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Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera


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Presently research on herbal drug has attracted a lot of attention globally. The herbal drugs are consisting of phytoconstituents that offer therapeutic effects against various diseases. Till date researchers reported significant potential of herbal drugs employed in various traditional, complementary and alternative systems. The pharmacological activity and phytochemical of several medicinal plants has been scientifically documented. Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera are the medicinal plant and used as nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drug. The present review is useful for up-to date investigations on the medicinal activity of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera.
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UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Vol. 6(6), 45-53, 2018 REVIEW ARTICLE
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa
Sandhya Suresh*, S S Sisodia
Bhupal Nobles College of Pharmacy, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India
Article Information
Received 25 October 2018
Received in revised form 28 Dec 2018
Accepted 30 December 2018
Presently research on herbal drug has attracted a lot of attention globally. The herbal drugs
are consisting of phytoconstituents that offer therapeutic effects against various diseases. Till
date researchers reported significant potential of herbal drugs employed in various traditional,
complementary and alternative systems. The pharmacological activity and phytochemical of
several medicinal plants has been scientifically documented. Cucurbita moschata and
Moringa oleifera are the medicinal plant and used as nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk
medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drug. The
present review is useful for up-to date investigations on the medicinal activity of Cucurbita
moschata and Moringa oleifera.
Pharmacological activity,
Medicinal plants,
Cucurbita moschata,
Moringa oleifera
Corresponding Author:
E-mail :
Mob.: +919571677017
1 Introduction
The plant kingdom is a chief source of synthetic and herbal
drugs. In the recent years there has been an increasing
awareness about the importance of medicinal plants. Drugs
from the plants are easily available, less expensive, safe,
efficient and minimum side effects. Plants are the richest
resource of drugs of traditional systems of medicine, modern
medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines,
pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic
Additionally the worldwide medicinal plants as a substitute for
conventional drugs in the management of different diseases has
been increasing due to the unavailability of modern health
facilities, relative availability of medicinal herbs, poverty, and
recent revelations that they possess active compounds that may
be responsible for different biological and pharmacological
The secondary metabolite namely alkaloids, cardiac glycosides,
steroids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids etc are present in
different parts of the plant and imparts various types of
pharmacological activity. It is estimated that more than 250,000
to 500,000 species of higher plants on globe level were
suggested as medicinal plants. The people living in the
developing countries are depending on traditional and
complementary medicines for their basic health care. Hence,
the objective of this review is to summarize to date scientific
studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of
Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera.
2 Cucurbita moschata
Medicinal plants are the gifts of the nature to cure limitless
number of diseases among human beings. It played a crucial
role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of
human life for thousands of years. The use of plants as
medicine is increasing in the developed world because they
have minor or no side effects. In India, medicinal plants are
widely used by all sections of people either directly as folk
medicines or in different indigenous systems of medicines or
indirectly in the pharmaceutical preparations of modern
Cucurbita moschata is an important horticultural crop that
belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits. The
Cucurbitaceae family consists of 90 genera and approximately
700 species.The Cucurbitaceae are characterised by long
flexible stems, a crawling or climbing growth habit and fruit that
differ widely in colour and shape, having a thick and
impermeable skin protecting a juicy fibrous pulp. Five species
UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences
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ISSN: 2347-9442
Suresh, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera
UK J Pharm & Biosci, 2018: 6(6); 46
are grown worldwide for their edible fruit, variously known as
squash, pumpkin, or gourd depending on species, variety, and
local parlance, and for their seeds3 (Fig. 1).
Fig 1: fruit and seeds of Cucurbita moschata
Cucurbita moschata commonlly called ‘Kadoo’ in Hindi while
squash in English. It grows as a large annual vine and has
large, showy, yellow-orange flowers and round, lobed leaves,
often with fine hairy prickles. Cucurbita or Pumpkin has received
considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional
and health protective value of the seeds as well as the
polysaccharides from the fruits. Pumpkin fruit is widely grown
low-calorie vegetables that are rich in carotenoid content, vital
antioxidants, carbohydrates, vitamin A, flavonoid, polyphenolic
antioxidants such as lutein, xanthin. Pumpkin have a lot of
health benefits such as antidiabetic, anticancer,
antihypertension, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulation,
anti-inflammation, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial.
Consumption of pumpkin helps to prevent skin diseases, eye
disorders reducing cell damage in the body, cancer and improve
immune function.
The Pumpkin seed is excellent source of protein and also has
pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, antifungal,
antibacterial, anti-inflammation activities and antioxidant effects.
It has obtained considerable attention in recent years because
of the nutritional and health protective values of the seeds.
Pumpkin seed oil contains mono and polyunsaturated fatty
acids as well as saturated ones like palmitic acid, stearic acid,
oleic acid and linoleic acid4,5.
2.1 Botanical classification
Kingdom - Plantae
Division - Tracheophyta
Class - Magnoliopsida
Order - Cucurbitales
Family - Cucurbitaceae
Genus - Cucurbita
Species - Cucurbita moschata
2.2 Vernacular names
Common name - Pumpkin, Squash
Hindi - Kaddu, Kashiphal, Petha
Tamil - Pucani
Kannada - Kumbala kaayi
Malayalum - Kumpalam
Marathi - kashiphal, kala bhopala
Assamese - Kumra
Telugu - Gummadi
Bengali - Kumara
Urdu - Kaddu
2.3 Geographical distribution
Cucurbita moschata is a species originating in either Central
America or northern South America. It is also found in North
America, Australia and different countries of Africa (Zambia,
Nigeria), Asia (China, India and Iran) and Europe(Spain and
2.4 Botanical description
Cucurbita moschata is an annual herb with climbing, creeping
5-angled stems up to 15 m long. The leaves are simple,
alternate, broadly ovate to deltoid, basally cordate, apically
acute, palmately lobed with 5-7 lobes, marginally toothed,
Velvety-hairy, scabrous, palmately veined, 20-30 cm long, and
10-35 cm broad.
Stems are scabrous and setose, branching, often rooting at the
nodes. Petioles are setose, grooved, 6-24 cm long, and
estipulate. The plant bears tendrils borne at 90 degrees to the
leaf insertion, which are coiled, and 1-6-branched.
The shallow root system is branched, growing from a well-
developed taproot.
Suresh, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera
UK J Pharm & Biosci, 2018: 6(6); 47
Flowers are solitary, unisexual, regular, 5-merous, large, 1020
cm in diameter, lemon yellow to deep orange; sepals free,
subulate to linear, 13 cm long; corolla campanulate, with
widely spreading lobes. single axillary flowers (male typically
long-stalked with three stamens and female typically short-
stalked with 3 two-lobed stigmas) are creamy white to orange-
yellow and bloom in late spring. Stalks tend to thicken at the
points were the fruits appear. Fruits generally have distinctive
orange flesh. Plants produces a variety of fruits which vary
considerably in size and shape. Fruit a large, globose to ovoid
or cylindrical berry, weighing up to 10 kg, with a wide range of
colours, often covered with green spots and grey stripes, with
small, raised, wartlike spots; flesh yellow to orange, many-
seeded; fruit stalk enlarged at apex. Seeds obovoid, flattened,
1-2 cm × 0.5-1 cm, usually white or tawny, sometimes dark-
coloured, surface smooth to somewhat rough, margin
2.5 Chemical constituents
The chemical composition of the pumpkin pulp varied between
75.8 and 91.33% moisture, 0.2 and 2.7% crude protein, 0.47
and 2.1% crude ash and 3.1 and 13% carbohydrate content.
Pumpkin fruits contain polysaccharides, vitamins (including β-
carotene, vitamin A, vitamin B2, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, vitamin
E), proteins, essential amino acids ( alanine, arginine, aspartic
acid, glutamic acid, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, glycine, lysine,
methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, valine and
tyrosine), valuable antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids,
carotenoids and minerals (especially potassium). Pumpkin is
high in β-carotene, which gives it yellow or orange color. Beta-
carotene in plants that have a pleasant yellow-orange color is a
major source of vitamin A. It is also high in carbohydrates and
Seeds of pumpkin are rich in oil and the variability in the oil.
Pumpkin seeds have a high nutritional value, provides good
quality oil, and excellent source of protein. Due to the presence
of highly unsaturated fatty acids ( palmitic acid, stearic acid,
oleic acid and linoleic acid). Pumpkin seed oil is rich in many
antioxidants and essential nutritional components like essential
fatty acids (FAs), vitamins, squalene, carotenoids, tocopherols,
phytoestrogenes, phytosterols, polyphenols, hydrocarbon,
triterpenoids and selenium. Pumpkins are rich source of
calcium, iron, vitamin A, oil (25 -55%), rich in unsaturated oleic
and linoleic acids, protein (25 - 35%) with high amounts of
arginine, aspartate andglutamic acid, but deficient in lysine and
sulphur containing amino acids10.
2.6 Traditional uses
Pumpkin helps to prevent skin diseases, measles, jaundice,
insomenia,colic, eye disorders reducing cell damage in the
body, cancer and improve immune function.
Pumpkin seed oil can retard the progression of hypertension
and mitigate hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, reduced bladder
and urethral pressure. Pumpkin seed oil has been foundto
alleviate diabetes by promoting hypoglycemic activity. Pumpkin
seeds have also been associated with lower levels of gastric,
breast, lung, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer11,12.
2.8 Pharmacological activities
The pumpkin has pharmacological activities such as anti-
diabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, immunomodulation,
antifungal, antibacterial and antiinflammation activities, and
antioxidant effects (Table -1).
3 Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera belongs to the family Moringaceae, commonly
known as the ‘drumstick’ or ‘horseradish’ tree. It is an affordable
and readily available source of major essential nutrients and
nutraceuticals, and it has the potential to eradicate malnutrition.
Moringa oleifera is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. All parts of the Moringa
tree are edible and have long been consumed by humans25.
Drumstick is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of
phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines,
functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel
production. The multiple biological activities including
antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory,
antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage
protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective. Moringa
oleifera are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive
compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids,
phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic
acids (Fig 2).
3.1 Botanical classification
Kingdom - Plantae
Division - Magnoliophyta
Class - Magnoliopsida
Order - Capparales
Family - Moringaceae
Genus - Moringa
Species - Moringa oleifera
3.2 Vernacular names
Common name - Drumstick, horseradish tree
Hindi - Senjana
Tamil - Murungai Maram
Kannada - Nuggekayee
Malayalum - Muringa
Suresh, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera
UK J Pharm & Biosci, 2018: 6(6); 48
Marathi - Shevga
Assamese - Sojina
Telugu - Munagachettu
Bengali - Sojne danta
3.3 Geographical distribution
The drumstick tree is a small fast growing ornamental tree
which is native to India, Ethiopia, the Philippines and the
Sudan, and is being grown in West, East and South Africa,
tropical Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Florida and the
Pacific Islands. The trees are said to have been originated from
Agra and Oudh in North Western region of India to South of the
Himalayan Mountains. They are cultivated in Asian, African,
Middle Eastern and South American regions26.
3.4 Botanical description
Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous tree. It can reach
a height of 1012 m (3240 ft) and the trunk can reach a
diameter of 45 cm (1.5 ft).
The bark has a whitish-grey colour and is surrounded by thick
cork. Young shoots have purplish or greenish-white, hairy bark.
The tree has an open crown of drooping, fragile branches and
the leaves build up feathery foliage of tripinnate leaves.
Table 1: Reported pharmacological activities of Cucurbita moschata
Pharmacological activity
Phenolic phytochemicals have anti-diabetic effects in terms of b-glucosidase
and a-amylase inhibition
13Kwon et al.
Purification and characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein which reduced
tumour weight in S-180-bearing mice.
14Cheong et al.
Purification and characterization of moschatin which efficiently inhibits the
growth of targeted melanoma cells M21.
15Xia et al.
Isolated protein-bound polysaccharide have anti-diabetic effects in diabetic rats
16Quanhong et al.
Showed a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several bacteria
17Rajakaruna et al.
Beta-carotene has anti-inflammatory properties and regular consumption of
pumpkin seeds can protect against joint inflammation
18Wang et al.
Fruit peel
Antioxidant and burn wound healing activities
19Bahramsoltani et al.
Fruit and seeds
Antidiabetic effect in STZ-induced diabetic mice
20Marbun et al.
Fruit and seeds
Effectiveness of Pumpkin Flesh and Seeds Toward Diabetic Mice
21Marbun et al.
Antimicrobial activity
22Muruganantham et
Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae
and Escherichia coli.
23del Castillo et al.
Fruit extracts
Anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity
24Govindan et al.
Leaves are alternate, compound tripinnate, petiole slender,
leaflets opposite, entire, elliptic, all parts stalked, pale beneath,
glands linear, hairy. lowers are fragrant and bisexual,
surrounded by five unequal, thinly veined, yellowish-white
The flowers are about 1.0-1.5 cm (1/2") long and 2.0 cm (3/4")
broad. They grow on slender, hairy stalks in spreading or
drooping later flower clusters which have a length of 10 25 cm.
The flowers are fragrant and bisexual, surrounded by five
unequal, thinly veined, yellowish-white petals. The flowers are
about 1.0-1.5 cm (1/2") long and 2.0 cm (3/4") broad. Ovary
hairy, style slender, tubular, stigma truncate, perforated. Ovules
many, 2-seriate on each placenta. Fruit a one-celled,
loculicidally 3-valved capsule, pendulous, greenish, 22.5-50.0
cm in length, triangular, 9-ribbed. Seeds many in the
depressions of the valves, trigonous, winged; albumen absent,
embryo straight27.
3.5 Chemical constituents
Moringa oleifera is found to contain non-nutritive chemicals
which they use as self-defense mechanism also known as
Phytochemicals. These phytochemicals include catechol
tannins, gallic tannins, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids,
saponins, antraquinones, alkaloids and reducinfg sugars.
Fig 2: Flowers, fruits, leaves and tree of Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera is rich in compounds containing the
simple sugar, rhamnose called glucosinolates and
isothiocyanates. The stem contains: 4-hydroxymellein,
vanillin, β-sitosterone, octacosanic acid and β-sitosterol and
bark, 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate.
The purified, whole-gum exudates from the drumstick plant
contains: Larabinose, D- galactose, D-glucuronic acid, L-
rhamnose, D-mannose and D-xylose. The leaves contain
quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6''-malonyl-
glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-Oglucoside
and kaempferol-3-O-(6''- malonyl-glucoside). They also
contained 3-caffeoylquinic and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. The whole
pods are reported to contain nitriles, an isothiocyanate and
thicarbamatesand O-[2'-hydroxy-3'- (2″-heptenyloxy)]-
propylundecanoate and O-ethyl-4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-
benzyl] carbamate, methyl-phydroxybenzoate and β-
sitosterol. The mucilage from the pods designated as
drumstick polysaccharide, the investigation of which revealed
the presence of galactose, dextrose, xylose and sodium,
potassium, magnesium, calcium salts of glucuronic acid.
Contrary to the definition of mucilages, the presence of dextrose
was an exception.
3.6 Nutritional analysis Moringa oleifera leaves
Moringa oleifera leaves is a good source of many nutrients In
fact they contain larger amounts of several nutrients than the
common foods often associated with these nutrients. These
include vitamin C, which fights a host of illness including colds
and flu; vitamins A, which acts as a shield against eye disease,
skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhea, and many other
diseases; Calcium which builds strong bones and teeth and
helps prevent osteoporosis (Table 2)28-30.
Table 2: Nutritional content of fresh and dried Moringa
oleifera leaves (per 100gm)
Fresh leaves
Oven dried
Moisture (%)
Energy (Kcal)
Protein (g)
Fat (g)
Fibre (g)
Vitamin C (mg)
Beta carotene (µg)
Iron (mg)
Calcium (mg)
Phosphorus (mg)
Beta carotene (µg)
3.7 Traditional uses
Moringa oleifera leaf powder used as effective soap for hand
wash. It is used as an antiseptic. Oil from moringa seeds are
used in foods and in hair care products and as an machine
lubricant. Moringa is used in india and africa in feeding
programs to fight malnutrition. It is used as an aphrodisiac,
boosts immune system. It is used to treat heumatism, asthma,
cancer, constipation, treatment of epilepsy, anemia, anxiety,
blackheads, blood impurities, bronchitis, catarrh, chest
Suresh, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera
UK J Pharm & Biosci, 2018: 6(6); 50
congestion, cholera, conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhoea, eye and
ear infections, fever, abnormal blood pressure, pain in joints,
scurvy, semen deficiency, headaches, tuberculosis, intestinal
ulcers, bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections31, 32.
3.8 Pharmacological activities
Moringa works as circulatory and cardiac stimulants, contains
antitum or, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antispasmodic,
antioxidant, cholesterol lowering, antihypertensive, antiepileptic,
antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antifungal and
antibacterial activities (Table 3).
Table 3: Reported pharmacological activities of Moringa oleifera
Plant parts
Pharmacological activity
Leaves exhibited analgesic potency similar to that of indomethacin
33Manaheji et al.
Antimigraine properties
34Kanchan PU
Neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury
35Jurairat et al.
Anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model
36Gurvinder et al.
Anti-inflammatory activity
37Ezeamuzie et al.
Antipyretic activity in a Brewer’s yeast–induced pyrexia model.
38Bhattacharya et al.
Protection against Alzheimer’s disease in a colchicine-induced Alzheimer’s
model using behavioral testing
39Ranira et al.
Anxiolytic activity in staircase test and elevated plus maze test
40Lakshmi et al.
Leaves &flower
Anti-tumour activity ; induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma
41Jung et al.
Antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera
42Tiloke et al.
Leaves & fruits
Antistress, antioxidant, and scavenging potential
43Luqman et al.
Antibacterial and antioxidant activity
44Kumar et al.
Hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-
induced liver toxicity
45Patel et al.
Reduced ulcer index in ibuprofen-induced gastric ulcer model and in pyloric
ligation test,
46Dhimmar et al.
Leaves & seeds
Antihypertensive effect on spontaneous hypertensive rats; reduced chronotropic
and inotropic effects in isolated frog hearts.
et al.
Antiobesity activity against high fat diet-induced obesity in rats
48Nahar et al.
Protection against asthma; this effect was a direct bronchodilator effect
combined with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions.
49Anita et al.
Leaves & seeds
Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
50Odedele et al.
Anti-allergic action; reduced scratching frequency in an Ovalbumin sensitization
51Hagiwara et al.
Anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus eggs and third stage larvae
52Cabardo et al.
Wound healing in diabetic animals showed improved tissue regeneration,
decreased wound size, down regulated inflammatory mediators, and upregulated
vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissues
53Choudhury et al.
4 Conclusion
The review illustrated that Cucurbita moschata and Moringa
oleifera are an important medicinal plant with varied
pharmacological spectrum. Almost all parts of Cucurbita
moschata and Moringa oleifera such as leaf, fruit, seed, bark
and root are used for treatment of various diseases. The
Suresh, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Cucurbita moschata and Moringa oleifera
UK J Pharm & Biosci, 2018: 6(6); 51
phytoconstituents present in various part of both plants are
accountable for the pharmacological activities. A systemic
research and development work should be undertaken for the
development of products for their better economic and
therapeutic utilization.
5 Conflict of interests
6 Authors contributions
SS and SSS collected the data and drafted the manuscript.
Both authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
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... The seed also possesses other pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory. Besides the seed oil contains mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids like palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, etc. [5]. Whereas, white pumpkin seeds (Benincasa hispida) contain different phytochemicals such as alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, and fixed oil [6]. ...
... Bioactive compounds present in n-hexane, n-hexane: chloroform (2:1), and methanol extracts obtained from B. hispida and C. moschata seeds are shown in the chromatogram (Figs. [1][2][3][4][5][6], where the retention time and relative concentration of these bioactive compounds are given in Tables 1-2. Based on abundance, in the n-hexane extract of B. hispida which is shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1, the top two major compounds were 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (ZZ) (79.88%), and n-Hexadecanoic acid (16.951%). ...
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Plant seeds are the resources of many different bioactive components. The chemical composition of the different crude extracts from Benincasa hispida (White pumpkin) and Cucurbita moschata (Pumpkin) seeds with three different polarity-based solvents (n-hexane, n-hexane-chloroform (2:1), and methanol) was analyzed to identify the biologically active compounds. Each of the extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different extracts of targeted seeds showed different biologically active compounds that have different pharmacological potentialities. 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (ZZ) was the most potent bioactive compound present in three different extracts of both B. hispida and C. moschata. Another bioactive compound comparatively low percentage present in both plants was n-hexadecanoic acid. Other major pharmacologically active compounds present in both plants were 9- Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester, and 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (E, E). Besides these compounds, a few more biologically active compounds were present in the two plants separately. The findings of this study support the use of these seeds in modern functional foods, nutraceuticals, and medicinal purposes, and the whole seeds would give better health benefits rather than use any extract. Although further pharmacological examinations should be carried out to conclude the medicinal application of the seeds of these two plants as well as to understand the mechanism of the potential health benefits.
... The seed also possesses other pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory. Besides the seed oil contains mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids like palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, etc. [5]. Whereas, white pumpkin seeds (Benincasa hispida) contain different phytochemicals such as alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins, and fixed oil [6]. ...
... Bioactive compounds present in n-hexane, n-hexane: chloroform (2:1), and methanol extracts obtained from B. hispida and C. moschata seeds are shown in the chromatogram (Figs. [1][2][3][4][5][6], where the retention time and relative concentration of these bioactive compounds are given in Tables 1-2. Based on abundance, in the n-hexane extract of B. hispida which is shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1, the top two major compounds were 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (ZZ) (79.88%), and n-Hexadecanoic acid (16.951%). ...
... Pumpkin is a rich source of nutrients, especially carotenoids and carbohydrates [11], potassium, vitamin C, folate, fiber, and numerous phytochemicals [12]. It is used as nutraceuticals and food supplements and folk medicines [13]. As it is rich in carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber and crude oil and many unsaturated fatty acids [4], therefore it has high potential application for nutraceuticals and food supplements, folk medicines and pharmaceutical industries [1,12,14]. ...
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The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of pumpkin rind and seed on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and the underlying mechanism. Therefore, this work was carried out to determine the antidiabetic activity using inhibitory activities of pumpkin rind and seeds extracts on α-glucosidase and the anti-inflammatory activity via inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production. And also, the potential of the pumpkin rind and seeds on culture of Chlorella ellipsoidea was determined. Determination of inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase was performed using α-glucosidase assay, while the Griess assay was employed for the inhibition on Nitric oxide (NO)-production. The pumpkin seed extract inhibited α-glucosidase more potent than the pumpkin rind extract (IC50 of 321.36 vs. 326.18 µg/mL). However, the activities of the extracts were less potent than that of Acarbose (IC50 of 317.26 µg/mL). Application of the extracts at the highest concentration, 500 µg/mL, the pumpkin seed extract displayed the inhibition of NO production higher than the pumpkin rind extract did (18.01 ± 1.57 % vs. 14.99 ± 1.94 %). Study on the effects of pumpkin rind and seeds on C. ellipsoidea culture revealed that the optimum media was the 7 th medium (NPK+ mixture of pumpkin seed water and Blue-Green Medium (BG-11), 1:4) which generated the growth of C. ellipsoidea for 28 days with the Optical Density (OD) value of 1.43 ± 0.01 followed by BG-11 medium OD value of 1.41 ± 0.02) and the 3 rd medium (NPK+ mixture of pumpkin rind water and BG-11, 1:1, OD value of 1.32 ± 0.01), respectively. The chemical contents of C. ellipsoidea cultured in 7 th medium contained 54.25 ± 0.06 % protein, 15.95 ± 0.87 % carbohydrates, 9.35 ± 0.05 % fat, and 20.30 ± 0.33 % ash, meanwhile 53.37 ± 0.77 % protein, 12.83 ± 0.62 % carbohydrates, 17.80 ± 0.23 % fat, and 23.30 ± 1.33 % ash in the 3 rd medium. The results obtained from this investigation indicate that pumpkin rind and seeds not only can be exploited for the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory components but also can be applied instead of the conventional medium for the culture of C. ellipdoidea. Therefore, bio-waste from pumpkin could be potentially utilized as the source of natural antidiabetic inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs and the effective components of C. ellipdoidea culture media.
... C. moschata or its common name is pumpkin comes from the Cucurbitaceae family with long crawling and climbing stems. [35] In short, Group 2 and Group 3 were not relatable to Stevia as the family of these species were different. ...
... All representatives of Cucurbita family demonstrate antiobesity, hepato-and nephroprotective, diuretic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and immuno-modulating activity [3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. C. ficifolia is known to possess a powerful antidiabetic potential [4,10,11], C. maxima and C. moschata fruit are good sources of carotenoids (betacarotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and violaxanthin) highly valuable in ophthalmology, providing a protection of human retina against macular dystrophy [6]. ...
Fruit peel/pulp distribution of biologically active compounds is an important characteristic of plant physiology and the basis of zero waste production in agriculture. Among C. ficifolia, C. maxima and C. moschata the former showed the lowest dry matter content, especially in peel, similar peel and pulp values of antioxidant activity (AOA) and polyphenol content (TP), with the highest levels in fruit placenta. Peel carbohydrate profile of C. ficifolia fruit was characterized by lower levels of disaccharides compared to C. maxima and C. moschata peel and an opposite pattern of monosaccharides accumulation. The analysis of 25 elements content in Cucurbita peel and pulp, using ICP-MS, indicated that C. ficifolia fruit are characterized by significantly high concentrations of Sr, Si and I in pulp compared to the values of C. maxima and C. moschata . On the contrary, C. maxima and C. moschata were characterized by low concentration of pulp Mn. Highly significant positive correlations were recorded between Cr-Sr, Cr-Ca and CaSr (r=0.906; 0.939 and 0.974 respectively) and P-Cu (r=0.968). Despite C. ficifolia , does not contain carotenoids, it is highly valuable due to the high levels of Si, I, Cr and Ca in peel and pulp, which reveals new areas of its application.
... moshata) is used to treat skin diseases, measles, jaundice, insomnia, cancer, and can help to enhance endurance. While pumpkin seed oil can be used in hypertension, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, bladder disorders, and urethral pressure treatment (Suresh and Sisodia, 2018). Phytochemical screening shows flesh and pumpkin seeds containing flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and tannins (Marbun et al., 2018). ...
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Pumpkin (Cucurbita moshata Duch) is one of the Cucurbitaceae plants, which traditionally used to treat skin diseases, measles, jaundice, insomnia, cancer and enhances endurance. Therefore, it was necessary to explore the potential of pumpkin leaves as antiradical. This research aim was to examine the antiradical activity and total phenolic and total flavonoids of pumpkin leaves extract and its fractions using the DPPH method and determined the phenolic and flavonoid contents. Pumpkin leave powder was extracted with methanol. Furthermore, water was added into methanol extract, and be partitioned using n-hexane and ethyl acetate to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions. The antiradical activities of pumpkin leave extract and fractions were determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhidrazyl) method. Ethyl acetate fraction obtained higher antiradical activities (IC50 6.737±0.196 µg/mL). Correlation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents to inhibit DPPH radical showed that phenolic and flavonoid contents on pumpkin leaves could be inhibited DPPH radical R2 = 0.8994 and R2 = 0.9061, respectively. Extracts and fraction pumpkin leaves show strong antiradical activity with DPPH methods, so their potential as antiradical can developed and can be used as a functional food.
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One of the most important factors for maintaining human health is a good nutrition of macro and micronutrients. Insufficient nutrition of essential nutrients leads to various disorders of the body. In recent years, more and more malnutrition has been observed, especially a deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Of great interest is pumpkin seed oil, which is rich in linoleic acid. Linoleic acid belongs to the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 family, which is not formed in the body and must be constantly supplied with food. Cultivation of pumpkin in the temperate zone is very important. This will provide the population with vegetable oil with high biological efficiency due to the content of linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of pumpkin seeds is influenced by many factors: climatic data, varieties, agricultural practices, etc. Mechanized industrial crops of pumpkin are located mainly in the southern regions, due to the fact that this crop is thermophilic. In recent years, there has been a change in climate, in the temperate zone, the growing season has increased due to the earlier onset of spring and later autumn, the sum of active temperatures, etc. There is a certain tendency to increase the area occupied by this crop in the temperate zone. The correct selection of varieties and variety samples for mechanized cultivation becomes an urgent task. The experiments were carried out in the Moscow region. 16 varieties and variety samples were studied according to the standard method. A high oil content in the studied samples was revealed - The studied varieties and variety samples have a high oil content: from 33.6 to 54.6%. When studying the fatty acid composition, the highest content is represented by the essential polyunsaturated fatty linoleic acid up to 68.55% - in the Pivdenny variety.
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Himalayan communities illustrate a rich agriculture–medicine use system that not only provides adequate dietary diversity and nutrition but also delivers therapeutic security. This study explores the food–medicine interface as observed by the marginal hill communities in the central Himalaya with an aim to assess traditional agriculture and food plants with relation to dietary diversity and nutritional and medicinal values based on comprehensive research. A total of 445 respondents were interviewed to obtain data on food intakes using dietary recall methods and dietary diversity indices (DDIs). The ethnomedical use of plant species was gathered from respondents as well as from various published studies for respective species. Nutritional parameters were collected from the Indian Food Composition Table developed by the ICMR, India to analyze the average nutritional intake. The traditional food system achieves the dietary and nutritional needs of the community within the standard norms. The average household dietary diversity of 7.45, 7.34, and 8.39 in summer, monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively, sustain 79, 74, and 93% of energy requirements in respective, seasons. The average food consumption score (FCS) was 73.46, and all the food exhibited rich phytochemicals, such as amino acids, alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic acids. These plants also provided effective treatments against several ailments and illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetics, gastrointestinal issues, and inflammation The indigenous cuisines also have significant food and medicinal values. Considering that the community had significant knowledge of food systems with their nutritional and therapeutic utility, there is a need to protect and document this indigenous knowledge. Also, most of the crops are still under cultivation, so there is a need to create more awareness about the nutritional and therapeutic value of the system so that it could be retained intact and continued. The implications of this research are of both academic importance and practical significance to ensure food–medicine security and avoid malnutrition among rural communities. It is expected that the study would lead to renewed thinking and policy attention on traditional agriculture for its role in food and nutritional security that may lead to a sustainable food supply system.
Pengolahan daging buah labu kuning menjadi tepung melalui proses pengeringan dapat meningkatkan umur simpan produk, mempermudah penggunaan dan pengolahannya menjadi berbagai produk lanjutan, mempermudah proses penyimpanan serta dapat digunakan untuk berbagai keperluan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu pada proses pengeringan daging buah labu kuning serta memvalidasi model kinetika lapis tipis Lewis, Henderson Pabis, Page, Midili dan Two Term menggunakan data eksperimen pengeringan daging buah labu kuning. Proses pengeringan dilakukan menggunakan pengering tipe rak pada suhu 60-70 . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jika proses pengeringan pada suhu 70 selama 165 menit merupakan kondisi proses pengeringan yang dianggap relatif baik karena mampu menghasilkan produk dengan nilai moisture ratio yang rendah yakni 0,04. Berdasarkan nilai RSS-nya, model kinetika pengeringan Midili merupakan model kinetika pengeringan lapis tipis yang memiliki kesesuaian tertinggi dengan data eksperimen proses pengeringan puree labu dibandingkan model kinetika lapis tipis Lewis, Henderson Pabis, Page, dan Two Term. Nilai konstanta kinetika pengeringan puree labu kuning adalah 9.10-8- 2,4.10-71/menit untuk proses pada suhu 60-70 .Kata kunci: labu kuning, model kinetika, Midili, lapis tipis
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Pumpkin seeds may be tiny, but they are densely packed with useful nutrients and nutraceuticals such as amino acids, phytosterols, unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, cucurbitacins, and valuable minerals. All these bioactive compounds are important to a healthy life and well-being. The purpose of this review is to merge the evidence-based information on the potential use of pumpkin seeds as a functional food ingredient and associated biological mechanisms, collected from electronic databases (Sci-enceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar) up to January 2020. Bioactive compounds in pumpkin seeds exhibit promising activities such as anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidepressant, antioxidant, antitumor, and cytoprotective. Furthermore, these bioactives carry potential in ameliorating microbiological infections, hepatic, and prostate disorders. As evidenced from literature, pumpkin seeds show potential to be used as both a traditional and functional food ingredient provided further animal and clinical investigations are carried out to establish the respective molecular mechanisms and safety profile.
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Introduction: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (ahuyama) is grown across America as well as in the Middle East and Europe. It has been used as alternative medicine since ancient times. In the northern section of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, the plant is used by peasants to treat skin infections, hence our interest in conducting this study. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity of total extract from leaves ofC. moschata against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Methods: Fresh leaves of C. moschata were classified taxonomically using standard methods. The leaves were dried in an oven and pulverized in a blade mill. Extraction was performed by cold solid-liquid percolation and concentration in a rotary evaporator. Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic and hexanic extracts was evaluated in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method, in compliance with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: The hexanic extract caused significant inhibition from dilution 0.16 µg/mL for S. aureus strain ATCC 43300, and from dilution 19.5 µg/mL for strain ATCC 25923 (MSSA). The ethanolic and hexanic extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the clinical E. coli strain, whereas no significant inhibition was observed for K. pneumoniae at any of the concentrations tested. Conclusions: For the first time it was shown that the total hexanic extract of leaves of C. moschata had the greatest inhibition power against clinical strains of S. aureus and E. coli. The antimicrobial potential of this native species from the Colombian Caribbean has been recognized, and it is recommended to conduct assays with a larger number of human pathogens.
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Haemonchus contortus is one of the prevalent and pathogenic ruminant parasites that has grown resistance to common anthelmintic treatment. This study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of Moringa oleifera seed ethanolic and aqueous extracts against H. contortus eggs and infective stage larvae (L3s). The efficacy of five extract concentrations (0.95, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, and 15.6 mg/mL) were tested through egg hatch assay and larval motility test. Phytochemical tests were conducted to detect the different plant secondary metabolites in the extracts. In the ovicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed 95.89% and 81.72% egg hatch inhibition at 15.6 mg/mL, respectively. The ovicidal activity of 15.6 mg/mL ethanolic extract was comparable with that of albendazole (p > 0.05). The LC50 against the eggs was recorded at 2.91 and 3.83 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. In the larvicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited 56.94% and 92.50% efficacy at 7.8 mg/mL, respectively. The larvicidal activity of 7.8 mg/mL aqueous extract was similar statistically with that of ivermectin (p > 0.05). The LC50 against L3s was recorded at 6.96 and 4.12 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The secondary metabolites detected were tannins in ethanolic extract and saponins in aqueous extract. Both extracts inhibited larvae formation inside the eggs and rendered the L3s immobile. Therefore, M. oleifera seed extracts contained plant bioactive compounds with anthelmintic property against the eggs and L3s of H. contortus.
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Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition.
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Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ) (single injection, 65 mg kg -1 BW, i.p). Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI) at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg -1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg -1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.
Objective: The present study is to investigate the antidiabetic effect of pumpkin flesh and seeds ethanolic extracts in STZ-induced diabetic mice.Methods: The study begins with making the ethanolic extracts of pumpkin flesh and seeds and then evaluates the physicochemical characterization, phytochemical screening, and induced diabetic mice using STZ.Result: The physicochemical evaluation shows that the extracts had a good and high purity level, while the phytochemical screening showed both pumpkin flesh and seeds extracts have a various of phytoconstituents. The pumpkin flesh and seeds ethanolic extracts (dose level 150 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction of the blood glucose.Conclusion: Pumpkin flesh and seeds ethanolic extracts exhibited significant antidiabetes activity in STZ-induced mice.
Background: Hypertension is characterized by a maintained high blood pressure leading to cardiac complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis and an increased risk of heart failure and myocardial infarction. This study investigated the cardiac effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera (MOI) seed powder in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: SHR received food containing MOI seed powder (750mg/d, 8 weeks) or normal food. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic parameters by telemetry and cardiac structure and function analysis by echocardiography were performed. Histological studies were performed to determine fibrosis and protein expression. Results: MOI treatment did not modify blood pressure in SHR but reduced nocturnal heart rate and improved cardiac diastolic function (reduction of isovolumetric relaxation time and deceleration time of the E wave, increase of ejection volume and cardiac output compared to nontreated SHR). Left ventricular anterior wall thickness, interseptal thickness on diastole, and relative wall thickness were reduced after MOI treatment. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction of fibrosis in the left ventricle of MOI-treated SHR. This antihypertrophic and antifibrotic effect of MOI was associated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and δ, reduced cardiac triglyceride level, and enhanced plasmatic prostacyclins. Conclusions: Our data show a beneficial effect of MOI on the cardiac structure and function in SHR associated with an upregulation of PPAR-α and δ signaling. This study thus provides scientific rational support for the empirical use of MOI in the traditional Malagasy medicine against cardiac diseases associated with blood pressure overload.