Article

Primary replacement for the management of exposed orbital implant

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Abstract

Purpose: We present a series of primary orbital implant replacement for cases of implant exposure to describe our experience of this one-staged surgical approach. Methods: This study reports on a one-stage technique which involved the removal of the exposed implant or dermis fat graft (DFG) and insertion of a secondary (replacement) in the same procedure, with a variety of materials, including autologous tissue. Re-exposure in a socket where a DFG was placed was defined as a new defect in the newly epithelialized conjunctiva or dehiscence of the dermis-conjunctiva junction. All cases of primary replacement for the management of exposed orbital implant, porous and non-porous, were included, even when there were clinical signs suggestive of infection. The primary outcome was the rate of re-exposure, requiring additional surgical procedures. Infection following primary replacement was a secondary outcome. Results: Seventy-eight patients had primary replacement for the management of an exposed orbital implant. 6.4% had re-exposure at a mean follow-up of 49.7 months (9.1% for ball implants and 4.5% for DFG). The rate of exposure was higher in those with prior signs of infection than those without (8% vs. 3.6%). Re-exposure occurred in 4.5% of cases with DFG implantation, 4.3% of cases with non-porous implants and in 20% of cases with porous implants. Conclusion: Primary replacement for management of exposed orbital implant, porous and non-porous, has a high rate of successful outcome even in cases with presumed or confirmed infection.

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... 39 Primary replacement of exposed implants, either porous and nonporous, is another possibility and it has shown a successful outcome even in cases with infection. 43 Implant migration should be treated when it affects the correct placement of the prosthesis, and options include implant exchange and DFG. 44,45 It has been described after evisceration with optic nerve disinsertion. ...
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Francesco M Quaranta-Leoni,1,2 Maria Grazia Fiorino,1 Flavia Quaranta-Leoni,3 Matteo Di Marino1 1Orbital and Adnexal Service, Villa Tiberia Hospital – GVM Care & Research, Rome, 00137, Italy; 2Oftalmoplastica Roma, Rome, 00197, Italy; 3Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, 00168, ItalyCorrespondence: Francesco M Quaranta-Leoni Email fquarantaleoni@gmail.comAbstract: Anophthalmic socket syndrome determines functional deficits and facial deformities, and may lead to poor psychological outcomes. This review aims to comprehensively evaluate the features of the syndrome, based on literature review and authors’ clinical and surgical experience. An electronic database (PubMed,MEDLINE and Google Scholar) search of all articles written in English and non-English language with abstract translated to English on anophthalmic socket syndrome was performed. Data reviewed included demographics, presentations, investigations, management, complications and outcomes. Different types of orbital implants were evaluated; the management of implant exposure was examined; different orbital volume enhancement procedures such as secondary implantation, subperiosteal implants and the use of fillers in anophthalmic patients were described; the problems related to socket contraction were outlined; the treatment options for chronic anophthalmic socket pain and phantom eye syndrome were assessed; the most recent advances in the management of congenital anophthalmia were described. Current clinical evidence does not support a specific orbital implant; late exposure of porous implants may be due to pegging, which currently is seldom used; filler absorption in the orbit appears to be faster than in the dermis, and repeated treatments could be a potential source of inflammation; socket contraction results in significant functional and psychological disability, and management is challenging. Patients affected by anophthalmic socket pain and phantom eye syndrome need specific counseling. It is auspicable to use a standardized protocol to treat children affected by clinical congenital anophthalmia; dermis fat graft is a suitable option in these patients as it helps continued socket expansion. Dermis fat graft can also address the volume deficit in case of explantation of exposed implants and in contracted sockets in both children and adults. Appropriate clinical care is essential, as adequate prosthesis wearing improves the quality of life of anophthalmic patients.Keywords: orbital implants, socket surgery, contracted socket, phantom eye syndrome, congenital anophthalmia
Article
Objectives: This study reports the surgical outcomes of evisceration with primary orbital implant placement in patients with endophthalmitis and analyses the association with implant exposure and extrusion. Methods: A retrospective, multicentre, Chinese cohort study. Review of medical records and orbital images of patients who underwent evisceration with primary orbital implant placement between January 2005 and January 2021. Results: Out of 79 patients who underwent orbital evisceration with primary orbital implant placement, 26 (26 eyes) of them (male = 13) suffered from endophthalmitis. The duration from endophthalmitis diagnosis (19 = exogenous, 7 = endogenous) to evisceration was 9 standard deviation ± 5 (range: 1-15) days. The follow-up was 70 ± 46 (24-180) months after operation. The orbital implant size was 17 ± 3 (14-20) mm, and silicone was the most used material (69%, 18/26 of patients). The most frequent post-operative complication was orbital implant exposure (42%, 11/26), followed by orbital implant extrusion (12% 3/26) and ptosis (8%, 2/26). Implant exposure or extrusion was more commonly associated with endophthalmitis in comparison to non-endophthalmitis patients that required evisceration and primary orbital implant placement (54% versus 17%, P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed single scleral closure technique (100% versus 58%, P < 0.05) and endogenous endophthalmitis (50% versus 0%, P < 0.05) were associated with implant exposure or extrusion, and only endogenous endophthalmitis was significant with multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Primary implant placement during evisceration should be avoided in eyes with endophthalmitis especially in those with an endogenous source, and double scleral closure technique may be a better alternative for primary orbital implant placement in infected eyes.
Article
Introduction Insufficient orbital volume in an anophthalmic socket is a major problem for the placement of an ocular prosthesis. This study reports the outcomes of the use of autologous pericranium graft in association with a large primary or secondary orbital implant in patients with a contracted socket and large orbital volume deficit. Methods This was a retrospective single-institution study. Participants were 13 patients with contracted socket, volume deficit, and insufficient conjunctiva to cover the new implant divided into two groups, A ( n = 3) and B ( n = 10), according to the baseline condition of the socket. Surgery was primary evisceration (group A only) and placement of a large orbital implant followed by an autologous pericranium graft over the implant (groups A and B). Results Mean follow-up duration for the patient series was 9.5 months (range 9–24). Complete epithelialization of the pericranium graft was recorded at 47.3 days of follow-up (range 33–67). No cases of implant exposure or shrinkage were noted during follow-up. Main postoperative complications were conjunctival granuloma (five patients, 38.5%), conjunctival seroma (one patient, 7.7%). All patients were satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. Conclusion Autologous pericranial graft was effective in reconstructing the contracted socket so that the anophthalmic socket could accommodate a larger or secondary orbital implant. The efficacy of this procedure needs to be confirmed in a larger patient series.
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Objective: Many patients are satisfied with their ocular prosthesis, but some describe problems with social interactions, body image and self-esteem. Although both clinical practice and research suggest that the severity of a disfiguring condition does not predict distress, there has been little research with patients living with an ocular prosthesis. The objective was to explore the psychological impact of living with an artificial eye or cosmetic shell and determine the relationship between psychological well-being and clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study between March and September 2008 at the ocular prosthesis clinic of Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK. The primary outcome measures were mood as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and appearance-related social anxiety and social avoidance, as measured by the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS24). Results: Mean scores on the HADS and DAS24 were within normal range, but a considerable proportion of participants were experiencing significant levels of distress. Psychosocial adjustment was unrelated to most clinical and demographic variables, but was associated with a series of cognitive processes. Conclusions: Psychological variables, rather than clinical or demographic factors, are associated with how a patient adjusts to wearing an ocular prosthesis. Such factors might be amenable to change through psychosocial intervention.
Article
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To report a procedure and results of a two-stage operation to manage intractable extensive orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect which was difficult to treat with dermis fat grafts due to repeated graft necrosis. A retrospective chart review of four patients who had extensive orbital implant exposures with large conjunctival defects and had past histories of repeated autologous or preserved dermis graft failures was done. As a first-stage operation, the problematic pre-existing orbital implants were removed and autologous dermis fat grafts alone were performed on the defect area. Four months later, new orbital implants were secondarily inserted after confirmation of graft survival. The size of the conjunctival defects and state of the extraocular muscles were checked preoperatively. Success of the operations and complications were investigated. The mean size of the conjuctival defects was 17.3mm×16.0mm, and the mean time from the initial diagnosis of orbital implant exposure to implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft was 20.8 months. After implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft, no graft necrosis was observed in any patients. Also, implant exposure or fornix shortening was not observed in any patients after new orbital implant insertion. The secondary insertion of a new orbital implant after pre-existing implant removal and preceding dermis fat graft is thought to be an another selective management of intractable orbital implant exposure in which dermis fat grafts persistently fail.
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Temporalis fascia has been recommended for hydroxyapatite sphere exposure. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for exposure of porous polyethylene (Medpor) sphere implants and evaluate the use of autogenous temporalis fascia as a patch graft for exposure. A retrospective review of consecutive cases of porous polyethylene sphere orbital implant exposure. Five cases presented between May 2000 and October 2001 (three males, two females; mean age 44.5 years). Three had enucleation (two with primary implants) and two had evisceration (one with primary implant). Exposure occurred in one primary, two secondary, and two replacement implants. Orbital implant diameter was 20 mm in four cases and 16 mm in one case (contracted socket). The mean time from implantation to exposure was 23 months (range 0.7-42.6). Three patients had secondary motility peg placement before exposure. The average time from last procedure (sphere implant or peg insertion) to exposure was 3 months (range 0.7-12.6). Four patients required surgical intervention, of which three needed more than one procedure. Autogenous temporalis fascia grafting successfully closed the defect without re-exposure in three of these four patients. The grafts were left bare in three patients, with a mean time to conjunctivalise of 2.4 months (range 1.6-3.2). Exposed porous polyethylene sphere implants were treated successfully with autogenous temporalis fascia graft in three of four patients. This technique is useful, the graft easy to harvest, and did not lead to prolonged socket inflammation, infection, or extrusion.
Article
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To evaluate current clinical practice in the UK in the management of the anophthalmic socket; choice of enucleation, evisceration, type of orbital implant, wrap, motility pegging and complications. All consultant ophthalmologists in the UK were surveyed by postal questionnaire. Questions included their practice subspecialty and number of enucleations and eviscerations performed in 2003. Specific questions addressed choice of implant, wrap, motility pegging and complications. 456/896 (51%) consultants responded, of which 162 (35%) had a specific interest in oculoplastics, lacrimal, orbits or oncology. Only 243/456 (53%) did enucleations or eviscerations. 92% inserted an orbital implant after primary enucleation, 69% after non-endophthalmitis evisceration, whereas only 43% did so after evisceration for endophthalmitis (50% as a delayed procedure). 55% used porous orbital implants (porous polyethylene, hydroxyapatite or alumina) as their first choice and 42% used acrylic. Most implants inserted were spherical, sized 18-20 mm in diameter. 57% wrapped the implant after enucleation, using salvaged autogenous sclera (20%), donor sclera (28%) and synthetic Vicryl or Mersilene mesh (42%). A minority (7%) placed motility pegs in selected cases, usually as a secondary procedure. 14% of respondents reported implant exposure for each type of procedure and extrusion was reported by 4% after enucleation and 3% after evisceration. This survey highlights contemporary anophthalmic socket practice in the UK. Most surgeons use porous orbital implants with a synthetic wrap after enucleation and only few perform motility pegging.
Article
Aims: To analyse the long-term outcomes of different types of orbital implant and the results of dermis fat graft for the management of large-area implant exposure. Methods: Retrospective case series. From 1994 to 2015, 256 patients who received primary implantation after enucleation or evisceration and were followed up for an average of 108.9 months were recruited. Detailed characteristics of patients, including previous surgery or trauma, surgical indications and methods, pegging procedure, and implant types were collected. The long-term outcomes were recorded. For patients with extensive implant exposure (diameter of tissue defect >2 cm), implant removal and dermis fat graft were performed. Results: The risk factors for implant exposure included eviscerated globes and pegged implants. The exposure rates were higher (24.7% in hydroxyapatite (HA), 23.5% in bioceramic and 76.5% in Medpor) as compared with those in previous reports. The average times to exposure were 67.4 months in HA, 52.5 months in bioceramic and 73.4 months in Medpor implants. Among the cases with implant exposure, late exposure (>2 years after operation) accounted for 67% of cases. Thirty eyes with large-area exposure were managed with dermis fat grafts. Twenty-four cases were successfully treated with single surgery. The other six cases developed fornix loss and required additional reconstruction with full thickness skin graft. Conclusions: Late exposures of porous orbital implants were noted during long-term follow-up. The causes of implant exposure may be associated with pegging procedures and evisceration. The implantation of dermis fat can be an effective procedure for the management of large-area implant exposure.
Article
A 60-year-old diabetic man with a history of ocular trauma and absolute glaucoma underwent evisceration with placement of an 18 mm hydroxyapatite orbital implant. The host scleral shell was left intact with no posterior opening for vascular ingrowth. One year later the patient presented with implant exposure, limited fibrovascular ingrowth into the implant, and a Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess. The implant was removed, and pathology demonstrated suppurative inflammation with limited vascular ingrowth. This patient's risk factors for an implant-associated wound infection included diabetes, impaired wound healing, history of trauma, early implant exposure, and delayed fibrovascular ingrowth. Awareness of the infectious complications of any orbital implant including hydroxyapatite allows the surgeon to alter management strategies in an attempt to reduce such risk. Surgeons may consider posterior scleral portals with evisceration surgery to facilitate hydroxyapatite vascularization. Patient selection, implant size, and surgical technique are key factors for a management strategy designed to reduce the risk of implant infection. (C)1994The American Society of Opthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc.
Article
Background: The use of TPFGs for hydroxyapatite, porous polyethylene and silicone implant exposure has been described previously. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of this technique for acrylic implant exposure and paediatric patients. Purpose: To demonstrate the versatility of the TPFG in orbital implant exposures of varying duration, implant types and patient age as well as for recurrent exposure. Methods: Retrospective, interventional, non-comparative case series. Results: Twelve patients (13 grafts) are presented with a mean follow-up of 9.5 months. The duration of exposure prior to grafting ranged from 1-11 months occurring in bioceramic, hydroxyapatite, porous polyethylene and acrylic implant types. There were 2 graft failures (success rate 84.6%), one of which was treated with a 2nd TPFG. Two of the cases were from the paediatric age group. Conclusion: This study provides further supporting evidence for the safety and efficacy of the TPFG and demonstrates the use of this graft in a variety of different clinical situations.
Article
Objectives: To examine orbital implant exposure rates following enucleation and evisceration. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent an evisceration or enucleation in a single centre over a 5-year period was performed. The indication for surgery, the type and size of orbital implant used, details of the surgical technique adopted and the postoperative complications observed, in particular orbital implant exposure, were recorded. Results: Over a 5-year period 24 patients had enucleation and 14 had evisceration; 22 of these procedures were performed by an ophthalmic surgeon with a special interest in orbit and oculoplastics while the remaining 16 procedures were performed by 5 ophthalmic surgeons with other sub-specialty interests. Orbital implant exposure occurred in 8 cases. One case had been performed by the first of these surgeons described. Implant exposure occurred in 4% of cases performed by this surgeon. The remaining 7 cases had been performed by the group of surgeons with sub-specialty interests outside of orbit and oculoplastics. Implant exposure occurred in 48% of cases performed by this group. Conclusions: Orbital implant exposure remains a significant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing enucleation and evisceration. Rates of orbital implant exposure were significantly lower when surgery was performed by an orbital surgeon. Differences in surgical technique are the most likely explanation.
Article
Orbital implant-associated complications always affect patients, resulting in multiple operations. One-stage replacement of complicated implants has been attractive for reducing operation times and preventing long-time appearance without artificial eye. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 1-stage replacement surgery of orbital implant. A total of 21 eyes in 21 cases with noninfectious complications, who failed conservative therapies and surgical repairs, were treated with 1-stage orbital implant replacement. After a detailed ophthalmic history was obtained and examinations performed, patients with apparent purulent secretion in conjunctival sac were excluded. The preexisting orbital implant was carefully removed, and a new hydroxyapatite sphere was implanted simultaneously. Wound healing status, prosthesis movement, and cosmetic features were evaluated and recorded after at least 6 months' follow-up. Orbital implant exposure(16 cases) was the main indication of the replacement surgery; other causes included superior orbital area depression (2 cases), conjunctival fistula (1 case), orbital implant malposition (1 case), and the metal material of implant obstructing magnetic resonance imaging scan in 1 case. Eye-socket hollow was redressed in all cases immediately, and 95.23% cases (20/21) could wear an artificial eye and had a good cosmetic appearance, whereas conjunctival sac fistula reoccurred in 1 patient, and the implant was removed ultimately. Conjunctival sac constrictions occurred in 4 cases after operation and were treated by secondary conjunctival sac reconstruction 6 months later. In conclusion, 1-stage replacement of orbital implants offers an effective and efficient strategy for dealing with severe postimplantation noninfectious complications in achieving a symmetrically cosmetic appearance without delay.
Article
Purpose: To evaluate eye-amputated patients’ health-related quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health, job separation because of illness or disability and socioeconomic position. Methods: Patients were recruited from a tertiary referral centre situated in Copenhagen. Inclusion criteria were eye amputation, i.e. evisceration, enucleation, orbital exenteration or secondary implantation of an orbital implant during the period 1996–2003, and participation in a previous investigation (2005). In total, 159 eye-amputated patients were included, and completed a self-administered questionnaire containing health-related quality of life (SF-36), the perceived stress scale and answered questions about self-rated health, job changes because of illness or disability and socioeconomic status. These results were compared with findings from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. Results: The eye-amputated patients had significantly (p < 0.05) lower scores (poorer health) on all SF-36 subscales and more perceived stress compared to the general population. In all, 43.3% of the patients rated their health as excellent or very good compared to 52.1% of the general population. In total, 25% of the study population has retired or changed to a part-time job because of eye disease. The percentage of eye amputated patients, who were divorced or separated, was twice as high as in the general population. Conclusion: The impact of an eye amputation is considerable. The quality of life, perceived stress and self-rated health of many eye-amputated patients are drastically changed. Eye amputation has a marked negative influence on job separation because of illness or disability and on socioeconomic position.
Article
To investigate the risks of implant exposure after a combined explant-implant procedure in patients with an exposed porous orbital implant. Twenty-four consecutive patients who had a combined explant-implant procedure of an exposed hydroxyapatite (21) or porous polyethylene (3) orbital implant from January 2000 to February 2009 were included. The patient records were reviewed; patients were interviewed by telephone and invited for a clinical examination. Histopathological examination was carried out on the removed implants. Main outcome measures were: presence of exposure of the new implant or not, patient graded satisfaction with the cosmetic result, and presence of poor motility. None of the new implants became exposed or infected in the follow-up period of 25 [3-94] months (median [range]). The patients scored their satisfaction with the cosmetic result to a median score of 9 (range 5-10). Poor motility was present in six of 17 patients. Micro-organisms were identified in three removed implants and signs of inflammation were present in 20 removed implants. If a decision of implant removal has been made, it is safe to replace the implant at the same procedure in sockets without profound signs of infection. The procedure carries a possible risk of poor motility.
Article
To describe a technique for simultaneous secondary orbital implantation and dermis fat graft placement for exposed porous implants with significant conjunctival insufficiency. Retrospective review of 4 consecutive cases. Charts were reviewed for type and size of exposed porous implant, size of conjunctival defect, history of previous reconstruction for exposure, size and type of implant placed, follow-up interval, complications, ability to retain prosthesis, and cosmesis. Four patients underwent simultaneous dermis fat graft placement and secondary implantation for exposed and completely avascular orbital implants. The rectus muscles were advanced over the new implant to act as the host bed for the dermis fat graft. All patients tolerated a new prosthesis well, with adequate motility and cosmesis. Simultaneous secondary implantation and dermis fat graft placement may adequately address avascular porous implant exposure with significant conjunctival insufficiency.
Article
To compare the rate of exposure in the immediate 3-month postoperative follow-up period with the rate of exposure after the immediate postoperative period in 419 anophthalmic patients with a bioceramic (aluminum oxide) orbital implant. This is a retrospective, clinical case series of 419 patients who received a bioceramic orbital implant. All patients who presented to five oculofacial surgeons (D.J., S.G., J.D., S.K., L.M.) from January 1, 2000, to June 1, 2007, who received a bioceramic orbital implant and had a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included in this study. The authors analyzed age, gender, type of surgery, implant size, peg system, follow-up duration, time of pegging, and problems encountered. The data from the patients with greater than 3 months of follow-up with exposure of the bioceramic implant are detailed in this report. There were 353 patients followed for 3 to 96 months with an average of 30 months of follow-up (median 23 months). Implant exposure occurred in 32/353 bioceramic implants (9.1%). Six of the 32 (19%) exposures occurred during the 90-day postoperative period (average 2.1 months). Twenty-six (81%) exposures occurred outside of the 90-day postoperative period (average 27.5 months, range 4-82 months). Implant exposures can occur anytime postimplant placement. This review discovered an implant exposure rate of 9.1%, with the majority of the exposures occurring after the postoperative follow-up period. Patients with porous orbital implants should be followed on a long-term basis to detect this complication.
Article
To evaluate the health-related quality of life and emotional status of anophthalmic patients. Prospective, cross-sectional study. The study included 134 monocular anophthalmic patients and 48 healthy volunteers who visited the department of Ophthalmology at the Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, between July and December 2008. Surveys were administered to participants to evaluate their sociodemographic characteristics and disease-related factors. Data collected from the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale survey instruments were analyzed to identify significant differences and correlations between categories. Anophthalmic patients scored lower in all categories of SF-36 compared with controls. Married females and participants with children generally had lower scores on the SF-36, and some of the differences were statistically significant. There were significant negative correlations between all SF-36 scores and participant self-evaluations on whether they had negative feelings regarding their social interpersonal relationships as a result of wearing prostheses. Those who scored higher on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression scales tended to evade social interrelations significantly. Anophthalmic patients had lower health-related quality-of-life scores than healthy individuals. This finding was particularly evident in terms of the patients' own perceptions of their social relationships, which were negatively affected by their use of prosthetic eyes. Such perceptions reduced their quality of life and heightened their anxiety and depression. Therefore, it is important to evaluate both the physical and emotional well-being of anophthalmic patients to identify those patients who will need additional physical and mental support.
Article
To review the clinical and histopathologic features of porous polyethylene (PP) orbital implants requiring explantation. Case series. Eighteen explanted PP orbital implants of 18 patients were studied. The charts and histopathologic findings were reviewed for all patients requiring explantation of PP orbital implants between 1997 and 2006 by 2 oculoplastic surgeons at the University of British Columbia. Clinical data obtained included patient demographics, the nature of the primary surgery, and the clinical presentation leading to eventual implant removal. The histopathologic data observed included the presence of anterior exposure, area of fibrovascular ingrowth, type of inflammation, and presence and type of bacterial colonies. Nine (50%) of the 18 patients studied were referred from other surgeons. The balance represented 3.2% of all PP implants placed by the 2 surgeons. The procedures for the primary surgery were 12 enucleations (67%), 5 eviscerations (28%), and 1 secondary implant (5%). Clinical findings included anterior implant exposure and discharge in all cases. Histopathologic analysis was performed in all of the implants and showed less than 50% fibrovascular ingrowth in 16 implants (89%) and predominantly acute or mixed inflammation in 15 (83%). Foreign body giant cells were seen adjacent to the implant material in all cases. Bacterial colonies on gram stain were identified in 12 specimens (67%); overall, gram-positive cocci in clusters or chains were found in 10 implants (56%), and gram-negative bacteria were found in 1 (5.5%). Thirteen patients (72%) lived in locations distant from Vancouver, the surgical center. This article presents the largest review of explanted porous polyethylene orbital spheres. The findings suggest that anterior exposure allows bacterial colonization and the development of a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Poor tissue ingrowth may limit the penetration of topical or systemic antibiotic therapy, leading to the necessity for explantation. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Article
Tissue breakdown and exposure of a hydroxyapatite implant were observed in eight patients: in four of six patients after evisceration and in four of 31 after enucleation. The reasons for evisceration were a blind, painful eye and endophthalmitis in two patients each. The reasons for enucleation were a choroidal melanoma in two patients and endophthalmitis and irreparable traumatic damage in one patient each. The patients with endophthalmitis received the implant in a second surgical procedure after intensive antibiotic treatment. Small tissue defects healed spontaneously, whereas large defects showed little tendency to heal by secondary intention. Tissue breakdown over a hydroxyapatite implant may be related to delayed ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue, and possibly related to an inflammatory reaction incited by the hydroxyapatite. Careful case selection, facilitation of tissue penetration by drilling holes into the hydroxyapatite sphere, delayed fitting of the prosthesis, and vaulting of the posterior surface of the initial prosthesis to reduce pressure on the tissues covering the anterior pole of the implant may alleviate the problems of tissue breakdown and exposure.
Article
We performed one autogenous fascia lata graft and 11 autogenous temporalis fascia grafts in eight patients with extrusion of an orbital enucleation implant and in four patients with a bulging implant who could not wear a prosthesis. Excluding one patient with inadequate follow up, 10 of the 11 patients (91%) successfully retained their implant. One patient had severe conjunctivitis followed by anterior migration of his implant 2 1/2 years after patch grafting, necessitating replacement of the implant. We conclude that autogenous temporalis fascia patch grafting is an effective treatment for orbital enucleation implant extrusion or a bulging implant.
Article
A wide variety of materials have been used for reconstruction around the eyelids and orbit, including alloplastic materials, such as polyfilament surgical suture (Supramid), silicone, and Teflon, that have a tendency toward early infection or late extrusion. Preserved homografts, such as sclera or fascia lata, are unlikely to extrude but have variable absorption rates. Autografts have proved over the years to be the best, most reliable, and least reactive material for reconstruction. Our use of temporal fascia and muscule grafts has been quite successful.
Article
A new surgical approach for the management of tissue breakdown and exposure of an orbital hydroxyapatite (HA) implant is presented. The implant was placed after evisceration of an atrophic globe. Tissue breakdown and exposure developed 3 weeks after implantation. After a 3-month waiting period for spontaneous healing, a pedicled conjunctival flap from the lower eyelid was fashioned to cover the defect. This technique can be used to cover conjunctival defects over HA implants and is specifically recommended for large defects.
Article
A 60-year-old diabetic man with a history of ocular trauma and absolute glaucoma underwent evisceration with placement of an 18 mm hydroxyapatite orbital implant. The host scleral shell was left intact with no posterior opening for vascular ingrowth. One year later the patient presented with implant exposure, limited fibrovascular ingrowth into the implant, and a Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess. The implant was removed, and pathology demonstrated suppurative inflammation with limited vascular ingrowth. This patient's risk factors for an implant-associated wound infection included diabetes, impaired wound healing, history of trauma, early implant exposure, and delayed fibrovascular ingrowth. Awareness of the infectious complications of any orbital implant including hydroxyapatite allows the surgeon to alter management strategies in an attempt to reduce such risk. Surgeons may consider posterior scleral portals with evisceration surgery to facilitate hydroxyapatite vascularization. Patient selection, implant size, and surgical technique are key factors for a management strategy designed to reduce the risk of implant infection.
Article
A case of a coral orbital enucleation implant that exposed and failed two closure attempts, by scleral patch grafting and by simple tissue advancement, is presented. The method used to overcome this problem is detailed. This unique case sheds light on the factors that are etiologically important in coral implant exposure and those relevant to covering that exposure successfully.
Article
The authors describe the rare condition of an abscess within a hydroxyapatite orbital implant in two patients who had undergone seemingly uncomplicated enucleation and orbital implant surgery. In the first patient, 14 weeks postoperatively, a chronic discharge developed and the socket became uncomfortable. A pyogenic granuloma was present, occurring over an area of dehiscence. The hydroxyapatite orbital implant was removed 10 months postoperatively. In the second patient, moderate orbital discomfort was noted during the first week postoperatively along with a temporal shift of the implant. The discomfort persisted, and 1 week later a discharge began. The implant was removed 9 weeks after implantation. At the time of surgery, an unsuspected pyogenic granuloma was found in the medial conjunctival formix overlying a small area of implant dehiscence. Conjunctival and implant cultures grew Staphylococcus aureus in our first patient, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci were cultured from the conjunctiva and implant in our second patient. Results of histopathologic examination of both implants disclosed an abscess cavity containing clusters of gram-positive cocci. Persistent orbital discomfort, discharge, and the development of a pyogenic granuloma after hydroxyapatite implant should warn the ophthalmic surgeon of potential implant infection.
Article
The hydroxyapatite implant (Bio-Eye, Intergrated Orbital Implant, Inc., San Diego, CA, U.S.A.) has gained increasing popularity as an orbital implant in recent years. Several complications may occur, including infection, exposure, extrusion, and various peg problems. Exposure of the implant appears to be the most common complication, ranging up to 21.6%. Many techniques, including nonsurgical and surgical approaches, have been described to manage these exposures. When surgery is indicated, a patch graft may be required to cover the defect. We report our experience and technique with autogenous temporalis fascia as a patch graft. Autografts such as temporalis fascia are easily obtained, bring about no immunological reaction, and have no risk of infectious transmission.
Article
The authors determine the efficacy of a new technique, the tarsal patch-flap, in the management of postenucleation and postevisceration porous orbital implant exposures that are recalcitrant to other surgical approaches. All patients treated during a 30-month period with recurrent orbital implant exposures who failed at least one surgical attempt at defect closure were treated using a tarsal patch-flap, a fornix-based tarsoconjunctival flap from the upper eyelid. Eight patients, six after enucleation and two after evisceration, were treated with a tarsal patch-flap. Five implants were porous polyethylene and three were hydroxyapatite. The defect size ranged from 4 mm to 12 mm (largest dimension). All eight patients have maintained closure of their defects for a mean follow-up of 13.8 months (range, 4-30 months). The vascularized tarsal patch-flap provides an excellent alternative surgical approach to the management of recurrent orbital implant exposures recalcitrant to Tenon-conjunctival advancement and autologous fascia grafting.
Article
Objective: Prior studies of hydroxyapatite orbital implant complications have primarily focused on complications of the implant itself with only occasional mention of the complications associated with the peg system. This in part may be because of a low rate of pegging and, thus, a small sample size to evaluate. Therefore, a full range of complications that can occur with pegging has not been presented. The objective of this study was to determine the complications associated with pegging and to discuss ways to manage them. Design: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. Participants/intervention: The authors analyzed all of the complications associated with pegging 165 of a possible 275 hydroxyapatite implants implanted by 2 surgeons over 7 years. Main outcome measures: The following data were recorded: type of surgery performed, size of implant used, type of hydroxyapatite used, peg system used, time of pegging, follow-up duration, problems encountered, and treatment. Results: Sixty-two (37.5%) of the 165 patients who had pegged implants were found to have problems with their pegs. Twenty-one (33.8%) of the 62 patients with peg problems had more than 1 peg-related problem. Complications associated with pegging included discharge (37%; 23 of 62), pyogenic granulomas (30.6%; 19 of 62), peg falling out (29%; 18 of 62), poor transfer of movement (11.2%; 7 of 62), clicking (11.2%; 7 of 62), conjunctiva overgrowing peg (4.8%; 3 of 62), poor-fitting sleeve (4.8%; 3 of 62), part of sleeve shaft visible (4.8%; 3 of 62), peg drilled on an angle (4.8%; 3 of 62), hydroxyapatite visible around peg hole (3.2%; 2 of 62), peg drilled off-center (3.2%; 2 of 62), popping peg (3.2%; 2 of 62), and excess movement of peg (3.2%; 2 of 62). The most serious complication occurring in two individuals (3.2%) was implant infection requiring implant removal. Conclusion: There are several potential complications that can occur after pegging the hydroxyapatite implant. These problems are generally of a minor nature but often require additional patient visits that would not ordinarily have been required if the peg was not in place. The most serious peg problem is implant infection, which may necessitate implant removal. These potential peg problems should be reviewed with the patient before the procedure is performed.
Article
To report the results of a newly devised two-stage surgical technique for management of large hydroxyapatite exposure defects. Eight patients with exposed hydroxyapatite orbital implant were treated in two stages. The exposed hydroxyapatite anterior surface was burred down and the defect was directly closed 3 to 13 months after the primary procedure. Then a mucous membrane or dermis-fat graft was added for socket reconstruction. Trauma was the primary cause of enucleation in all patients. Hydroxyapatite exposures occurred 1 to 2 weeks after implantation. Mean defect size was 15 mm in the greatest dimension (range 10-21 mm). Socket reconstruction was done in seven patients with mucous membrane graft and in one patient with dermis fat graft 3 to 13 months after direct repair of the defects. All eight patients maintained closure of the defects during a mean follow-up of 13 months (range 9-19 months). Management of hydroxyapatite exposures, especially those with large defects, can be difficult. Based on our experience, optimal results can be obtained after direct closure of the defect under minimal tension at the expense of foreshortening the fornices after which the socket can be reconstructed with a mucous membrane or dermis fat graft as a secondary procedure.
Article
To report the clinical findings, treatment, outcomes, and histopathologic findings in patients with suspected orbital implant infection requiring implant removal. Retrospective, observational case series of 14 patients (15 hydroxyapatite orbital implants) undergoing implant removal from September 1994 through December 2002. Patient age, type of surgery, implant type, symptoms, treatment, histopathology of implant, and follow-up course were analyzed. Of the 14 patients, 7 were female and 7 were male. The mean age at explantation was 42 years. The most common symptoms were discharge and socket tenderness. The most common signs were conjunctival inflammation (edema, hyperemia), discharge, and recurrent pyogenic granuloma. Clinical evidence of infection was documented in 13 patients. Histopathologic assessment of the 15 explanted implants showed acute inflammation and necrosis (abscess) with identification of microorganisms (5 patients), acute inflammation and necrosis without identification of microorganisms (4 patients), chronic inflammation with identification of microorganisms (1 patient), chronic inflammation without identification of microorganisms (3 patients), and a predominant foreign body granulomatous response without identification of microorganisms (2 patients). Osseous metaplasia was seen in 10 implants. Prompt resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in all but one case. The clinical course of porous orbital implant infection may be prolonged, and the early symptom of recurrent discharge, a common problem for implant recipients, may delay diagnosis. Implant infection should be suspected when there is persistent conjunctival inflammation and discharge after implant placement despite antibiotic therapy, discomfort on implant palpation, and recurrent pyogenic granuloma (indicative of implant exposure). Implant removal is usually required in these cases. If orbital pain (not necessarily related to implant palpation) is the main complaint, without signs of conjunctival inflammation and with or without discharge, one should consider other reasons for the symptoms.
Article
Porous orbital implant infection is rare. The diagnosis may be delayed as the initial symptoms and signs are not always indicative of implant infection. It is often only with time, a persistence of symptoms and signs, and additional symptoms and signs that implant infection is suspected.
Article
To identify what factors may predispose patients to exposure of porous anophthalmic implants and to determine the outcome of exposed porous implants. Examination of pooled data obtained through a PubMed literature search of English-language publications from 1989 through 2004 using the key words enucleation, evisceration, and socket reconstruction. Porous implants were inserted in 80% (3012 of 3777) of the cases identified from 49 publications. The difference in exposure rate between coralline hydroxyapatite (4.9%) and porous polyethylene (8.1%) implants is primarily related to a higher reported complication rate of uncovered porous polyethylene implants, particularly in retinoblastoma patients. Other techniques associated with increased exposures include wrapping implants with bovine pericardium or polyglactin mesh. Evisceration and secondary procedures did not have statistically different complication rates compared with enucleation. There are more late exposures of porous polyethylene than coralline hydroxyapatite implants. Spontaneous healing of exposures occurred in 13% (19 of 145) of cases. Covering exposures with patch grafts underneath vascularized conjunctival flaps was the most successful method of surgical repair. Implant removal was necessary after 29% (42 of 145) of exposures. Although the published literature between 1989 and 2004 reports higher complication rates for uncovered porous implants and implants wrapped with bovine pericardium or polyglactin mesh, pooling data from different studies may mask very good or poor results obtained by individual surgeons. Spontaneous healing of exposed porous implants is relatively uncommon. However, many exposed porous implants can be salvaged with secondary repair.
Article
To document the long-term experience with hydroxyapatite (HA) orbital implants (Bio-Eye) and analyze the factors influencing implant exposure, including surgical type, procedural modification, use of different wrapping materials and peg materials. Retrospective observational case series. Eight hundred two eyes from 802 patients who underwent anophthalmic socket surgery (eviscerations, enucleations, secondary implant placements) using HA implants, performed by one surgeon between May 1990 and December 2005. All patients' clinical records were reviewed. Baseline age, cause of anophthalmic surgery, surgical type, size of HA implant, wrapping material, and peg system were recorded. Postoperative complications, especially implant exposure, were recorded separately before and after pegging, and compared according to type of surgery, wrapping material, and peg system. The main cause of anophthalmic surgery was trauma (73%). A variety of wrapping materials have been used, including Tutoplast-dura, Vicryl mesh, autogenous sclera, and polyester-urethane. Implant exposure occurred in 17 patients (2.1%) before pegging and 14 (4.0%) after pegging. The exposure rate was significantly higher in eyes eviscerated without (7.2%) than with (1.1%) keratectomy (P = 0.018), but did not differ according to type of surgery (P = 0.710). When distributed according to 5-year periods, the exposure rate was higher from 1990 to 1994 (4.7%) than in later periods (P = 0.004). In patients who underwent enucleation or secondary implantation, there was no difference in exposure rate between Tutoplast-dura- and Vicryl mesh-wrapped implants (P = 0.235). Among the 353 patients (44.0%) who underwent pegging, those who received titanium-pegged implants had a significantly lower incidence of peg extrusion (5.2%), major discharge (5.2%), and pyogenic granuloma (9.1%) than those with nonsleeved polymethyl methacrylate and sleeved polycarbonate peg materials (P<0.05). Exposures associated with HA orbital implants decreased with the improvement of surgical technique over time and have been managed successfully, both before and after pegging. The incidence of peg-related complications have decreased since the introduction of the titanium peg system.
Article
A 75-year-old man underwent enucleation with placement of a porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor, Porex Technologies, Fairburn, GA, U.S.A.). Over the next 5 years, he was seen on numerous occasions with socket discharge that was unresponsive to a variety of eyedrops. Exposure and re-exposure of the implant occurred, and the implant was removed. Histopathologic assessment was consistent with an infectious process within the implant. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms and signs resolved. Porous orbital implant infection is rare. The diagnosis may be delayed as the initial symptoms and signs (discharge, conjunctival inflammation) may easily be attributed to prosthesis wear. With time, and persistence of the symptoms despite numerous treatments, infection should be suspected.
Article
To investigate the initial features and treatment of 26 consecutive patients referred with extruding orbital implants between January 1991 and December 2004. Retrospective medical record review recording the reason for enucleation, primary implant type, infection when initially seen, time to implant exposure, location of conjunctival defect, and time to surgical revision. Of the 26 eyes, 16 (62%) were removed after trauma, 3 (12%) because of tumor, 3 (12%) because of infection, and 4 (15%) because of painful blind eyes (percentages do not total 100 because of rounding). Of the 26 eyes, 8 (31%) were right eyes and 15 (58%) were hemispheric implants; 8 implants (31%) were acrylic or glass spheres, and 1 (4%) each was a hydroxyapatite, porous polythene, or bone sphere. Hemisphere extrusion occurred at a mean of 16 years after implantation, significantly later than with spheres (mean, 10 years after implantation; P = .05). The conjunctiva was breached medially in only 1 (sphere) (4%), centrally in 13 (50%), and laterally in 12 (46%). Lateral erosion occurred solely with hemispheres, in contrast to central erosions, in which 10 of 13 (77%) were spheres (P < .001). Twelve patients (46%) underwent surgical revision within a year of extrusion, 7 (27%) within 2 years, and the remaining 7 (27%) at 2 to 21 years. Exposure of hemispheres occurred later, from pressure erosion at their prominent lateral edge. In contrast, central erosion (in spheres) occurred earlier, because of gradual tissue restitution after forced-ball implantation ("cactus syndrome"). This may be avoided by implantation through a polythene glide.
Article
A retrospective study of the postoperative results and patient satisfaction after evisceration with a split-sclera technique. The medical records of 60 patients were reviewed. All patients were operated by evisceration with a split-sclera technique and placement of an orbital implant. The patients were operated by the same surgeon between 1995 and 2003. Multiple-choice questionnaires were sent to the patients, and the patients were also offered a clinical examination. Extrusion/exposure of the implant was seen in 3/62 (4.8%) orbits. Migration of the implant was seen in one patient. At the time of the study, 45/60 patients were still alive, 32 of these answered the questionnaire. In a question about the patient's psychological well-being after the operation, 9/32 (28%) answered that they had felt depressed; four of these had had a recent trauma to the eye resulting in the evisceration; 25/32 (78%) patients were pleased or very pleased with the operation. A clinical examination was performed in 31 patients. The motility of the prosthesis and implant was measured and found to be rather poor (mean between 2.5 to 4.1 mm in each direction); however, most patients judged their motility to be good or excellent. Evisceration with a scleral split modification has been used successfully in our clinic since 1995. The risk for exposure is low, 3/62 (4.8%). Postoperative depression was common (9/32). Recent trauma was a risk factor for postoperative depression.
Exposure rate of hydroxyapatite orbital implants. A 15-year experience of 802 cases
  • J S Yoon
  • H Lew
  • S J Kim
  • S Y Lee
Yoon JS, Lew H, Kim SJ, Lee SY. Exposure rate of hydroxyapatite orbital implants. A 15-year experience of 802 cases. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(3):566-572. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.06.014.