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Learning from Self-Diagnosis Activities when Contrasting Students’ Own Solutions with Worked Examples: the Case of 10th Graders Studying Geometric Optics

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  • The Academic Arab College Of Education
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Abstract and Figures

Self-diagnosis activities require students to self-diagnose their solutions to problems they solved on their own by detecting and explaining their errors. Worked examples, a step-by-step demonstration of how to solve a problem, are often used to support students in self-diagnosis activities. However, studies indicate that students often fail to exploit worked examples in traditional self-diagnosis activities when simply required to self-diagnose their solutions. This study analyzes a new self-diagnosis activity developed by the first author to prompt students to effectively use worked examples when self-diagnosing: the written worked examples only constitute one part of a scoring rubric and the students are required to both self-diagnose their solutions and then self-score them. This activity was hypothesized to encourage students to exploit the worked examples more thoroughly, and by extension detect and learn from their errors to a greater extent than students administered the traditional self-diagnosis activities. Six 10th grade advanced physics classes completed a pre-test/intervention/post-test after finishing a unit in geometric optics. Students in each class were randomly assigned to the new self-diagnosis activity (83 students) or the traditional self-diagnosing activity (79 students). Students assigned the new activity detected and learned more from their errors than students administered the traditional activity. It is argued that more in-depth error detection contributed overall to students’ learning by triggering a series of implicit steps that prompted them to self-regulate their cognitions in a way that provided opportunities to self-repair their naïve concepts.
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Learning from Self-Diagnosis Activities when Contrasting
StudentsOwn Solutions with Worked Examples: the Case
of 10th Graders Studying Geometric Optics
RafiSafadi
1
&Sheren Saadi
1,2
#Springer Nature B.V. 2019
Abstract
Self-diagnosis activities require students to self-diagnose their solutions to problems they
solved on their own by detecting and explaining their errors. Worked examples, a step-by-
step demonstration of how to solve a problem, are often used to support students in self-
diagnosis activities. However, studies indicate that students often fail to exploit worked
examples in traditional self-diagnosis activities when simply required to self-diagnose their
solutions. This study analyzes a new self-diagnosis activity developed by the first author to
prompt students to effectively use worked examples when self-diagnosing: the written worked
examples only constitute one part of a scoring rubric and the students are required to both self-
diagnose their solutions and then self-score them. This activity was hypothesized to encourage
students to exploit the worked examples more thoroughly, and by extension detect and learn
from their errors to a greater extent than students administered the traditional self-diagnosis
activities. Six 10th grade advanced physics classes completed a pre-test/intervention/post-test
after finishing a unit in geometric optics. Students in each class were randomly assigned to the
new self-diagnosis activity (83 students)or the traditional self-diagnosing activity (79 students).
Students assigned the new activity detected and learned more from their errors than students
administered the traditional activity. It is argued that more in-depth error detection contributed
overall to studentslearning by triggering a series of implicit steps that prompted them to self-
regulate their cognitions in a way that provided opportunities to self-repair their naïve concepts.
Keywords Erroneous solutions .Geometric optics .Learning from errors .Self-assessment .
Self-diagnosis .Worked examples
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-018-9806-8
The study was carried out as part of Sheren Saadis requirements towards her M.Ed. degree in science education.
*RafiSafadi
rafi.safadi@gmail.com
1
Department of Science Education, The Academic Arab College for Education in Israel, Haifa, 22
Hahashmal St., P. O. Box 8349, 33145 Haifa, Israel
2
Present address: Comprehensive school BC^- Shefaamre, Tawfeq Ziad St., P. O. Box 780,
20200 Shefaamre, Israel
Published online: 1 February 2019
Research in Science Education (2021) 51:523–546
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... The rubric developed in this study can be used in the teaching of EI to deepen students' conceptual understanding and to improve their problem-solving skills by making qualitative and quantitative associations. The criteria in the rubric may allow students to self-diagnose their solutions (Safadi and Saadi, 2021), to analyze the problem conceptually before starting to solve the problem and may provide students a working forward strategy (Larkin, 1985) by turning them into purposeful problem solvers. The method of analyzing the problem conceptually was studied by Zajchowski and Martin (1993) with introductory college students on mechanical questions and they determined that students use the 'working forward' strategy in the same manner as expert problem solvers. ...
... The stages of self-diagnosis among them are recognizing, acknowledging, understanding, and correcting existing problems that finally the students do self-scoring (giving value to their own solutions) so that students can master the concepts learned. Safadi [3] in his research found that self-diagnosis activities were effective in increasing students' mastery of concepts and learning achievement. Self-diagnosis activities require students to be directly involved and actively solve existing problems with systematic steps. ...
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