirmek nitelikli bir eğitim ile mümkündür. Nitelikli eğitim ise nitelikli öğretmenlerin yetişmesi ve eğitim sistemine dâhil olması ile sağlanabilir. Bu nedenle değişen ihtiyaçlar ve dünya düzeni doğrultusunda öğretmenlik mesleği, öğretmenlik mesleğinin önemi, yeterlikleri ve rolleri her toplumda güncelliğini koruyan en temel eğitim konuları arasında yer almaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak öğretmen yetiştirme, pek çok ülkede olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de eğitim sisteminin en öncelikli çözüm bekleyen alanlarından biri olmuştur ve olmaya devam etmektedir. Bu sorunun başarılı şekilde çözümlenebilmesi için diğer ülkelerin öğretmen yetiştirme konusundaki deneyimlerinin, bu konuyla ilgili geçmişlerinin ve günümüzdeki mevcut durumlarının araştırılması ve incelenmesi büyük öneme sahiptir. Avrupa’nın önde gelen ülkelerinden biri olarak kabul edilen Fransa, 1789 Fransız İhtilali’nden itibaren bütün dünyayı pek çok alanda etkilemiştir. Türk eğitim sisteminin şekillenmesinde de önemli etkileri olan Fransa’nın öğretmen yetiştirme konusundaki geçmişi, deneyimi ve bu konudaki mevcut uygulamaları merak konusu olmuştur. Ancak ilgili alan yazın incelendiğinde bu konuyla ilgili yapılmış çalışmaların çok sınırlı olduğu ve güncel olmadığı görülmüştür. Bu çalışmada, Fransa’da öğretmen yetiştirme konusu incelenmiş, öğretmen yetiştirme sürecine tarihsel gelişimi içerisinde bakılmış, bugünkü öğretmen yetiştirme uygulamalarının güçlü yanları ve sorunları ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara dayalı olarak hem Fransa’daki hem de Türkiye’deki öğretmen yetiştirme uygulamalarına yönelik çözüm önerileri geliştirilmiştir. Araştırma, nitel temelli bir araştırma olarak tasarlanmış, çeşitli resmi metinler, ikinci el kaynaklar ve bilimsel çalışmalar doküman incelemesi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öğretmen Eğitimi, Öğretmen Yetiştirme Programları, Eğitim Tarihi, Fransa.
Conference Paper
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With the developing technology in recent years, the tendency towards digital world has increased and this has affected the demand for microchips. Today, the supply of microchip is needed in the production of many products such as home electronics, cryptocurrency mining devices, game consoles, automobiles and devices needed in the health sector. Microchip shortage due to increasing demand in the global context began to deepen in 2020 with the Covid-19 pandemic. From the perspective of the automotive sector, which is one of the sectors most affected by the microchip shortage, the effects of the crisis on the supply chain can be seen more clearly. The manufacturing process of a microchip producer takes about two months. The time from order to shipment can take up to four months in total. There are close to 100 microchips in a modern vehicle. Automotive manufacturers who cannot supply microchips have nearly 10 million pending orders. Microchip manufacturers, on the other hand, have serious problems in the supply of raw materials. Raw material problems that started with natural disasters and water scarcity; Microchip manufacturers have faced a very serious crisis with the increasing demand of consumers for higher technology products with the developing technology and pandemic. The theory of constraints was introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldralt in the early 1980s. The theory of constraints is a theory that includes finding the factor that reduces the system performance by creating disruptions in the functioning of the systems and improving the system. In this theory, the system is considered as a chain, and the weakest of the links that make up the chain is called the "constraint". The theory suggests focusing on the constraint to improve the system with empirical methods. In this study, the microchip shortage experienced due to the disruptions in the supply chain in recent years, the reasons for its emergence, the action plans proposed to overcome the microchip shortage are shared in a global context. In this study, the theory of constraints is presented as a model for improving the bottleneck created by microchip shortage in corporations. Son yıllarda gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte dijital dünyaya olan yönelim artmış ve bu durum mikroçiplere olan talebi etkilemiştir. Günümüzde ev elektroniği, kripto para madenciliği cihazları, oyun konsolları, otomobiller ve sağlık sektöründe ihtiyaç duyulan cihazlar gibi birçok ürünün üretiminde mikroçip tedariğine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Küresel bağlamda artan talebe bağlı yaşanan mikroçip kıtlığı, 2020 yılında Covid-19 pandemisi ile derinleşmeye başlamıştır. Mikroçip kıtlığından en çok etkilenen sektörlerden olan otomotiv sektörü açısından bakıldığında, krizin tedarik zinciri boyutundaki etkileri daha net görülebilmektedir. Mikroçip üreten bir firmanın imalat süreci iki aya yakın sürmektedir. Siparişten sevkiyata kadar geçen süre ise toplamda dört ayı bulabilmektedir. Modern bir araçta 100’e yakın mikroçip bulunmaktadır. Mikroçip tedarik edemeyen otomotiv üreticilerinin 10 milyona yakın bekleyen siparişi bulunmaktadır. Mikroçip üreticisi firmalar ise hammadde tedarikinde ciddi sorunlar yaşamaktadır. Doğal afetler ve su kıtlığı ile başlayan hammadde sorunları; gelişen teknoloji ve pandemi ile birlikte tüketicilerin daha yüksek teknolojili ürünlere olan talebinin beklenenin üzerinde artması ile birlikte mikroçip üreticileri çok ciddi bir kriz ile karşı karşıya gelmiştir. Kısıtlar teorisi 1980’li yılların başında Dr.Eliyahu M.Goldralt tarafından ortaya konulmuştur. Kısıtlar teorisi sistemlerin işleyişinde aksamalar yaratarak, sistem performansını düşüren unsurun bulunması ve sistemin iyileştirmesini içeren bir teoridir. Bu teoride sistem bir zincir olarak ele alınmaktadır ve zinciri oluşturan halkalardan en zayıf olanı “kısıt” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Teori, sistemin ampirik yöntemler ile iyileştirilmesi için kısıta odaklanılmasını önermektedir. Bu çalışmada son yıllarda tedarik zincirinde yaşanan aksamalar nedeniyle yaşanan mikroçip kıtlığı, ortaya çıkış nedenleri, mikroçip kıtlığı ile mücadelede önerilen eylem planları küresel bağlamda paylaşılmıştır. Çalışmada kısıtlar teorisi, mikroçip kıtlığının işletmelerde yarattığı darboğazın iyileştirilmesine yönelik bir model olarak sunulmuştur.
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The potential of fly ash, brick kiln ash and commercial activated carbon is determined for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from domestic wastewater. Laboratory experiments are conducted for investigating the effect of treatment time, adsorbent dose, pH of the media, initial COD concentration, agitation speed and particle size of adsorbents on the COD reduction from the domestic wastewater. Starting with an initial COD concentration of 1080 mg/l the maximum COD reduction achieved for fly ash was 87.84%, brick kiln ash was 83.22% and commercial activated carbon was 99.35 %. These values were achieved when the wastewater was treated with activated carbon for 180 min, fly ash 250 min and brick kiln ash 300 min and the adsorbent dose was kept respectively at 40 g/l, 60 g/l and 45 g/l for activated carbon, fly ash and brick kiln ash. Agitation speed was kept constant at 600 rpm and the pH was maintained at 2 for activated carbon and fly ash and 5 for brick kiln ash. The maximum percent reduction is for 0.053 mm or smaller size of the particles. Though the adsorption capacity of the ash for reducing the COD is lower than that of the commercial activated carbon, the low material cost can make it an attractive option for the treatment of domestic wastewater.
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Different chemical treatments were tested to improve the nutritional value of coffee pulp (CoP): (1) alkali, NaOH solutions of 5 and 10% for 24 and 48 h; (2) a combination of acid and alkali, with first a treatment with HCl (1.5 and 3 M for 24 and 48 h), followed by a NaOH solution of 5% for 48 h; (3) A combination of alkali and ensilage, with first a treatment with a NaOH solution of 5% for 48 h, followed by ensilage with molasses (50 and 100 g molasses/kg of CoP) for 2 and 3 months. The CoP treated with NaOH alone or with the combination HCl–NaOH showed higher contents of ash, fat and cellulose but lower contents of antinutritional factors (ANFs) (polyphenols, tannins and caffeine) than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP) (P<0.05). The true protein content in the CoP was not affected by the alkali treatment but was reduced in the acid–alkali treated CoP compared to OD-CoP. A combined treatment with alkali-ensilage resulted in higher true protein, fat and ash contents (P<0.05) and in similar contents of cellulose than in OD-CoP. Polyphenols, tannins and caffeine contents were lower in treated CoP than in OD-CoP, but there was no difference in the size of the effect for caffeine between one treatment to the other. The higher ash content found in alkali-ensiled CoP could result from the addition of the alkali. The reduction of ANFs was much higher in the chemical treated CoP than in the alkali-ensiled CoP. The alkali treatment yielded the best overall results in upgrading the nutritive value of CoP.
The adsorption characteristics of Astrazone Blue on wood particles have been investigated. The effects of contact time and initial dye concentration have been studied in an attempt to explain the adsorption process. Adsorption isotherms have been obtained and applied to the conventional equations and the results listed. A series of fixed bed experiments have been undertaken using Astrazone Blue to study the influence of the dye solution velocity on the breakthrough curves, and, in addition, the influence of varying the bed height on the service time of the bed has been assessed.
Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic digestion (AMTD) of the solid fraction of waste from an instant coffee factory was carried out in laboratory scale digesters. Optimal conditions were established for stable fermentation by controlling loading rates, pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, biogas production and composition. The results of the experiments indicated that steady digestion can be maintained at organic loading rates up to 8.6 g VS Ld, at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days, with pH at 7.5–8.2. Biogas production (62% methane) reached 1.8 L Ld. The residual slurry of the digestion process was examined as a growth medium in horticulture. Trials of fermented solids, mixed with sphagnum peat‐moss in proportions of 1:1 or 3:1 and used as growth media for ornamental plants (Gypsophila, Lysimachia and Phlox), showed a promotional effect on growth in the root systems.
The paper examines the broader environmental issues and environmental management aspects of primary coffee processing in general and more specifically how it is addressed in India. Primary processing, the production of green beans from the coffee fruits, is practised to bring out more flavour. Coffee is an important global commodity, yet seen from a systemic view the producers and consumers of such an important commercial commodity are far apart. Primary coffee processing, with all its attendant environment impact, takes place at the producer end. The consumers in general are unaware of these impacts. The various methods of processing, the processing steps and the waste discharge associated with them are reviewed. A review of pollution and associated management methods is presented. An anaerobic bioreactor design developed and tested in a few Indian coffee plantations as a simple solution is also described.
The present study deals with the use of poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and bagasse fly ash (BFA), which is generated in sugar mills, as an adsorbent for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of pulp and paper mill effluents. Under optimal conditions of pH 3 and initial PAC dosage of 3g/l, about 80% COD removal and 90% colour removal were obtained. The optimal conditions for the adsorptive removal of COD and colour with BFA were pH 4 and BFA dosage of 2g/l. Under these conditions, COD and colour removal were, respectively, 50 and 55%. Adsorptive removal of COD by BFA followed second-order kinetics. Intra-particle diffusion was found to be rate controlling. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were found to fit the equilibrium adsorption data with BFA. Two-stage treatment using PAC (3g/l) as a coagulant in the first stage and BFA (2g/l) as an adsorbent in the second stage gave the combined COD and colour removal of nearly 87 and 95%, respectively, for different effluents without any pH adjustment. Two-stage adsorptive treatment using BFA (2g/l) in both the stages gave a combined COD and colour removal of about 70%. The sludge obtained can be dewatered by centri-clarifiers, dried, briquetted and incinerated to recover its energy content.
The experiment was conducted to develop an integrated treatment system for coffee processing wastewater (CPWW) through the combination of biomethanation with aeration and wetland plants treatment. The biomethanation was carried out at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) using upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR) and 18 h of HRT was found to be optimum. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids (TS) reduction were 66.0%, 61.0% and 58.0%, respectively with organic loading rate of 9.55 kg m−3 day−1. The reduction of pollution load of the wastewater by microbial action augmented by aeration resulted in the reduction of electrical conductivity (EC), BOD, COD, and total solids (TS). Continuous aeration of wastewater resulted in maximum reduction of BOD (74.6%), COD (68.6%) and TS (49.3%). The wetland plant, Typha latifolia reduced 85.4% and 78.0% of BOD and COD, respectively in biomethanated cum aerated CPWW.
The rate of adsorption of Astrazone Blue, a basic dye, on Sorbsil Silica has been studied. The parameters studied include particle size, initial dye concentration, agitation and dye solution temperature. The rate controlling step is mainly intraparticle diffusion, although a small boundary layer resistance is experienced. The activation energy for the adsorption of Astrazone Blue on silica is 13.2 ± 0.6 kJ kg−1. The diffusion coefficients vary from 9 × 10−9 cm2 s−1 at 20°C to 10 × 10−8 cm2 s−1 at 82°C.